Military Review

Strategic fortress

41
War 1914 - 1918 - difficult period in stories fortresses. And not all fortresses adequately passed this severe examination - both on the Western and Eastern fronts. But among them was one fortress, which was almost abolished and outdated, but three times during the war, played an important strategic role - it was called Ivangorod.


The beginning of the creation of the fortress Ivangorod dates back to the 40-th years of the XIXth century - that is, to the era of smooth-bore artillery, when defenses were built of brick. In the 90-ies of the same century, under the influence of increased artillery and the appearance in the arsenal of the last so-called high-explosive bombs (that is, shells with a strong explosive charge), the fortress was seriously upgraded.

Ivangorod was the frontier fortress of the so-called. military nature (i.e., without civilian population) and was located in four transitions from the Austrian border. The fortress was a junction of railways going to Warsaw, Radom, Lublin and Brest - and locked both the Privisly railway and the railway going from the Austrian border to Brest. In addition, located on both banks of the Vistula River, a kilometer from the confluence of the r. Veprzh, the fortress was also a double bridgehead guarding the middle course of the river. Vistula from the attempts of the advancing enemy to cross to the other side. At the same time, Ivangorod allowed the Russian command to safely transfer considerable forces across the river. This, in fact, was the key meaning of Ivangorod.

In the year of 1909, when it was decided to change the overall defense plan on our western border and in connection with this to abolish some of the fortresses, Ivangorod was among the latter. But then, in 1911, Ivangorod was supposed not only to be left, but also to be expanded, turning it into a large and modern fortress. In subsequent years, the views did not change the value of this fortress and, eventually, by the beginning of World War I, this fortress was preserved, but in its old, obsolete form - with the old 7, only partially modernized forts that were removed from the center of the fortress on average on 3,5 km.

The first maneuverable operations of the First World War, which broke out at the Advanced Theater, showed the need to firmly hold the Ivangorod fortress. By 15 August 1914, the fortress was brought to full alert and ready to fulfill the task set by the command of the South-Western Front: “to defend the permanent and temporary crossings across the r. Wisla by all means. "

To accomplish this task, the acting commandant of the fortress, Colonel A.V. Schwarz, had to give the main attention to the defense of the left bank of the r. Wisla, ie, the southwestern sector of the fortress. It was no coincidence - because on this side there were three forts of outdated design, removed from the crossings only on 3,5 km (which did not closely correspond to the enemy’s range, not only siege, but even heavy field artillery). In this sector, the main line of defense had to be transferred to the line of the village of Loe-Secekhov-Volya-Klyashtornna-Zalesie-Oleksov - i.e. 6,5 - 7-km distance from the Vistula crossings. A number of temporary and field fortifications were created, powerful artificial obstacles in the form of wire nets, water ditches and land mines were organized. In addition, on the right bank of the Vistula near the village. Brzese and Golomo were built serf batteries - they could keep the whole area ahead of the line of advanced fortifications under strong cross artillery fire. These activities, in conjunction with the organization of the fortress artillery of mobile 6-inch quick-fire howitzers, significantly increased the sphere of effective influence of the fortress - and led to the fact that the old, modest-sized fortress expanded and was able to perform a serious operational task.

Strategic fortress
A.V. von Schwartz.

Indeed, during the first months of the war, Ivangorod took an active part in the operations of the Russian 4, 5 and 9 armies. The influence of the fortress during the Lublin operation was particularly fruitful. On the one hand, Ivangorod covered the right flank of our armies. On the other hand, the 2 batteries of 6-inch quick-fire serf howitzers isolated from the composition of their artillery he contributed to the success of Russian troops against the left flank of the Austro-German forces 25 August 1914 by knocking the Austrians from a well-fortified position on the Lazisk-Nezdvu-Opole line -Downer. These batteries, acting then as part of the 18 Army Corps, take part in further battles in Galicia: September 1 near Pnev and September September 2 near Radomysl. Just before the end of the Battle of Galicia, 11, September, they return to the fortress. It was the actions of this division that demonstrated the competent implementation of the principle of interaction between the fortress and the field army - which will manifest itself in further operations of both 1914 and 1915.



After the 1914 of the Russian 4 and 9 of the armies entered the vigorous offensive at the end of August, the Ivangorod fortress continued to provide all possible assistance to the troops - spreading its influence far beyond the borders of the serf area itself.



Thus, the fortress played a crucial role in the course of maneuverable military operations.

The second time the fortress played an important strategic role during the Warsaw-Ivangorod operation in September-October 1914 (we wrote about this in detail - see Army boost. Part of 1 ; Army boost. Part of 2 ; Army boost. Part of 3 ; Army boost. Part of 4).


German cannon seized from Ivangorod. October 1914





From the second half of October, 1914 and up to 8, July 1915, the enemy provided the fortress with a 9-month “respite” - which the garrison used very productively.

Since the experience of the onset of the Austro-German forces in October 1914 showed that the line of fortifications, rendered on the left bank of the Vistula on 6 - 7,5 km from the crossings, does not sufficiently provide the latter from the impact of enemy artillery, it was necessary to expand the fortress area on the left bank.

The High Command, in connection with the widespread operations of the Russian armies on the left bank of the Vistula after the autumn operations of 1914, at first considered it necessary to create the main serf position as an army position pushed forward from the center of the fortress at 22-23-kilometer distance, along the line Kozenitsa -Profit-Janowitz. Position length is about 60 km. But at the end of February 1915, when work on strengthening the above position was in full swing, the headquarters of the commander-in-chief of the South-Western Front indicated to the commandant that the army position being built in front of the fortress should be dealt with exclusively by field troops. It was stated that for the defense of the fortress during 3 - 6-month term, a garrison (45 - 70 thou. People) was to form a similar position behind the army position.

After long negotiations and disputes between the serfs and the front headquarters, a new serf position was established at the 16-kilometer distance from the crossings - on the line Mozolice-Sloviki-Novo-Bonkovets-Gnevashev-Border. Length - 30 km. The construction of this position started only on 8 in May 1915, and, naturally, it was only temporary by the beginning of the offensive of the enemy (8 July) - defensive structures could withstand only 6 - 8-inch shells of enemy artillery.

During this period, under the fortress of Ivangorod, there were 4 defense lines shown in the diagram, including the first army position, defended exclusively by field troops.



The fighting of this period continued for 2 weeks (from 8 to July 22). On July 6, the enemy broke through the Radomsk positions, and on July 8, the field forces left their advanced army positions on the Kozienica-Polichno-Yanovots line. By the evening of July 8, the retreating field troops were approaching the main fortress position. It was a critical moment for the fortress - but with the help of the skillful measures of the commandant and the valor of the garrison, he was able to overcome it. The fortress allowed to restrain the onslaught of the enemy, allowing the field troops to easily cross over to the other side. The powerful fire of serf batteries and infantry counterattacks forced the enemy to stop at the main fortress position (albeit worn and temporary).

But the general situation in the theater was set up in such a way that the High Command recognized it expedient, using the Ivangorod fortress only to ensure the retreat of Russian troops on the right bank of the Vistula, evacuate its garrison and armament, and to blow up the fortifications - the corresponding order was issued on July 12.

During the third episode, the 10 garrison courageously held on relatively weak positions - and gave the field troops the opportunity to quietly withdraw, remove weapons and serfs, and then successively blow up (first left bank and then right bank) forts. The enemy was left only ruins.

Thus, in less than a year of hostilities, the fortress of Ivangorod has played an important strategic role three times - and in an atmosphere of maneuvering war. The fortress fought much better than many of its more modern "sisters" and demonstrated that even a weak fortress can have an important influence on the course of military operations - and the era of fortresses has not yet ended. And it is worth remembering the old truths that have become the cornerstone of the success of the Ivangorod garrison: “strength of the fortress depends less on the strength of its walls than on the spirit of its defenders”, “there are no weak fortresses where there are courageous people who defend them”, and finally "The ambush is not strong in the garden, but the ambush is strong by the governor."


Ivangorod defenders led by Major General A.V. Schwarz.
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  1. Amurets
    Amurets 11 March 2018 06: 36
    +10
    Thank! Very interesting
    1. 210ox
      210ox 11 March 2018 15: 24
      +2
      How little we know about that Second World War ... Ivangorod in Poland .. I began to read and thought, and what might be the offensive of our troops near Petrograd ... I thought about the current Ivangorod.
  2. Ingvar 72
    Ingvar 72 11 March 2018 07: 16
    +3
    As I understand it, this is another fortress Ivangorod, on the river Norоve different?
    1. Rotmistr
      Rotmistr 11 March 2018 07: 56
      +22
      Yes, there was Ivangorod fortress on the Narova River (Narva) - they proved to be in the 15-16 centuries, but lost their significance after the Great Northern War. The city of the same name Ivangorod is now part of the Leningrad region.
      And the Ivangorod fortress, about which the article is, is on the Vistula.
      It was originally built precisely as a fortress - a bridgehead. As a fortress and brilliantly manifested itself.
      1. Ingvar 72
        Ingvar 72 11 March 2018 10: 16
        +3
        Thanks for clarifying. hi
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 11 March 2018 07: 27
    +11
    “The strength of a fortress depends less on the strength of its walls than on the spirit of its defenders”

    Better not say.
    The commandant of the fortress, Major General A.V. von Schwartz, is a wonderful Russian military engineer, a man of amazing fate,
    Member of the defense of Port Arthur.
    After the defense of the Ivangorod fortress, he showed himself perfectly on the Caucasian front under the command of the Yudenich Comfront.
    After the October coup, like a Russian patriot, he fought against the German invaders to the end, he commanded the Northern section of the veil until March 1918, lo Brest betrayal. He did not accept him, refused to participate in the Bolshevik war with his people and left for his homeland in Little Russia.
    In exile, he wrote a number of scientific works on military fortification, headed the project "The Role of Russia in the Great War" - together with Bunin and Kuprin and a number of other generals,
    In Argentina, he was a professor of fortification at the Academy, and he printed a number of fundamental works on fortification, which brought him world fame.
    Lived 90 for years.
    That such people lost Russia .... Eh .... request
    1. Rotmistr
      Rotmistr 11 March 2018 07: 57
      +21
      This is exactly
      "The ambush by the garden is not strong, but the ambush of the governor is strong."
    2. Finches
      Finches 11 March 2018 09: 08
      +8
      Olgovich hi An interesting article, a good comment for you, but the last phrase lubricates the whole impression - the Russian Empire, the USSR, modern Russia - this is one country at different moments of its development .... Someone always leaves, someone comes, power and regimes change, but the people remain and the heroes of the defense of the Osovets fortress in 1914-15, the soldiers of Brest in 1941 occupy! This is called continuity! And everything else from the evil one, Olgovich, as well as your constant sufferings about "The Russia We Lost!" Personally, I did not lose anything, and Russia! A complex, tragic moments in one human life a dime a dozen, but here is a huge country!
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 11 March 2018 09: 41
        +7
        Quote: Finches
        Olgovich

        Dear Eugene, hi
        Quote: Finches
        but the people remain and place the heroes of the defense of the Osovec fortress in 1914-15, occupyт fighters of Brest in 1941!

        They should not occupy, but TOGETHER stand!
        Quote: Finches
        ! This is called continuity!

        This is called bitter and irreparable loss.
        Quote: Finches
        Personally, I did not lose anything, like Russia!

        Russia and you have lost Millions of their beautiful sons and daughters: engineers, writers, scientists, doctors, teachers, military, skilled workers and peasants.
        There was NEVER such an outcome and tragedy in Russia!
        From the team of Sikorsky, with whom he created "Ilya of Muromets", which consisted of 91 people, after the Thief, executions, emigration and hunger, the surviving .... 17 people!
        If, even after such a defeat, the science of the USSR (FULLY grown and learned in IMPERIAL universities and imperial teachers) has all been successful, you can only guess what potential Russia has lost.

        If you, nevertheless, think that we nothing not lost, you probably know-who populate the desert spaces of Russia (8,5 pers / km2, with enormous wealth) with aging and dying the population of Russia (with 1964) and with the rapidly growing population of neighbors (Japan-336 h / km2, China 140, DPRK-220, etc.) hi

        "- All is well, beautiful marquise.
        Things are going, and life is easy.
        No sad surprise
        Except nothing .....
        1. Finches
          Finches 11 March 2018 09: 47
          +3
          Olgovich, and they stood together - how many gentlemen of the cross of St. George became gentlemen of the Order of Glory! As for everything else - life is a complicated thing and it is irrational - until the era of historical materialism, few sensible people were rotten by links and prisons, but this is half the trouble, and how many Russia have not received talented children, such as Lomonosov from among ordinary people and serfs. .. So all this is sophistry, dear Olgovich!
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 11 March 2018 11: 20
            +5
            Quote: Finches
            - you never know the Knights of the Cross of St. George became the Knights of the Order of Glory!

            Unit officers. Compare with Germany. where from the battalion commanders and above are veterans officers of the Great War.
            Quote: Finches
            As for the rest - life is a complicated thing and it is irrational - until the era of historical materialism, few sensible people were rotted by links and prisons?

            Sensible there was nothing to be done: WHAT would they “rot” for? belay They had something to do in the country. Do you know such people?
            But criminals, useless drones, mortally dangerous for the country, yes, they ate in the Shushenskie .... grouse, danced, skated, got married, became fat ("You've been blown apart! - mother-in-law's son-in-law"). It was a mistake.
            Quote: Finches
            and how many Russia didn’t receive talented guys, such as Lomonosov from among ordinary people and serfs.

            Lavra Proskuryakov, Russian engineering genius bridge builder, born in large (18 people) peasant family in 1858 Mr. With the recommendation of the local department of education, issued to an excellent student, he entered on a general basis at the Petersburg Institute of Railways, which he graduated in 1884.

            And many other leading engineers are NOT nobles: Zhuravsky, Belelubsky, Preobrazhensky, etc.
            In the Technical Universities of Russia, the nobles were an overwhelming minority. Like the administration. In England, for example, higher education was exclusively for the aristocracy.
            Quote: Finches
            So all this is sophistry, dear Olgovich!

            These are the facts, dear Eugene, Bitter facts of our terrible losses ....
        2. shuravi
          shuravi 11 March 2018 11: 02
          +7
          Quote: Olgovich

          Russia and you have lost Millions of their beautiful sons and daughters: engineers, writers, scientists, doctors, teachers, military, skilled workers and peasants.
          There was NEVER such an outcome and tragedy in Russia!
          From the team of Sikorsky, with whom he created "Ilya of Muromets", which consisted of 91 people, after the Thief, executions, emigration and hunger, the surviving .... 17 people!


          Well? What chance did they have in such a disgusting state like RI? Who needed their talents?
          And on the contrary, when this abomination, as an autocracy, was dared, how many talents were acquired, by orders of magnitude more.
          With all due respect to Sikorsky, who would he be if not for the eminent dad? But the children of the laundresses, in spite of all the talents of the Republic of Ingushetia, had no chance.


          If, even after such a defeat, the science of the USSR (FULLY grown and learned in IMPERIAL universities and imperial teachers) has all been successful, you can only guess what potential Russia has lost.


          Yes, don’t lie, the science of the USSR comes from the courses of elimination of illiteracy and labor faculty. And made a breakthrough because they dared the estate barrier.


          If you, nevertheless, think that we nothing not lost, you probably know-who populate the desert spaces of Russia (8,5 pers / km2, with enormous wealth) with aging and dying the population of Russia (with 1964) and with the rapidly growing population of neighbors (Japan-336 h / km2, China 140, DPRK-220, etc.) hi


          Yes of course. The Bolsheviks are to blame. Only again are you brazenly lying. Under the USSR, the North, Siberia, and the Far East were actively mastered. And now, your like-minded people are in power.
          Therefore, the birth rate is falling, because there is no incentive for children to give birth.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 11 March 2018 12: 19
            +7
            Quote: shuravi
            With all due respect to Sikorsky, who would he be if not for the eminent dad? But the children of the laundresses, in spite of all the talents of the Republic of Ingushetia, had no chance.

            In the Technical Universities of Russia, the nobles were an overwhelming minority.
            Quote: shuravi
            Yes, don’t lie, the science of the USSR comes from the courses of elimination of illiteracy and labor faculty.

            You carry nonsense: take biographies of ALL known owls. scientists: either took place before the thief or learned at the Imperial universities, imperial teachers: Vernadsky, Khlopin, Ioffe, Mysovsky, Kurchatov, etc.
            Quote: shuravi
            And made a breakthrough because they dared the estate barrier.

            What are the class barriers at admission to a technical university before the BOP. fool
            Quote: shuravi
            Only again are you brazenly lying. Under the USSR, North, Siberia, the Far East actively mastered.

            At rates much lower than in RI.
            Quote: shuravi
            Therefore, the birth rate is falling, because there is no incentive for children to give birth.

            С 1964 g-Depopulation of Russian. The incentive was broken in the 1930s.
            1. antivirus
              antivirus 11 March 2018 14: 40
              +1
              Quote: shuravi
              And made a breakthrough because they dared the estate barrier.
              What are the class barriers at admission to a technical university before the BOP. fool

              WORK FROM 10 -12 YEARS ON HOZ-VU. HELP PARENTS, INSTEAD OF A MOWER-RAKE AND A SICKLE SPRAY, INSTEAD OF AUTO - KNOW YOURSELF (OR NOT?)
              and the lack of roads, cars and railways (of course the rulers of 20 in-VKPb are to blame for this)
              look at roads 19 in England and France and compare them with the roads of Russia.
              WITHOUT SIBERIA AND DR. OKRAIN EVEN.
            2. shuravi
              shuravi 12 March 2018 14: 34
              +2
              Quote: Olgovich

              In the Technical Universities of Russia, the nobles were an overwhelming minority.


              The children of the bourgeoisie are very different from the nobility. Yes, and how many of it was, technical universities.

              You carry nonsense: take biographies of ALL known owls. scientists: either took place before the thief or learned at the Imperial universities, imperial teachers: Vernadsky, Khlopin, Ioffe, Mysovsky, Kurchatov, etc.


              And there are even more famous scientists who graduated from Soviet universities.


              What are the class barriers at admission to a technical university before the BOP. fool


              Yes, the same as now. No parents have money, no education for children.

              At rates much lower than in RI.


              The pace is good only when you start from scratch. When there was one plant, and built three in a year, this is one pace. And when a hundred were already built, and in the year added another fifty, a completely different one.

              With 1964 r-depopulation of Russians. The stimulus was broken in 1930.


              And what was the incentive before the thirties, you will not tell?
              But from the same 1964 of the year, I myself was quite. Want more apartment, give birth to children.
              Now, young people are first of all trying to solve the problem on their own with housing, to settle down.
              Over the years alone, the optimum age for the birth of healthy children is leaving.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 13 March 2018 06: 34
                +1
                Quote: shuravi
                The children of the bourgeoisie are very different from the nobility. Yes, and how many of it was, technical universities.

                There were both peasants and workers. You never called the estate "barriers" that supposedly existed. Weak? And they were NOT.
                Quote: shuravi
                And there are even more famous scientists who graduated from Soviet universities.

                ONCE AGAIN, if you still do not understand: ALL scientists of atomic and space projects are trained in IMPERIAL Universities and IMPERIAL teachers are IMTU (Baumanka), SPTI (SPTU), Kiev University, Kazan, etc. Once again: open their biographies, and do not study empty chatter!
                Quote: shuravi
                The pace is good only when you start from scratch. When there was one plant, and built three in a year, this is one pace. And when a hundred were already built, and in the year added another fifty, a completely different one.

                The Trans-Siberian Railway, which the Americans called an event significant with the discovery of America, was built in 11 years, the famous and much shorter BAM tortured for 50 years
                By the way, Russia built the longest bridge with the country, the USSR was never able to surpass.
                Quote: shuravi
                And what was the incentive before the thirties, you will not tell?

                The word "stimulus" was mentioned by you. And the demographic BEHAVIOR of the people was broken, during the years of the first five-year plan, when they began to give birth in five years almost half as much. Plus wild catastrophes of hunger and violence.
                Quote: shuravi
                But from the same 1964 of the year, I myself was quite. Want more apartment, give birth to children.

                belay
                Since 1964, there has been a DEPOSITION of the Russian people (extinction) -Do not you understand, again?
                Quote: shuravi
                Now, young people are first of all trying to solve the problem on their own with housing, to settle down.
                Over the years alone, the optimum age for the birth of healthy children is leaving.

                Weaned to give birth to their parents and parents of parents-
        3. Alexander Greene
          Alexander Greene 12 March 2018 02: 12
          +3
          Quote: Olgovich
          Russia and you have lost millions of your beautiful sons and daughters: engineers, writers, scientists, doctors, teachers, military, skilled workers and peasants.
          There was NEVER such an outcome and tragedy in Russia!

          There is nothing to pity them, The best of them, who have risen above their caste, over the prejudices of their class, remained to serve the working people, and those who left could not reconcile themselves: some with the loss of private property, some with the loss of their position and privileges. Before the revolution, many of them, sitting on the couch in the living room, talked about the difficult share of the Russian people, but how it came to the matter — they went abroad, they could not, you see, survive “The mob has rebelled!”.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 12 March 2018 07: 15
            +1
            Quote: Alexander Green
            Sorry their there is nothing,

            It’s not for them, YOURSELF need to be sorry that they have lost them.
            Quote: Alexander Green
            remained to serve the working people

            RUSSIA their they served
            1. Alexander Greene
              Alexander Greene 12 March 2018 18: 50
              +2
              Quote: Olgovich
              It’s not for them, YOURSELF need to be sorry that they have lost them.

              Why all of a sudden? Managed without them. All the same, they were alien to the working people, and therefore they would hardly have brought any benefit.
              Quote: Olgovich
              RUSSIA their they served

              Intelligentsia: whoever has power serves him. There was the power of the working people — it served it, it became bourgeois, it serves the bourgeoisie.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 13 March 2018 06: 38
                +1
                Quote: Alexander Green
                what suddenly? Managed without them.

                WHERE did you manage, take a look at the WINDOW! fool
                Quote: Alexander Green
                . All the same, they were alien to the working people, and therefore they would hardly have brought any benefit.

                Your "would" is less than zero.
                Your 1991 Disaster Achievement
                Quote: Alexander Green
                Intelligentsia: whoever has power serves him. There was the power of the working people — it served it, it became bourgeois, it serves the bourgeoisie.

                COUNTRY served, the state of RUSSIA!
                1. Alexander Greene
                  Alexander Greene 13 March 2018 18: 14
                  +2
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  WHERE did you manage, take a look at the WINDOW!

                  You are in your role, only the catastrophe of 1991, and the picture outside: the destroyed factories, abandoned villages, uncultivated fields - this is the work of your accomplices, the same haters of the Soviet regime, like you. I’ve been writing to you for a long time that the USSR and Russia are essentially one, Russia was the backbone of the USSR. You and your siblings - the anti-Soviet did not understand this and shot, spat, crap on the USSR, only when a catastrophe happened, some of you, just not you, realized that: Marked in the USSR, but ended up in Russia. And the present misfortune is on your conscience and from this you and your brethren will never wash off.
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 14 March 2018 09: 46
                    0
                    Quote: Alexander Green
                    You are in your role, only the catastrophe of 1991, and the picture outside: the destroyed factories, abandoned villages, uncultivated fields - this is the work of your accomplices, the same haters of the Soviet regime, like you.

                    What is wrong with you man? belay fool YOU-ONLY ALL years ruled and you at the same time are NOT to blame ?! fool belay lol
                    1. Alexander Greene
                      Alexander Greene 14 March 2018 21: 28
                      +1
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      What is wrong with you man? YOU-SINGLE RULE ALL ALL years and you at the same time-NOT to blame ?!

                      Nothing, just pointing to those who contributed to the destruction and destruction of the Soviet state all these years, you and your accomplices - all kinds of enemies of the people - all this time they harmed, slandered, killed, blew up, undermined from the inside. After all, one lurking enemy with the help of sabotage can ruin any strong ship. And after the Soviet power was completely destroyed, your brethren frolicked well - everything that was built by the Soviet people for more than 70 years, everyone was privatized that they could not grab, destroyed or sold abroad.
                      1. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 15 March 2018 09: 00
                        0
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        Nothing, just pointing to those who contributed to the destruction and destruction of the Soviet state all these years, you and your accomplices - all kinds of enemies of the people - all this time have been harming, slandering, killing, blowing up, undermining from the inside out.

                        This is your- all the time
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        кslammed, killed, undermined from within
                        -And YOUR fellow citizens!

                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        And after the Soviet power was completely destroyed,

                        WHO destroyed ?! And WHERE were you? lol AND WHY NOBODY stood up for her?
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        your brethren frolic well - everything that was built by the Soviet people in more than 70 years, all privatized, that they could not grab, destroyed or sold abroad.

                        Russia-a thousand years, not 70: when do you remember something? fool And it was built THOUSAND years, not 70.
                        And again: YOU, single-handedly right, NOT to blame ?! fool lol
                      2. Alexander Greene
                        Alexander Greene 16 March 2018 21: 15
                        0
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        WHO destroyed ?! And WHERE were you?  AND WHY NOBODY stood up for her? .....
                        Russia-a thousand years, not 70: when do you remember something? And it was built THOUSAND years, not 70.
                        And again: YOU, single-handedly right, NOT to blame ?!

                        I have already answered these questions so many times, and you either can’t read them, or you cannot understand them.
                        Well, what else can I say?
                        Learn, although not, better heal.
                        You not only lost the ability to understand texts, but you began to forget the words, replace them with emoticons.
  4. Monarchist
    Monarchist 11 March 2018 07: 38
    +6
    A very informative story about photo illustrations is good. "Fought better than many of its more modern" sisters ", apparently, those fortresses were headed not by Schwartz, but by" parquet generals "
  5. andrewkor
    andrewkor 11 March 2018 07: 44
    +4
    In the WWII, in general, separate fortresses showed themselves very poorly.
    Liege lasted 12 days, Namur 6 days, Maubeuge 10 days, Antwerp 12 days, Kovna 6 days, Novogeorgievsk 9 days. First-class and expensive fortresses of those times!
    French Verdun, Russian Osovets, Ivangorod, the Austrian Przemysl can be proud of good, stubborn defense. Only Verdun was not taken by the enemy, but only because it was organically integrated into the common defense front and was not imposed on all sides by the Germans besieging him.
    And not a single German fortress was repacked, the Germans waged war on foreign territory until the armistice!
    1. Rotmistr
      Rotmistr 11 March 2018 08: 07
      +18
      Yes, as the war showed, the fortress held on for a long time when it was qualitatively integrated into the defense of the field troops.
      During the East Prussian operation of 1914, the forces of the Russian 1st Army launched a siege of Koenigsberg (on August 16-19, in the old style).
      And during the Czestochowa-Krakow operation, they began the siege of Krakow (November 1914).
      But in both cases, the siege was forced to withdraw and withdraw.
      the Germans waged war on foreign territory until the armistice

      Like the Russian troops - on a number of fronts, they fought on foreign territory until the Brest Armistice (December 1917) and the Brest Peace (March 1918).
    2. Rotmistr
      Rotmistr 11 March 2018 08: 21
      +17
      And such a moment
      French Verdun, Russian Osovets, Ivangorod, the Austrian Przemysl can be proud of good, stubborn defense. Only Verdun was not taken by the adversary

      Verdun was not taken, Przemysl was taken. By the way, Erzurum was also taken.
      But Osovets and Ivangorod were not taken (unlike the first-class Belgian fortresses, Przemysl, Erzurum, Kovno and Novogeorgievsk) - the Russian troops left them themselves, having previously removed everything that was possible and blowing up the fortifications.
      1. andrewkor
        andrewkor 11 March 2018 09: 52
        +1
        Dear Rotmistr, do you even read the quote you quoted: “Verdun was not taken.” For other clarifications, I am grateful to you, I know the details of the sieges of the fortresses, but
        this is already obtained not by a comment, but by a series of articles, which I am not very good at, thanks for not leaving my note unnoticed!
        1. Rotmistr
          Rotmistr 11 March 2018 10: 17
          +18
          Dear andrewkor, I carefully read your quote.
          That's right, I didn’t argue with you - maybe it was in vain to let me down the line.
          I repent)
          If I may, in the end I note the overall balance.
          On the French front, the Allies lost a whole jamb of Belgian fortresses, but Verdun defended.
          On the Russian front in battle, we lost 2 fortresses - Kovenskaya and Novogeorgievskaya and also 2 took - Przemysl and Erzurum.
          I repeat that Osovets and Ivangorod left themselves - on the orders of the command. This is very important - they remained undefeated in battle, although they were smashed (and repeatedly) by heavy artillery fire.
          1. andrewkor
            andrewkor 11 March 2018 18: 30
            +1
            Yes, yes, both Osovets and Ivangorod fought to the end and they fulfilled their strategic role to the full in the article. They were not taken, I was not accurate, I apologize, but they are still lost and are not beaten back. It resembles the defense of Odessa in 1941.
  6. bubalik
    bubalik 11 March 2018 09: 10
    +3
    http://elib.shpl.ru/nodes/14148#page/3/mode/inspe
    ct / zoom / 4
  7. Monarchist
    Monarchist 11 March 2018 09: 14
    +3
    Quote: Finches
    Olgovich hi An interesting article, a good comment for you, but the last phrase lubricates the whole impression - the Russian Empire, the USSR, modern Russia - this is one country at different moments of its development .... Someone always leaves, someone comes, power and regimes change, but the people remain and the heroes of the defense of the Osovets fortress in 1914-15, the soldiers of Brest in 1941 occupy! This is called continuity! And everything else from the evil one, Olgovich, as well as your constant sufferings about "The Russia We Lost!" Personally, I did not lose anything, and Russia! And the complex, tragic moments in one human life are a dime a dozen, and here is a huge country!

    I agree with your opinion: RI, USSR, RF are all pages of our history
  8. Rotmistr
    Rotmistr 11 March 2018 09: 18
    +16

    This is another edition
    But of particular interest are the report of the commandant of Ivangorod to the commander in chief of the SWF

    and work A.V. Schwartz Fortification
  9. Curious
    Curious 11 March 2018 09: 32
    +2

    The fortress was built in 1832 - 1847. at the initiative of the governor Ivan Fedorovich Paskevich, His Serene Highness Prince of Warsaw.
    In 1840, Emperor Nicholas I ordered to name the fortress - in honor of Ivan Paskevich - Ivangorod. The city of Deblin became Ivangorod.
    1. Rotmistr
      Rotmistr 11 March 2018 10: 03
      +17
      Yes, if the book is the same edition
      By the way, Ivangorod was also used by the Poles during the Soviet-Polish war of 1919-1920.
  10. Freeman
    Freeman 11 March 2018 21: 50
    +3
    Fortress Ivangorod (Twierdza Dęblin)
    General view of the citadel

    The layout of the fortress

    • Fort No. 1 (Grinders), built in 1881-1882 on the way to Stenzycy.
    • Fort No. 2 (Mierzwiączka), it is located about 3 km from the citadel on the way to Roar - through the Joints.
    • Fort No. 3 (Dęblin), built in the vicinity of the Mniškov Palace, at the then course leading to Bobrownik, one and a half kilometers from the right bank of the Wieprz River.
    • Fort No. 4 (Borowa), located on the left bank of the Vepsh River, at a distance of more than one kilometer from the river.
    • Fort No. 5 (Borek), on the left bank of the Vistula, built in the village near Borek, the most advanced object, to the south.
    • Fort No. 6 (Głusiec), built between 1883-1884 between the villages of Głusiec and the non-existent Piwonią today.
    • Fort No. 7 (Nagórnik), built in 1885 on the left bank of the Vistula River near the village of Nagórnik. Also called Fort Wannowskiego, the westernmost Fort Ring has been advanced; it is about 3,5 km from the Fortress, a highway and a station passed through its territory.
    (sorry for Yandex translation)
  11. Freeman
    Freeman 11 March 2018 22: 26
    +2
    Quote: Rotmistr
    By the way, Ivangorod was also used by the Poles during the Soviet-Polish war of 1919-1920.

    In the history of the Ivangorod fortress, there are also tragic pages for our history.
    Next to the former Fort Balonna (less than one and a half kilometers from the fortress) is an international military cemetery - burial places from 1915 to 1939.

    Memorial plate on the grave of the Red Army: "Bolshevik soldiers who died in 1919-1921".
    On the information table at the entrance to the cemetery it is written that 219 Red Army soldiers - prisoners of war from the Polish-Soviet war of 1920 are buried here. Probably the camp was somewhere not very far away.
    From autumn 1941 to February 1944, the German Stalag 307 was located in the Demblin fortress - the citadel and several neighboring forts - through which about 150 thousand Soviet prisoners of war passed. More than half of them died - from hunger, cold, illness (especially in the winter of 1941-1942, when up to 500 people died per day) or being shot by guards for any reason and even for fun. Up to 120 thousand prisoners were in the camp at one time (January 1942). The conditions of the prisoners were inhuman, many were placed in the open air on a camp ground, and in barracks with bare stone floors it was only slightly better.


    The inscription on the memorial plate: "To the heroic soldiers of the Soviet Army killed in the territory of Demblin in 1942-1944"
    Read more here
    https://starcom68.livejournal.com/955698.html
  12. Freeman
    Freeman 11 March 2018 22: 42
    +2
    Polish film with a brief history of the fortress (we make a discount on the special "love" of some Poles for Russia)

    The citadel houses the Polish military unit, so the condition is much better than the surrounding forts.
  13. Freeman
    Freeman 11 March 2018 22: 43
    +2
    The condition of one of the forts.
    Dęblin - Fort Mierzwiączka