Military Review

"Swamp people": all ends - in the water!

36
And before, and now the swamps were considered deadly, scary, mysterious. A lot of creepy stories was connected with the swamp swamps. They were afraid to walk on them, because they considered them the abode of all evil spirits. This is what the dark people used, who hid the traces of their crimes in the swamps.


"Swamp people": all ends - in the water!

"Handsome man", right? (The face of a "Tollund man")

Almost everyone has ever heard of the mummies of ancient Egypt. We received initial information about them during our school years, later information about them could be found in magazines and newspapers of that time. But before, and now, in addition to the ancient Egyptian mummies, the world was surprised by other finds. These are the so-called “swamp people”. Of course, this is not the inhabitants of the swamps and swamps. These are human remains - the findings of scientists. The victims in the peat bogs were massively found in the XIX – first half of the XX century. Mummified bodies were dug up in swamps across northern Europe. Surprisingly, the finds are perfectly preserved.

Mummy, mummy, and how old are you?

According to scientists, the total number of bodies found in the peatlands was more than a thousand. Contrary to the notions of many that the body in a swamp is likely to quickly become unusable, the peatlands have preservative properties and perfectly preserve the bodies trapped in them. Some finds had an excellent view. The bodies were mummified, but did not undergo the process of decomposition. As a rule, mummies were discovered by peat developers. But since the peat workers were illiterate people, these bodies were of no interest to them at all. That is why they acted with them as they please. Because of this, many mummies science simply lost, because the body during the extraction of peat were withdrawn carelessly, by fragments, which were immediately thrown away. Nobody reported the findings anywhere.

When more advanced research methods appeared, scientists were able, with the help of the radiocarbon method of research, to finally determine the age of the “drowned men”. And it turned out to be very solid: most of the finds fell into the swampy swamps of 2 - 2,5 thousands of years ago. And there are some very “long-livers”: on the Danish island of Fünen the skeletal body of a young woman was found. Age of discovery was 8000 years. And all thanks to the peat. After all, the swamp on 90 percent consists of peat acids, and they have excellent preservative, as well as tannic properties. Yes, plus more and cold water. Because of this combination of properties, the bodies that fell for a long time were left without oxygen, which means that decay did not destroy either the body, or hair, or clothing.

Menu marsh mummies

In the study of the remains, scientists sometimes had to play the role of criminologists. After all, it was necessary to find out the cause of death, why the crime was committed, and in addition, to collect “material evidence”, as well as everything that belonged to the drowned man. Certainly, an autopsy was carried out, and then, having gathered all the facts together, a “picture” of what happened, and, if possible, a lifestyle of a still alive person, was compiled.

For example, a study of the contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract helped scientists establish that they ate before death. For example, an ancient resident of the town of Tolllund, shortly before his death, quenched his hunger with porridge from a mixture of many seeds and grains. The quality and content of the diet can tell a lot and hair, which scientists took for analysis from mummies. For example, a person found under Klonikavan used to eat a lot of vegetables, and therefore he died, most likely, in the summer.

It is worth noting another very curious detail: all the bodies found have the same red hair and black skin. But after all, they were never blacks (we remember that most of the finds were from Northern Europe). And the reason for the special action of peat.

"Be in trend"

Special, preserving properties of peat contributed to the preservation of clothing. After lying in the peatlands for hundreds of years, part of the clothes still survived. On some bodies, fragments of clothing have been preserved by which one can understand what ancient people wore. For example, a famous person from Tolund was wearing a fur cap on the inside. Next to the dead woman from Huldermus they found a pair of leather hats, a hairband, and a wool skirt. And the man from Clonicavan was also a dandy: he was styling his hair with “gel” of resin and vegetable oil. A woman from Elling wore luxurious hair of almost a meter length, woven into a braid and laid in an intricate hairstyle.

Victim of crime or sacrifice?

So how was it really? Why did people get into the swamp? Scientists have several versions. The findings were usually made after an external examination. Those on whom there were no signs of violence were considered simply drowned. In other words, they were victims of an accident or a ridiculous accident. Another thing - people found with traces of violence, related, strangled or with a cut throat. There are two options: either it is the victim of the murderer, or it is the sacrifice, in other words, the ritual murder. In order to appease the terrible swamp gods, they sacrificed a man, after strangling him. Someone before death was tortured. The terrible findings testify to this: some bodies had holes in their hands, and walnut rods were knotted in them. In this way, traces of crimes and torture were hidden: the victims were simply thrown into the swamp.


"Woman from Huldremosa"

Well, now it makes sense to get acquainted with some of the "instances" closer. Let's give the right of superiority to women.

One of the finds - “Woman from the Huldre swamp” lived almost 2,5 thousands of years ago. She wore a warm woolen skirt at that time, found in the same place as the woman. Her last meal was rye bread. There was one oddity in the find - the limbs chopped in many places.


"Woman from Haraldsker", exhibited in a glazed sarcophagus in Vejle, Denmark.

The find was discovered in 1835 year in the marshland of Jutland. It is assumed that a woman died in the V century BC. The mummy was also perfectly preserved: both the skin and the insides were in very good condition. The height of the woman was small, only one and a half meters. Death came at the age of 50. Remarkably, the body was not affected by disease. Most likely, the woman was the victim of criminals: the presence of a rope trace on her neck is a bright proof of that. The mummy found its "shelter" in Denmark, in the city of Vejle, where the church of St. Nicholas. The body was placed in a glazed, beautifully decorated sarcophagus.


"Tollundsky man"

This man was found in the 6 peatlands of May 1950, the inhabitants of the Danish village of Tolllund. The detected body was removed from the peat and carefully examined. The height of the person was no more than 1 and 62. See. The expert, while inspecting, stated that the person was first strangled, and then he was thrown into the swamp. Thanks to the excellent preservation of the internal organs, scientists were able to determine the age of the deceased, which was approximately 40 years. Most likely, the deceased hit the swamp either in early spring or late autumn. The water at that time was already quite cold, the rest was completed by peat. The time in which he lived is the Iron Age. However, his position in society has remained a mystery, which, unfortunately, can not be solved. The find can be seen in Denmark, in the town of Silkeborg, where the local museum is located.


"Klonikavansky people"

Another “instance” was discovered in 2003, in Britain, in the swamps of Clonikawan, located in the Irish county of Mead. The safety of the mummy was amazing, and this allowed the forensic experts to do it first. The medical examiners decided that this find was “by their part” and only by setting the age of the body (more than 2000 years), it was transferred to scientists. A distinctive feature of the mummy was an intricate hairstyle, laid using a special tool for hair. The composition of the funds included special components, which were not then in Ireland. From this it was concluded that already at that time active trade was conducted between Ireland and Southern Europe. By the way, among the scientists there were football fans (not only great pranksters), who in the guise of a mummy found some similarities with ... David Beckham, for which she was immediately named after him (I wonder how David himself treated this?) .


"Man from Lindow"

Another find that caused considerable interest among scientists was also found in England. He was nicknamed Pete Marsh ("peat bog"). Body found in 1984 year. Or rather, not the body, but at first only the head. It was the head of a woman. At first, it was also decided that this was the work of a criminal who was operating in our time and who had finished his victim either after a robbery or as an unnecessary witness. Policemen remembered the events 30-year-old. There was a dark one at that time. историяassociated with the murder of a woman. A local resident came under suspicion, who, after his arrest, confessed that in 50-ies he really killed his wife, dismembered his body and drowned him in a swamp. But then the matter took an unexpected turn. The police probably received praise from the authorities for solving the murder, but the find went to the scientists. They were “tormented by vague doubts” that the find was not so young. And the scientists were right. Radiocarbon analysis has shown that the age of the “young lady” head is more than 2000 years. Soon they found the “body of Pete Marsh”, who died, as it turned out more than a thousand years ago.

Scientists were able to determine the age of a person at the time of death - he was quite young, 25 years old. Its growth was 1 m 65 cm, and weight approximately 65 kg. They paid attention to themselves shortly trimmed mustache and beard. Death came from a blow to the head with a heavy object; in addition, his throat was cut. Now the mummy is in the fund of the British Museum in London.


"Man from Grobolla"

The body of this man was also perfectly preserved. It was discovered in April 1952 of the year in the same peatlands as the “Tollund man”. On this mummy both hair and nails are preserved. "Spoil the view" only mutilated neck. The unfortunate was cut the throat, for which - apparently, it will remain unknown.

According to the same radiocarbon method, this man also lived in the Iron Age and died at the age of thirty. Its growth was 1 and 75. The mummy is located in Denmark, in the museum of the city of Aarhus.
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  1. Bouncer
    Bouncer 21 February 2018 06: 07
    +20
    This is called peat tanning.
    Bodies are best preserved
    Yes, how many wonderful discoveries we have ...
  2. ICT
    ICT 21 February 2018 06: 39
    +4
    Quote: Bouncer
    Yes, how many wonderful discoveries we have ...

  3. XII Legion
    XII Legion 21 February 2018 06: 43
    +19
    The ends in the water cannot be hidden even in a swamp
    Thanks to the forensics
    And the author
  4. Monster_Fat
    Monster_Fat 21 February 2018 06: 50
    +4
    The "black diggers" that rummage through the swamps of the Leningrad Region upload videos on YouTube showing the perfectly preserved bodies of Soviet soldiers who died in swamps during the Second World War. The remarks that accompany these films indicate that the bodies begin to decompose quickly in the air, the stench goes awful .... having overheated another such corpse, in search of the "interesting", the "diggers" quickly throw it back into the swamp .... Br-rr and how disgusting they are .... request
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 21 February 2018 10: 52
      +5
      Br-rr and how disgusting they are ....

      it doesn’t fit into our heads, but they have already crossed this “moral line” when they started to profit from it. hi unlike normal search engines.
      1. mar4047083
        mar4047083 21 February 2018 23: 13
        +4
        To admit the truth, I, Nikolai, also dug up one handsome man. The truth was he was 300-400 years old. Take the excavator and call the police, they closed the construction site for a week, while whose skull was being sorted. After the "showdown" I already gave the task, so that the ribs dug up. Decorated the garden, it turned out very beautifully. the most annoying, you can collect any "spare parts", except for cranial boxes.
    2. KOMA
      KOMA 21 February 2018 13: 25
      +6
      Black diggers scurry mainly on Hans positions, since they have little interest in the Soviet ones. Well, every year they are undermined for it by the GPs, so the karma works!
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 21 February 2018 15: 42
        +2
        They are looking for a soldier's personal number. There are lists of soldiers in Germany.
        Contact relatives, get rewards from them
        for finding and reburial of the body.
  5. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 21 February 2018 06: 50
    +3
    Very unusual topic. Great article!
    1. kalibr
      21 February 2018 07: 12
      +3
      I bring up a worthy shift!
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 21 February 2018 20: 47
        +1
        "Where is that young punks that will wipe us off the face of the earth?" (B. Grebenshchikov)
  6. Korsar4
    Korsar4 21 February 2018 07: 29
    +2
    Yes. Peat bog - a wonderful Calendar. The pollen of plants can promote their species composition ten thousand years ago.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 21 February 2018 13: 09
      +6
      for some reason I have with the word “swamp” the first associations with the immortal creation of Maslennikov and the team

      like, somewhere under the Shales filmed (in our Leningrad region). drinks
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 21 February 2018 21: 02
        +1
        This is the second association. But, in general, I love Meschera. And you can’t imagine her without swamps.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 21 February 2018 21: 09
          +2
          we have swampy areas around St. Petersburg. Especially where the forest was cut down thoughtlessly .. they’ll cut it down, mix everything up there, leave .. Here is a young shoot in the middle of a swamp. Meshchera - was not, I apologize generously hi everyone remembers his place first! drinks
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 21 February 2018 21: 12
            +1
            This is a classic. If dolomoshniki knocked out - swamps. You had a bit. In Lisino. And in the famous Lindulovskaya grove.

            Another godfather ran a ski marathon on the Karelian Isthmus. But this is a winter outing.
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 21 February 2018 21: 44
          +3
          "I'm back in the village, go hunting
          I write my verses, life is easy
          Yesterday, tired of walking in the swamp
          I went into the barn and fell asleep deeply. "
          "Peasant children" (N. Nekrasov)
  7. Curious
    Curious 21 February 2018 08: 42
    +6

    The largest swamps in the world are Sudd in South Sudan. Area: 57 thousand km2 in the dry season, up to 130 thousand km2 in the rainy season. The source of finds for paleobiology and archeology.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 21 February 2018 15: 44
      +4
      Amazing! And people live ...
      But at least from thirst and hunger they will not die.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 21 February 2018 20: 53
        +6
        So in your deserts people live, although the landscapes are absolutely Martian.
  8. Cartalon
    Cartalon 21 February 2018 09: 04
    +2
    According to the same Drobyshevsky in Russia there are no such finds, or very few are not in swamps or in glaciers because those who find it prefer not to report, in order to avoid consequences for themselves.
    1. BAI
      BAI 21 February 2018 10: 04
      +2
      Yes, we have mummies all the time and are found in ordinary apartments nearby.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 21 February 2018 21: 35
      +9
      This is yes! Whoever has ever claimed to have found a corpse will think next time whether to call the police. Russian Themis do not care that the corpse is 1,5 -2 -8 thousand years. "And where were you at 20.00 p.m., October 5, 6028 BC? Don’t you remember ?! So ..."
  9. Ural resident
    Ural resident 21 February 2018 11: 34
    +3
    In our museum of local lore there is a wooden carved pillar that apparently once served for religious purposes.
    It was also found in a swamp and is perfectly preserved. Age about 9 years. In any case, it is written so.
  10. Antares
    Antares 21 February 2018 11: 45
    +7
    Complement
    The girl from Ida was found on May 12, 1897. The body was wrapped in a woolen cape. A loop made of wool was tightened around the girl’s neck, indicating that she was executed for some crime or sacrificed. In the area of ​​the clavicle, a trace from the wound was preserved. The skin was not affected by decomposition, which is typical for marsh bodies. The results of a radiocarbon analysis carried out in 1992 showed that she died at the age of about 16 years old, between 54 BC. e. and 128 year n. e. The head of the corpse was half shaved shortly before death. The remaining hair is long, have a reddish tint. But it should be noted that the hair of all the corpses that got into the swamp environment acquires a reddish color as a result of denaturation of the coloring pigment under the influence of acids in the swampy soil. As a result, it can be assumed that the reddish shade of the hair of the corpse is a posthumous change and may not coincide with the intravital shade. Computed tomography determined that during her life she had a curvature of the spine. Further studies led to the conclusion that the cause of this, most likely, was a lesion of the vertebrae with bone tuberculosis.
    View

    A man from Old Krogan. A man whose mummified body was found in 2003 in Ireland near Krogan Hill died between 362 and 175 BC. e. Cut nipples on his body with a high degree of probability indicate that he was an overthrown ruler. The Celts, as a sign of humility, kissed the nipples of their kings. And if it happened that the ruler was overthrown, his nipples were also cut out.
    The body of the mummy has preserved traces of torture. He was stabbed with a knife, after which the body was beheaded and cut into two. His hands are pulled together with the help of thin branches of hazel, stuck in the through holes of the forearms. An analysis of the remnants of food from his stomach indicates the possible ritual nature of his relatively modest dying meal, consisting of cereal and butter.
    Marshes are an excellent “time conservator”, as are glaciers. However, reading a selection of "swamp people" found only one dead natural death. All are killed, decapitated, strangled, crushed bones, torture, etc.
    We are very "humane"
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 21 February 2018 15: 47
      +2
      Interesting, thanks. good

      "All killed, beheaded, strangled" ////

      But these are exceptions, those who died in the swamps. Usually they buried it all.
  11. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 21 February 2018 16: 14
    +17
    Scary end
    And not human to die
    And rest in the mud
    So that later we looked
    Brr ...
    Better not)
    Fine good
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 21 February 2018 21: 10
      +3
      And humanly, how is it? I assure you, out of several tens of billions of human beings, in the entire history of mankind, only a small part (I think less than 1%) have died of old age.
      1. Antares
        Antares 23 February 2018 00: 38
        +2
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        (I think less than 1%) died of old age.

        Even less.
        Our species has always ended its life with a violent death from a representative of its own species / epidemics / hunger ... the average life expectancy has increased only in recent centuries.
        As soon as we became more humane and learned how to cure epidemics (+ hygiene and sanitation), our numbers stepped up over 7 billion ... and before that we successfully adjusted our numbers .. In exchange, our progress was very slow. We simply did not have time to accumulate and transmit knowledge.
        But these are exceptions, those who died in the swamps. Usually they buried it all.

        In the swamps they died often. That's just basically in the collections of the best preserved killed by force.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 23 February 2018 11: 08
          +2
          As soon as we became more humane and learned how to cure epidemics (+ hygiene and sanitation), our numbers stepped up over 7 billion ... and before that we successfully adjusted our numbers .. In exchange, our progress was very slow.

          I venture to suggest that nature will come up with something anyway. And will start from China and India. God grant that everything goes differently - that the overpopulated Earth will begin the development of planets, for example ...
          1. Antares
            Antares 24 February 2018 00: 04
            +1
            Quote: Mikado
            an overpopulated Earth will begin planet exploration, for example

            Earth is such a unique object that it is extremely difficult to reproduce it at other objects.
            To begin colonization, you need to get rid of the biological membrane ...
            There is a CLIMATE — it is merciless to humanity. While we are not basking in the warm period, and even saved by global warming. But here we’ll overcome it and a couple of volcanoes — and we’ll collapse in numbers.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 24 February 2018 00: 45
              +1
              God forbid this to happen. People must live. I want to believe in reason ...
              1. Antares
                Antares 25 February 2018 14: 24
                +2
                Quote: Mikado
                People must live. I want to believe in the mind

                our mind covers an animal essence.
              2. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 25 February 2018 16: 27
                +1
                Pancake! Nikolay! Belief in good people in you is not destroyed! I envy you ... I thought the last (familiar to me) idealist and romantic died three years ago ... But no!
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 26 February 2018 10: 29
                  0
                  it’s idealism, what I want to believe in, Anton. But even if you want, it’s not a fact that in each specific situation this faith will act in your own brain. drinks the truth of life is harsher and morose. laughing
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 25 February 2018 16: 21
              0
              Yes, you are a supporter of the Kurzweil theory! wink