Military Review

How Europe turned into an American semi-colony

37
Seventy years ago, on April 4 of 1948, the US Congress passed the Law on Economic Cooperation, which provided for the implementation of a four-year program of “aid to Europe”. In fact, the law passed by congressmen and signed by US President Harry Truman was the implementation of the famous Marshall Plan.


The Second World War radically changed the political and economic face of Europe. For the first time, under the de facto control of the “Russians,” as it was in the West, the Soviet Union was defined, the whole of Eastern Europe and half of Germany appeared, and there was a very high risk of communist victory in Greece. In France and Italy, the communist parties acquired enormous influence and gained enormous numbers — in France, the FKP consisted of 908 thousand people, and in Italy, about 2 million people. In proportion to the growth in numbers, the real political influence of the communists increased, which put Europe at risk of coming to power in France and Italy, if not communist, then mixed governments, which could be guided by friendly relations with the Soviet Union. Communists were held in the parliaments of European countries, participated in the creation of governments. It was a great breakthrough compared with the pre-war era and he could not help scaring the American elite. Europe experienced enormous socio-economic problems. The economic infrastructure of many European countries was destroyed by the war, Germany was under the occupation of the Allied forces and the Western leaders did not know what to do with it in the future.

Back in 1944, the then US Treasury Secretary Henry Morgentau developed a “Program for the Prevention of the Unleashing of the World War X by Germany”, which was called the “Morgentau Plan”. According to this program, Germany had to be dismembered, cease to exist as a single state, its industrial areas were placed under international control, heavy industry was eliminated and banned, and the armed forces were completely eliminated. Morgentau believed that the de-industrialization of Germany once and for all put an end to revanchist sentiments. However, after the defeat of Germany and subsequent political changes in the life of Europe, the situation changed.

12 March 1947, US President Harry Truman delivered a famous speech in front of the US Congress, outlining the key points of his plan, called the Truman Doctrine. The President stressed that totalitarian regimes imposed on the countries of Eastern Europe, promised help to Greece and Turkey, which were soon provided significant financial resources. But the core of the doctrine was the revision of the concept of Franklin Roosevelt and the pushing through of the concept of a “unipolar world,” in which the United States should play the leading role. After the defeat of Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union automatically became the key opponent and rival of the United States.

The Marshall Plan was in many ways a logical continuation of the Truman doctrine. Army General George Marshall, who served as Army Chief of Staff (Commander-in-Chief of the Ground Forces) during the war, 21 January 1947 was appointed US Secretary of State (Foreign Secretary). The Marshall Plan was based on the desire for US economic dominance, which could be achieved by gaining control over the European economy. The “unification of Europe”, about which the entire subsequent half of the twentieth century spoke so much, was the result of the Marshall Plan, which envisaged the destruction of customs barriers in Europe itself and the formation of a single European market. Also, customs barriers between Europe and the United States were to be destroyed, which provided American companies with European raw materials at low prices.

Of course, formally the American leadership positioned the new strategy as aimed at restoring the European economy. Almost all the countries of Western Europe suffered enormous damage as a result of the war, and this was true of Britain, which was not occupied by German troops. London spent 25 billion pounds on the war, the kingdom’s foreign debt increased threefold, and production fell by 20%, in some industries, by 30% compared to the prewar level. The UK was forced to introduce a rationing system for food. If this was the case in Britain, in whose territory there were no land battles, then one can imagine the extent of the economic crisis caused by the war in the countries of continental Europe.



Germany suffered most of all, in which 5 million houses and apartments were destroyed, communications, enterprises and social infrastructure institutions were destroyed. In addition, more than 12 million refugees arrived from Eastern European countries and from the Soviet occupation zone in West Germany, controlled by British, American and French troops. This caused a further increase in unemployment and food problems, consumption of which was only slightly more than 60% of the pre-war level. Since before, grain and meat from Eastern Europe had been supplied to Germany, and now these supplies have stopped, the food supply of the population has deteriorated.

In Europe, the transport infrastructure was destroyed, which deprived European countries of the possibility of full-fledged communication, and the restoration of infrastructure was a time-consuming and very expensive task, which European countries were unable to solve. The United States issued the Marshall Plan for generous economic assistance to European countries, pursuing, of course, their own interests. The governments of the countries of Western Europe, finding themselves in a difficult situation, had no choice but to go to the satisfaction of the American proposals.

After the end of the war, European countries sought to quickly restore the destroyed industrial facilities, but the United States was not interested in this. Therefore, although Europe demanded that the United States supply industrial equipment, Washington did not supply the means of production, but finished products. At the same time, the main place in deliveries from the United States was taken by food — the surplus of the American agro-industrial complex, which had to be sold somewhere. Of course, the real recovery of European industry was not discussed.

Bilateral agreements concluded under the Marshall Plan between the United States and European countries provided for many obstacles to the free trade of European states that used American aid. Of course, the main restrictions were aimed at hindering trade with the USSR and the countries of the socialist camp. France, for example, did not have the right to import coal from Poland, the cost of which was then estimated at 12 dollars per 1 ton, and was forced to import expensive American coal at a price of 20 dollars per ton.

The United States gained de facto control over the European financial system. 20% of the amount of aid European states had to repay with the help of exports to the United States of raw materials necessary for the needs of American industry. Thus, the USA increasingly enslaved European countries, providing themselves with cheap raw materials and strengthening control over the European economy.

Naturally, having received economic levers of influence on European countries, the United States could also push its political interests. First and foremost, Washington demanded that Western European countries receiving US economic assistance remove communists from governments and tighten policy towards communist parties. In fact, many European countries turned into semi-colonies of the United States, but their leadership took this step consciously, fearing the loss of their own power and its transfer into the hands of the communist and socialist parties. After all, the economic crisis, social tensions, the growth of the authority and influence of the communists threatened the positions of right-wing and center-right parties in Europe, major industrialists and landowners.

How Europe turned into an American semi-colony


17 of the capitalist countries were forced to agree with the Marshall Plan, which received a total of about 20 billion dollars in aid from the United States. In fact, Washington transferred a smaller amount to Europe - from 13 to 17 billion, while the United Kingdom received 2,8 billion, France received 2,5 billion dollars, Italy and West Germany received 1,3 billion, and the Netherlands received 1 billion. Other beneficiaries included Austria, Belgium, Greece, Denmark, Ireland, Iceland, Luxembourg, Norway, Portugal, the Free Territory of Trieste, Turkey, Sweden and Switzerland.

The implementation of the Marshall Plan had no clear implications. On the one hand, the European states ravaged by the war, without American assistance, really could not have restored their economies so quickly. American assistance helped to improve the socio-economic situation in Western Europe, reducing social tensions.

One of the important consequences of this assistance was the restoration in Europe of the positions of the petty bourgeoisie - the middle class. In the USA, it was understood that it was the middle class that was the main opponent of the socialist revolutions in European countries, and therefore provided the conditions for its revival. Especially significant consequences of US economic assistance led West Germany, which was able to quickly recover from the war and destruction, and restore both industry and relatively high levels of consumption, once again becoming an economically developed country.

Economic assistance according to the Marshall Plan was also of ideological significance. If Europe remained dilapidated, slowly restoring its infrastructure on its own, this situation would demonstrate the collapse of the capitalist model and show the Soviet Union and socialism in a more favorable light. Washington needed an economically prosperous Europe as a beautiful picture that showed the advantages of a capitalist economy over socialism. Actually, according to the same rules, assistance was subsequently carried out both to South Korea, and Japan, and to Taiwan, which turned into the same “showcases of capitalism”, only in the Asia-Pacific region.

Thanks to the Marshall Plan, European countries actually became enslaved to the United States, and not only economically but also politically. Until now, Western Europe is loosening the consequences of the Marshall Plan, which consists in the actual loss of political sovereignty. European countries were doomed to follow in the wake of American foreign policy, adhering to the course chosen by Washington, even when it was completely unprofitable for the European states themselves (this concerns, first of all, France or Italy, for whom the geopolitical confrontation with the Soviet Union and the socialist camp meaningless).



So the Marshall Plan was a brilliant American move. First, Washington, through economic assistance, put European countries in a state of economic dependence on American policy, and then began to determine the political course of Western Europe. In order to further subordinate European countries to American interests, almost simultaneously with the Marshall Plan, the creation of NATO began - the North Atlantic Alliance, which included most of the countries that received economic aid from the United States. If the Marshall Plan was the economic expression of the beginning of the Cold War, the creation of the NATO bloc was a military-political act that symbolized the beginning of a new era.

The Marshall Plan was designed for four years, but it was turned not in the 1952 year, but in the 1951 year. The reason for this was the Korean War, for which the United States required a lot of money. But Washington managed to achieve its main goals in the three years from 1948 to 1951, while the United States was implementing its cunning strategy of economic assistance. Western Europe was under the political and economic control of Washington, after which the United States focused on East and Southeast Asia, of course, not forgetting to control the political processes in European countries.
Author:
37 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid April 7 2018 06: 21
    +1
    Thanks for the story. To whom --- devastation, to whom ----- profit.
    1. Tatyana
      Tatyana April 7 2018 07: 49
      +4
      A very good article! I read it with great attention and interest.

      The article is extremely relevant today. She clearly and succinctly answers many modern fundamental political and economic issues, which allows us to understand the real confrontation in the international community and predict the future.

      Thanks to the author!
      1. Proxima
        Proxima April 7 2018 12: 52
        0
        Quote: Tatiana
        A very good article! I read it with great attention and interest.
        Thanks to the author!

        I immediately recall the court gopniks of "late socialism." They had such a "marketing move." They approached potential the victim and offered for a tidy sum to buy a brick belay . Naturally, the victim agreed, after which she received a “purchase.”
        And so Americans sucked their g ... but under the name "Patriot" to the Poles fool . If the USA somehow reckons with the countries of Western Europe and they are for them a financial and economic semi-colony, then the countries of Eastern Europe are just a colony, with an administrative tool, like those of the above-mentioned gopniks. hi
        1. Borik
          Borik April 7 2018 15: 11
          +2
          Stalin refused this American handout, although the European part of the country was in ruins and money was needed to restore the ruined one. And Europe agreed, and now for life in bondage with mattresses.
          1. Oorfene Deuce
            Oorfene Deuce April 8 2018 10: 47
            0
            Nothing ... In the drunk 90s, Russia eliminated these contradictions.
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich April 7 2018 08: 01
    +1
    Back in 1944, the then Secretary of the Treasury, Henry Morgenthau, developed the "Program for Preventing Germany from Unleashing World War III," which was called the "Morgenthau Plan." According to this program, Germany should have been dismembered, cease to exist as a single state, its industrial areas are transferred under international control, heavy industry is liquidated and prohibited, the armed forces are completely eliminated. Morgenthau believed that German deindustrialization once and for all put an end to revanchist sentiments.

    The same decision was supported by England and France. And only the USSR came out sharply againstfor ........ united and indivisible Germany belay
    . As life shows, it was grave mistake: a divided, weak Germany would be much preferable to today's most powerful European enemy in Russia again ... request
    The PS plan also included the bombardment of all Germans. Well, this is already superfluous ....... yes
    1. rkkasa xnumx
      rkkasa xnumx April 7 2018 08: 46
      0
      Quote: Olgovich
      As life shows, it was a gross mistake

      Are you sure ?
      The "Morgenthau plan" soon "surfaced" in the press. Harry White, mentioned above, was a "part-time" agent of the USSR, and he transferred these documents to the Soviet Union. And there Stalin instructed through diplomatic channels to transfer them to the Third Reich, so that there are fewer people in Berlin who want to go on a separate peace with England and the USA.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich April 7 2018 15: 10
        0
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        Are you sure ?

        Of course: a dozen small feeble (without industry) Luxembourgs-pah. in comparison with the most powerful economy (enemy economy) of a single monster in Germany.
        For you, and this is not clear? request
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        The "Morgenthau plan" soon "surfaced" in the press. Harry White, mentioned above, was a "part-time" agent of the USSR, and he transferred these documents to the Soviet Union. And there, Stalin instructed through diplomatic channels to transfer them to the Third Reich, so that in Berlin there were fewer people who wanted to go to a separate peace with England and the USA

        And? request
        1. rkkasa xnumx
          rkkasa xnumx April 7 2018 15: 31
          0
          You mr fool as usual dodge ... well, what else to add ... only a quote from the movie:
          "If a man fool then it's a long time. "
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich April 8 2018 07: 59
            0
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            You mr fool as usual dodge ... well, what else to add ... only a quote from the movie:
            "If a man fool then it's a long time. "

            You can not object ANYTHING: apparently you
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            Mr fool
            lol
        2. Pissarro
          Pissarro April 8 2018 06: 26
          0
          United Germany even tries to defend its national interests, for example, the Nord Stream. Dozens of Luxembourgs would be analogues of the Baltic extinctions - 100% US colonies
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich April 8 2018 08: 01
            0
            Quote: Pissarro
            United Germany even tries to defend its national interests, for example, the Nord Stream. Dozens of Luxembourgs would be analogues of the Baltic extinctions - 100% US colonies

            United Germany organized the three most terrible massacres in world history.
            A dozen estonias for Russia, pah, and Germany alone, not at all
  3. Terenin
    Terenin April 7 2018 08: 34
    +9
    Thanks to the Marshall Plan, European countries have actually become enslaved to the United States, and not only economically, but also politically
  4. Hurricane70
    Hurricane70 April 7 2018 08: 39
    0
    It has been known for a long time - who accepted the "Marshall Plan", he lost his sovereignty, who sent them with this same plan, the Cold War, all sorts of provocations and sanctions! But the problem is that they are not able to understand who they contacted! And recently, others have fallen into disbelief, looking at Russia, then the whores will call the chocolate president the son, or they will produce vigorous weapons ...
  5. Brutan
    Brutan April 7 2018 09: 16
    +5
    Marshall Plan Allows Europe to Restore Its Potential
    Of course, not without negativity.
    But Europe was able in some places to build real SOCIALISM - with a human face
    1. rotmistr60
      rotmistr60 April 7 2018 10: 47
      +4
      in some places to build real SOCIALISM - with a human face
      You probably mean Sweden? But the "human face" in Europe today is not even observed in some places.
      1. soldier
        soldier April 7 2018 13: 03
        +16
        Not only Sweden, as I understand it.
        The Scandinavian Peninsula as a whole is peculiar
    2. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid April 7 2018 15: 34
      +1
      Quote: Brutan
      Marshall Plan Allows Europe to Restore Its Potential
      Of course, not without negativity.
      But Europe was able in some places to build real SOCIALISM - with a human face

      Somewhere ----- this is where? In fantasies, in dreams, in a dream or what?
  6. soldier
    soldier April 7 2018 13: 02
    +17
    We have more clearly become an American semi-colony
    Even without a Marshall plan

    Those at least money without the knowledge of the IMF can print at their discretion
  7. Curious
    Curious April 7 2018 13: 17
    +5
    Well, a lot has already been written about the Marshall plan and in great detail. If the author is a specialist in American colonization, let him better consider the financial systems of those countries, including Russia, which were formed on the ruins of the USSR.
    It is also good to paint the structure of the so-called "gold and foreign exchange reserves", which, unlike the times of the USSR, consists, for the most part, not of gold at all, but of electronic bonds. Guess three times whose.
    In fact, in all the former republics of the USSR, Central banks collect tribute to the overseas khan, as during the Mongol yoke. That's what it is worth writing about, and not grieve, as the "poor Europe" rots under the heel of the United States.
    1. Golovan Jack
      Golovan Jack April 7 2018 13: 24
      +5
      Quote: Curious
      In fact, in all the former republics of the USSR, Central banks collect tribute to the overseas khan, as during the Mongol yoke

      A common bike ... and justify?
      Quote: Curious
      That's what it’s worth writing about, but not sticking a piglet to Europe

      I’m offended, I understand. My empathy yes
      1. Curious
        Curious April 7 2018 13: 50
        +2
        Dear Jack! I’m a long time ago at the age when the topic of offending tales for hamsters is not even discussed. Therefore (without any anger) you can write your sympathies in small print on pipiphax and use it for its intended purpose.
        As for the justifications, so turn to Mr. Polonsky for them. I don’t enlighten lemmings to educate. Good luck, Field Marshal !.
        1. Golovan Jack
          Golovan Jack April 7 2018 13: 58
          +7
          Quote: Curious
          I’m a long time ago when the topic of offending tales for hamsters was not even discussed ...

          that does not stop you from being rude to frankly:
          Quote: Curious
          ... you can write in small print on pipy fax and use it for its intended purpose ... I enlighten the lemmings for free without dressing ...

          , and hang Canadian button accordions here such as "structure of the gold and foreign exchange reserves" and "tribute collection by central banks",
          Which, KVM, means that the article still hurt you. Hence, in fact, sympathy yes
          And so - yes you live in peace ... you are absolutely parallel to me.
          1. Curious
            Curious April 7 2018 14: 07
            +2
            Strange, I kind of wished all the best?
            And then: "that does not stop you from being veiled (like) to be rude."
            What is this rudeness. This is friendly advice.
            1. Golovan Jack
              Golovan Jack April 7 2018 14: 19
              +5
              Quote: Curious
              Strange, I kind of ...

              It seems - in the company (s).
              And - yes ... they’re not calling me, I’m coming myself.
              Quote: Curious
              This is a friendly tip.

              Thanks, funny. On the street, so advise someone, then share your impressions wink
              1. Curious
                Curious April 7 2018 14: 33
                +2
                Well, which of us is touchy?
  8. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh April 7 2018 22: 08
    0
    Of course, the USSR was not happy that most countries in Western Europe quickly restored
    economics using the Marshall Plan. And they raised the standard of living of their citizens. And therefore they were not eager to build socialism under the wise leadership of the Soviet Union. But the countries of Eastern Europe had to - voluntarily-forcibly. But not for long.
    1. stalkerwalker
      stalkerwalker April 7 2018 22: 31
      +1
      Quote: voyaka uh
      The USSR was not happy that most countries of Western Europe quickly restored
      economics using the Marshall Plan. And raised the standard of living of their citizens

      On points, pzhlsta - which citizens of which countries could eat their fill with this plan shortly after the end of World War II. Do not forget that the infrastructure and industry of the countries of the Eastern bloc, and most importantly the USSR, were practically destroyed.
      Quote: voyaka uh
      And therefore they were not eager to build socialism under the wise leadership of the Soviet Union.

      Classical anti-Soviet propaganda. We went through these jokes about "holy democracy" in 90's.
      A so-called Marshall's plan is the IMF in all its glory today.
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh April 7 2018 23: 18
        0
        The answer is simple. Where do people emigrate in Europe all the years after the war and still? - from east to west or from west to east.
        The flow is one-way - only to the west.
        That’s all you need to know about Marshall’s successful plan.
        1. Golovan Jack
          Golovan Jack April 7 2018 23: 27
          +6
          Quote: voyaka uh
          The flow is one-way - only to the west. That's all you need to know about Marshall's successful plan.

          That is, if it weren’t for the Marshall Plan, the flow would go in the opposite direction?
          Warrior, as an agitator and propagandist. You ... not really, sorry request
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh April 8 2018 10: 38
            0
            "would the flow go in the opposite direction?" ///

            Maybe. Western Europeans moved to Russia
            in the 18th and 19th centuries. Both French and Germans.
            Most of them are resettled, not because of ideologies, but for better life
            rather, in the hope of a better life
        2. stalkerwalker
          stalkerwalker April 7 2018 23: 53
          0
          Quote: voyaka uh
          Where do people emigrate in Europe all the years after the war and still? - from east to west or from west to east.

          This is about the "Great Migration" at the very beginning of the 1st millennium?
          lol
          Or about changing jobs for "girls with low social responsibility?"
          Or about the Baltic countries that lost 25% of the population who moved to the West? Or about the visa-free visa received by Ukraine?
          laughing
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh April 8 2018 10: 46
            0
            "Or about changing jobs ....

            About everything that you have listed and much more.
            The resettlement of people and (in total) peoples is
            by vector "from east europe to west".
            I also include emigration from Russia, and from the Baltic states, Ukraine, Bulgaria, etc.
            And he created this vector, quickly restoring Western Europe, Mr. Marshall -
            man of genius.
  9. mar4047083
    mar4047083 April 7 2018 23: 13
    +1
    I would like to know what European raw materials the USA so desperately needed? And frankly, the topic of food cards in the UK is already sore. It would not be bad to give the author (and other so-called "patriots") the list of products that a hungry Englishman received on cards.
    1. Golovan Jack
      Golovan Jack April 7 2018 23: 21
      +4
      Quote: mar4047083
      It would be nice to bring the author ... the list of products that a hungry Englishman received on cards

      Oatmeal, go?
    2. Pissarro
      Pissarro April 8 2018 06: 31
      0
      Well, give me the problem.
  10. bone1
    bone1 April 8 2018 21: 11
    0
    Well done, the Yankees gave 13 lards and forever turned Europe into their own semi-colony, and we swelled unmeasured grandmothers into Eastern Europe, and we turned out to be invaders, and we should have stayed.