Military Review

Penal company OPK

18



The results of the legislative process in the military-industrial complex in 2017 year suggest: the order established in the management of the defense industry is inadequate to the external threats facing Russia. While the developed countries have accelerated the transition to the sixth technological order and began the production of new types of weapons, the development of our "defense" is hampered by vague and contradictory methods of leadership.

According to experts of the Analytical Board of the Federation Council, the imperfection of the law was one of the reasons that many enterprises are experiencing difficulties with the introduction of innovations. R & D expenditures amount to 0,6 percent of GDP, while in developed countries this figure is two to three percent. The rate of renewal of domestic fixed assets is no more than one percent per year, if necessary at least six to ten percent. In such a legal field, there is no need to talk about a large-scale transition to a new technological order, and it is no longer possible to rely on the groundwork left over from past times.

All evil - in the fight against corruption

It is worth pondering over the words of the former Prime Minister of the USSR, Senator Nikolai Ryzhkov. At one of the meetings of the Council of the Federation, he said that if financiers are responsible for implementing a state program, the state will save a lot of money, but the result will be zero or bad. If industry representatives take up the business, the program will be implemented, but it will be very expensive. “Economists and industrialists should work together on the implementation of state projects,” Nikolai Ryzhkov shares his rich management experience.

What is happening with us? De-jure parity in the normative management of the defense sector between financiers and industrialists is observed. Responsible for rule-making are mainly the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Industry and Trade, the Ministry of Finance and the FAS. But first, the work of these departments often resembles the actions of a swan, a crab and a pike in a famous fable. Secondly, FAS dominates among law-making centers. After the abolition of Goskomtsen, this department is primarily responsible for pricing, in fact, includes all types of state regulation. Judging by the latest meetings in the Federal Assembly, representatives of the FAS are satisfied with the results of their work.

Daniel Fesyuk, Deputy Head of the Ministry, summed up the two-year legislative process in the defense sector at a joint meeting of the Duma Committee on the Legal Support of Development of the Organizations of the Defense Industry Committee and the Committee on the Defense Industry of the Association for Assistance to Defense Enterprises Association. The speaker had in mind all the innovations that appeared after the adoption of the Federal Law 2015 “On Amendments to the Federal Law“ On the State Defense Order ”and certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation” in 159. Following were adopted by the Government of the Russian Federation number 208, which provides new rules for regulating the price of the state defense order, and number 1193 on the conditions of state contracts. In this block of regulations, many complaints from industrialists have caused a mechanism for settlements between enterprises through a system of separate accounts and the regulation of the activities of regulatory bodies. But Daniil Fesiuk says: “The introduction of separate accounts forced enterprises to work out advances in order to overcome control by banks and the state customer.”

The dominant ideology of the main departments responsible for lawmaking in the DIC is anti-corruption. As a result, the fight against this evil often takes on the character of campaigning and often restrains the development of the industry more than corruption itself. Some enterprises had to open up to five thousand accounts, and in order to keep track of them - to hire a huge staff. The introduction of a control system has significantly slowed the movement of funds - the average balance of accounts today amounts to hundreds of billions of rubles. Industrialists once again lost. Financiers won. Authorized banks have begun implementing pilot projects for lending to defense-industry organizations at the expense of funds placed on special accounts.

Maybe immediately shot?

Penal company OPKThe fact that legislative initiatives have an ambiguous effect, Fesyuk had to admit. According to him, all the leaders of the defense industry today form a kind of penalty company. For the failure to comply with the terms of contracts in 2016, the FAS issued over a thousand fines to officials of enterprises in the industry, and for 9 months 2017 was over a thousand and a half, even though the MIC registry includes about two thousand enterprises. “For the disruption of the performance of the state defense order, it would be necessary to respond to some officials of state customers, but the conditions of state contracts are drawn up in such a way that“ the supplier undertakes to fulfill his own risk ”and further on. The only thing missing is the word “fear,” Daniel Fesyuk tried to joke at a meeting in Rosoboronexport. However, the “defense industry” is not up to jokes, especially after President Vladimir Putin, as a priority, made a proposal to strengthen criminal liability for the inadequate performance of the state defense order.

But we have legislation that it is almost impossible to do business and not violate. Existing norms in the administration of the defense industry complex often provoke the participants of the state defense order to commit unlawful acts. In this case, no one tries to understand the offender. It’s one thing when the product is delivered that the price is overstated so that the parties to the transaction spend money to build a villa on the Mediterranean coast, and it’s quite another when the overestimated price is the only way to somehow improve the state of the company's finances and save it from bankruptcy. In the existing regulatory framework, an unanswered question remains: how to get out to enterprises of the second and third levels of cooperation, if the money allocated for the state defense order accumulates on the settlement accounts of the “heads” and does not go into cooperative chains? The "smaller brothers" are forced to take loans at predatory interest. The lack of advance payment of state contracts and the lack of working capital lead to the failure to fulfill government orders on time, which entails the imposition of penalties and bankruptcy.

Capitalism against bank transfer

In Soviet times, everything would be solved simply: the suppliers of cooperation would be included in the composition of the finisher and the problem is settled. By the way, corruption and socialist methods is overcome easily. It is enough to introduce a cashless ruble, as it was in the USSR, and there is none. But as the Deputy Chairman of the Committee on Defense and Security of the Federation Council, Alexei Kondratyev, said at the meeting of the radio-electronic industry section: “We are a capitalist country, the main means of production are in private hands. We are trying to combine the state task with private ownership and profit. ” It turns out that in the first place - the protection of the interests of owners, and only then - the security of the country.

At the beginning of December last year, the Russian government approved a regulation on price regulation for products supplied under a state defense order prepared by the FAS. According to the head of the Department of Methodology in the field of the state defense order of the Federal Antimonopoly Service Pavel Suvorov, voiced at a meeting of the radio-electronic industry section in the Federation Council, the new model sounds like quite promising - motivational. But the devil is known to be in the details.

The base price for the performance of the state defense order is calculated using the cost method and then is indexed for five years according to the standards of the Ministry of Economic Development, the sixth year is a moratorium on its growth.

“If the company could save, then everything remains at its disposal. And this is the main incentive to optimize production processes and, in fact, achieve cost savings, ”explained Suvorov, the main principle of the motivational pricing system. This innovation is strongly encouraged by defense enterprises. Previously, the idea was that in the current regulatory framework, when prices for military products are considered mainly cost-based, the contractor has no incentive to reduce the cost of production.

Time fat cats

Raises issues and legislation in the field of cooperation. According to Pavel Suvorov, a defense-industrial enterprise, when purchasing market products, should strive to select suppliers in order to ensure the maximum level of quality with an optimal ratio to the price. Where it leads?

“The disruption of the supply of one of the co-operatives forces the head contractor to be responsible to the state customer,” the deputy head of the Department of Economics and Pricing of the KLA, Dmitry Kuprianov, is perplexed. - One of the key arguments cited by our opponents is that head performers must carefully select contractors. Unfortunately, the reality today is that we have 70 – 80 percent of counterparties - the only suppliers registered in CD, and we, alas, cannot choose anything. ”

In addition, Kupriyanov said that for those 40 days for which the head supplier must issue its price offer, he has to rely on some old figures that appeared in previous contracts. With this raw “total”, the general contractor goes to the customer, and thus the price is fixed. And then come the calculations of suppliers, where everything is already significantly more expensive. Accordingly, the head performer elementary falls on the increase in cost and loss of profit.

“Today, the loss of profit of the lead executor from the growth of prices on cooperation is 70 – 80 percent for PJSC UAC. And unfortunately, this risk is not eliminated even in the realities of the new document, ”says Dmitry Kupriyanov.

In short, at the exit of the FAS - the rule-making semi-finished product. Advances in the improvement of cooperation ties from the new legislation can not be expected.

In the package of motivational pricing there was no place for the offer of industrialists about the 10-percentage level of profit "golovnikov" with a long technological cycle. The head of the direction of the full life cycle of the ships of USC JSC, Yakov Berezhnoy, notes: “Well, cooperation is ours, although we do not understand how it should be managed. But we continue to assert that our risks are great. Give us a profit of at least 10 percent. In fact, today, due to cooperation, we have no profit at all. At the leading shipbuilding enterprises, if there is a profit of one or two percent, so be it healthy, and then we are going to the cons. " If the proposal of the representative of USC were accepted, it would be possible not only to secure oneself in the minefield of cooperation, but also to solve the problem of late financing. The financiers would have to run ahead of the locomotive in order to quickly transfer money to the SDO. To delay would not allow the control bodies. Now it turns out that the work on the fulfillment of the State Defense Order must be started in January, and the money to the accounts of enterprises comes at best in March and the finishers are forced to take commercial loans to purchase materials and components, in order to pay the predatory interest to fat financial cats.

There remains an open question about the composition of costs, which is now regulated by order No. 200. The procedure is developed by the Ministry of Industry and Trade, consistent with all industry bodies, Roskosmos and Rosatom, with the main state customer, that is, with the Ministry of Defense, and the supervising body, the FAS Russia, reminds Pavel Suvorov. Many experts believe: the main disadvantage of this order is that it affects only the scope of production. There is no place for the performance of R & D, OCD, etc., which should be included in the cost part. In addition, Svetlana Boshno, a member of the Radio Electronics Industry Council for the Legislative Support of the Defense Industrial Complex and Military-Technical Cooperation, believes that the order number 200 is so great that it is impossible to overpower it, and ambiguities contribute to an increase in the number of violators. “The document has become unreadable. There are so many repetitions that, in a good way, it can be reduced tenfold without detriment to the meaning. ”

Peter Vernik, member of the Council for the Legislative Support of the Military-Industrial Complex and Military-Technical Cooperation under the Federation Council, sees the cause of all misfortunes in that the discussion of the new, “quasi-two-hundredth order” takes place not in industry, but in a narrow circle: is unacceptable. These people do not have to perform. The law will allow the Ministry of Finance to save money. But as a result, the industry for which we cheer will not be able to fulfill state defense orders. ”
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  1. Per se.
    Per se. 18 January 2018 06: 07
    12
    “We are a capitalist country, the main means of production are in private hands. We are trying to combine the state task with private ownership and profit. ” It turns out that in the first place - the protection of the interests of owners, and only then - the security of the country.
    Here, there is only one very important problem left behind the brackets - in Soviet times there was a powerful scientific and industrial base, and now this is far from being the case. If, in order to “optimize”, simply, due to bankruptcy, breaking production ties, many KBs, research institutes, pilot factories, stands, testing grounds and laboratories were destroyed, general training of specialists and the education itself fell, which is surprising ... Everything equipment of the army and navy is based on the Soviet foundation, Soviet developments and ideas, old retired people, designers and engineers, old masters who received an excellent education in the USSR and production experience. What will happen next, when they leave, when the “victims of the USE” remain, legions of financiers and lawyers, instead of technicians, electronics engineers, physicists and chemists, is another question. This is also a problem of capitalism we have chosen.
    1. vladimirZ
      vladimirZ 18 January 2018 06: 43
      +7
      It is impossible to maintain the military-industrial complex under the conditions of oligarchic capitalism on the scale of the Soviet Union, with methods indicating at what price this or that military product should be produced, with the overwhelming leadership of financial managers over the military-industrial complex production processes.
      Rights N.I. Ryzhkov process should be led by production workers with the participation of financial workers, but not vice versa.
      And even under the conditions of capitalism, she died so died, it is necessary to move away from the state leadership of the defense industry. Or restore a planned economy in the main and defense industries. There is no other.
      1. Per se.
        Per se. 18 January 2018 07: 13
        10
        Quote: vladimirZ
        And even in the conditions of capitalism, she died that way, she needed to leave the state leadership of the defense industry.
        Who will deal with the country's defense, isn’t that the prerogative of the state? No, guys are democrats, only here, - "restore the planned economy in the main and defense industries"There really is no other rational way. Besides, the nationalization of all branches of industry that are important for defense is also necessary. Most importantly (paraphrasing the classics), to live in capitalism and be free from its laws, made for the good of the host leader of the world capitalist system Therefore, if we talk about any independent development, about the revival of a multipolar world, we must also come out of someone else’s power pole, the rules of the game of others, not for the good of the colonies invented.
        1. Vladimir16
          Vladimir16 18 January 2018 16: 40
          +1
          While developed countries accelerated the transition to the sixth technological order ...

          At this time, our defeated barmaley in Syria ...
          Before the election of such statues there will be plenty.
          Going to the sixth technological mode ... wassat
          1. Mih1974
            Mih1974 19 January 2018 03: 51
            +2
            Yes, yes, I remembered everything “I wanted a war” before the First World War, and then “suddenly” it turned out that there were NEMA shells, and private traders bent such a price for them that the country even BURNED without a REVOLUTION. And I also remember that shortly before the war, the geeks in a sequential assembly decided - to sell strategic stocks of copper, tin, cotton, fabric, etc. at competitive prices negative They sold it out (capitalism - whether **), and then the War and bought it ALREADY more expensive !!
            So if war breaks out (for example, with Ukraine) and they really end up with all the people, we’ll go bankrupt in the production of ammunition and on fuel !! am negative And I don’t mention human losses.
  2. Golovan Jack
    Golovan Jack 18 January 2018 06: 24
    +8
    With this raw “total”, the general contractor goes to the customer, and thus the price is fixed. And then come the calculations of suppliers, where everything is already much more expensive. Accordingly, the head contractor elementarily falls on the increase in cost and loss of profit

    That is, because of the inability to assess the risks, the guys get money.
    What our defense industry has never been used to.
    You have to ... get used to it, or learn to make sane assessments. They are not the only ones ... miserable.
    Okay, cooperation is ours, although we don’t understand how it needs to be managed. But we continue to claim that we have big risks. Give us a profit of at least 10 percent. In fact, today, because of cooperation, we have no profit at all

    And since they don’t know how-claims to the state. "Give us" good
    We are a capitalist country, the main means of production are in private hands. We are trying to combine the state task with private ownership interest and profit

    Ah ah ah...
    But there are no other capitalist countries on Sve, og ...
    And everyone has the exact same problem, og ...
    IMHO is written to order, from the "managers" (never effective), who (out of habit, inherited from the Union yet) want to eat fish and go to the mafia.
    Can not be request
    1. CONTROL
      CONTROL 18 January 2018 09: 12
      +2
      Quote: Golovan Jack
      With this raw “total”, the general contractor goes to the customer, and thus the price is fixed. And then come the calculations of suppliers, where everything is already much more expensive. Accordingly, the head contractor elementarily falls on the increase in cost and loss of profit

      That is, because of the inability to assess the risks, the guys get money.
      What our defense industry has never been used to.
      You have to ... get used to it, or learn to make sane assessments. They are not the only ones ... miserable.

      “Bought” a yellow (“gold?”) Nickname - didn’t add any mind ?!
      When the defense industry does not become the "investor" of the defense industry, but the "state budget" (ie the state) - it dictates the acceptance price of the final product almost legally (!!!) and does not participate in its production anymore ... what is it " profit "or at least" self-sufficiency "can be expected in the conditions of a" free, spontaneous ... "practically anarchist capitalist market with its pricing for raw materials and components on the principle of" how the left foot wants "?
      ... Save us, Lord, from the illiterate "golovans" who imagined themselves to be economists!
      1. Golovan Jack
        Golovan Jack 18 January 2018 09: 56
        +6
        Quote: CONTROL
        When the "investor" of the defense industry complex becomes not the defense industry itself but the "state budget"

        Not an investor, but a customer. And not the budget, but MO. Two semantic errors in one sentence, however ...
        Quote: CONTROL
        almost legislatively (!!!) dictating the acceptance price of the final product

        Yes, nubynafig ...
        Quote: CONTROL
        ..Save us, Lord, from the illiterate ...

        ... CONTROLS,
        Quote: CONTROL
        imagining themselves to be economists!

        Verily save yes
    2. CONTROL
      CONTROL 18 January 2018 09: 28
      +4
      Quote: Golovan Jack
      Okay, cooperation is ours, although we don’t understand how it needs to be managed. But we continue to claim that we have big risks. Give us a profit of at least 10 percent. In fact, today, because of cooperation, we have no profit at all

      And since they don’t know how-claims to the state. "Give us"
      We are a capitalist country, the main means of production are in private hands. We are trying to combine the state task with private ownership interest and profit

      Ah ah ah...
      But there are no other capitalist countries on Sve, og ...

      ... is, we have both the Socialist Revolutionaries and the Mensheviks! ("other capitalist"). Come, show!
      (film "Lenin in October") ... however - none of the "other" rifles its will not give up! For no money!
      How much did the US "spend" on "freeze" and the F-35? Gryat, billions ... Failure? thrown to the wind?
      But no, they invested in the military-industrial complex: in science, technology и experience (which, as you know, is priceless!)!
      And at the same time, even in the "yellow" media, no one conducts a "rotten bazaar" about the market, pricing and cooperation; Understanding perfectly well - the sovereignty and military security of the country are at stake "for money" !!! although it’s just something quite nice there - with their military doctrine of all kinds of “leading” and “warning” strikes (read - unmotivated military aggression directed at the “dissenting”) and the political course of the “color revolutions” and the violent change of ruling regimes in those the same "dissenting" countries!
      So: the Russian defense industry is not a branch of the economy where it would be worthwhile to “take profits”!
      1. Golovan Jack
        Golovan Jack 18 January 2018 09: 53
        +4
        Quote: CONTROL
        The Russian defense industry is not a branch of the economy where it would be worthwhile to “take profits”!

        Profit is considered to be offered by ... managers of defense industry enterprises. Here and address them ...
        Thinner is needed, finer ... and more thorough negative
        1. CONTROL
          CONTROL 18 January 2018 09: 56
          +2
          Quote: Golovan Jack
          Thinner is needed, finer ... and more thorough

          Agreed!
          ... means: deputy wider, step smoother ... and - off!
  3. antivirus
    antivirus 18 January 2018 09: 00
    +2
    went far in comprehending their place in the world

    and 25 years ago it was
    and the only suppliers and \ CD with a star are from the Customer, not the capitalist
    villas- villas to build are still more profitable to build than an aircraft carrier
  4. andrej-shironov
    andrej-shironov 18 January 2018 09: 14
    +3
    So in the era of developed liberal capitalism, where the main principle of “Get rich!”, Nothing else can be expected.
  5. Herman 4223
    Herman 4223 18 January 2018 10: 06
    +3
    There is no real money in the budget, unfortunately there isn’t enough money for everyone, and this is the trouble. I think it is necessary first of all to increase the birth rate in the country by all means, by hook or by crook. Because people make the economy, there is a budget for taxes, and there are not enough people in our country for our territory and in comparison with our neighbors. The population will grow and the economy will grow, there will be more money in the budget, domestic industry will also grow, as more people are more consumers, and sell goods in their country always easier than abroad.
  6. groks
    groks 18 January 2018 10: 58
    +2
    There is a lasting impression that state defense order is a life buoy for bankers. One more.
  7. Lexus
    Lexus 18 January 2018 11: 21
    +5
    Lugging "upstairs", and will be judged Vasya-turner.
  8. NF68
    NF68 18 January 2018 21: 23
    0
    A more or less normal restoration of what the USSR had at its disposal would take quite a few years. In addition, now, at best, Russia will have about half of the resources that the USSR had by the end of the 80s.
  9. golikov
    golikov 20 January 2018 13: 37
    0
    The defense industry enterprises are joint-stock companies of various types that have been formed from various research institutes, design bureaus and the like, this is capitalism.
    To be happy for allowing them to establish the cost of products on their own is probably too much.
    Those. if you need to buy 10 stools and there is only 10 rubles. it is necessary to find and force to sell with such a condition. Otherwise they will sell at 100 r.
    And when it was necessary to restore the production of Tu-160, so much money swelled that PJSC UAC does not know what to do with the equipment now.