Military Review

Soviet rubber. 90 years of brilliant discovery

54
The import substitution program worked successfully in the Soviet Union almost ninety years ago. Thus, the Soviet Union became the first country in the world to establish the production of synthetic rubber. This was done, among other things, in order not to depend on rubber supplies from the capitalist countries. Ninety years ago, at the very beginning of 1928, the results of a unique competition for the synthesis of rubber were officially summed up in the Soviet Union.


As you know, rubber got its name from the Indian word "rubber", which in translation meant "tree tears". So the Indians of South America called Hevea sap - Hevea brasiliensis, or "rubber tree". This juice darkened and hardened in the air, the resin “rubber” evaporated from it, which was used to manufacture vessels, fabrics and children's toys, including primitive balls. In 1735, the French traveler Charles Kondamin, who visited the Amazon basin, brought samples of products from the juice of a strange tree to Europe, after which not only naturalists, but also industrialists became interested in them. Experiments began on the use of rubber in the production of waterproof raincoats and shoes. Initially, in the second half of the XIX century, Brazil was the main monopolist in the production of the hevea. Later, the British and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia, the Netherlands East Indies and British Malaya, took over the palm. It was there that a large number of rubber plantations appeared.

Soviet rubber. 90 years of brilliant discovery


Requirements for rubber in Russia, and then in the Soviet Union, are constantly growing. Already in the early twentieth century, Russian Empire factories produced from rubber at least 11-12 thousand tons of rubber per year. After the revolution, the Soviet state, which took the path of industrializing the country, required an even greater amount of rubber. Only to create one car required 160 kilograms of rubber, for the aircraft - 600 kilograms of rubber, and for the ship - 68 tons. Meanwhile, the rubber remained imported and the country had to give huge money to exporting countries for its purchase. For example, one ton of rubber by the middle of 1920-s cost the Soviet budget about 2,5 thousands of gold rubles.

It was a lot of money, but a large role in the desire of the young Soviet state to get rid of the need to export large quantities of rubber was also played by political considerations. The Soviet Union was not going to depend entirely on the import of rubber and rubber products from other states, with which, moreover, very unfriendly relations were observed. Moreover, the memory was the sad experience of Germany, which during the First World War was isolated from the supply of rubber from the colonies of the Entente countries and this had a very negative impact on its defense capability.



Therefore, even in the distant 1926 year, the Soviet government announced a competition for the best work on the synthesis of rubber. Even an “astronomical” award was appointed at that time — a hundred thousand rubles. One of those who decided to try themselves in the most interesting scientific development - the creation of synthetic rubber - was the famous Russian and Soviet chemist Sergey Lebedev. By that time, it was already an experienced 52-year-old scientist, who began his professional career in pre-revolutionary Russia and achieved considerable success in it.

Sergey Vasilyevich Lebedev was born in 1874 year in Lublin (now it is the territory of Poland). Like many Russian scientists, he came from a varied environment. His father, a teacher of Russian literature by profession, became a priest in 32 year. By the way, the father of another eminent chemist Alexey Evgrafovich Favorsky was a village priest. Sergey Lebedev graduated from the Warsaw Gymnasium of 1, while still studying, he finally decided on his professional future and decided to devote himself to chemistry.

In 1900, 26-year-old Lebedev graduated from the natural department of the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of St. Petersburg University, receiving a first degree diploma. He got a job at the laboratory of the soap factory, which belonged to the Zhukov brothers, at the same time, as a part-time job, he taught physics at secondary schools. But this young naturalist was clearly not enough. In 1902, Sergey Vasilyevich received an invitation to a much more interesting position for him as a laboratory assistant in the department of technical and analytical chemistry at Petersburg University.

The well-known Russian chemist Alexey Evgrafovich Favorsky, who headed the Department of Technology and Technical Chemistry at St. Petersburg University since 1896, became a real teacher for Sergei Lebedev. It was from him that Lebedev studied in his student years, and it was he who later gave Lebedev advice entirely to go into science and focus his attention on the study of the phenomena of polymerization of unsaturated organic compounds. In 1906, Lebedev trained for some time in Paris, at the Sorbonne, with another well-known chemist of Russian origin, Viktor Henri, and then, returning to Russia, he focused entirely on scientific research.

In 1913, Sergey Vasilyevich Lebedev defended his thesis and became a privat-associate professor at Petersburg University. He taught the course “The Modern State and Value of the Valency Study”. The development of national importance Lebedev began during the First World War, when the country experienced a great need for toluene. The chemist-chemist headed the chemical department of the Naftohaz plant, directly engaged in the production of toluene. After the October Revolution, like many other Russian scientists, Lebedev did not emigrate from the country. He accepted the new power and continued to work in the interests of his state. In 1925, Lebedev established an oil refining laboratory at Leningrad University. It was she who soon played a key role in the Soviet experiments on the creation of synthetic rubber. When in 1926, the Soviet government announced a competition for the development in the field of synthetic rubber, Sergei Lebedev's laboratory responded to this proposal.

It should be noted that the need of mankind in rubber continued to grow. It was used in various types of industry, so it was not surprising that in many countries of the world they tried to find an opportunity to synthesize rubber by chemical means. As early as the 19th century, chemists discovered that natural rubber is a compound of several chemicals, of which 90% is polyisoprene hydrocarbon. Such substances, as we know, belong to the group of polymers, which are high-molecular products, resulting from the combination of many identical molecules. The rubber, therefore, was the result of the combination of isoprene molecules. If favorable conditions existed, the molecules joined in long chains, i.e. underwent a polymerization process. Another 10% in the composition of rubber accounted for resinous substances of mineral and protein nature. It was these substances that gave rubber elasticity and strength.

Chemical scientists in the development of the synthesis of rubber had three tasks. Firstly, they had to learn how to synthesize isoprene, secondly, to polymerize it, and thirdly, to protect the rubber obtained as a result of the synthesis from decomposition. In 1860, Englishman Williams was able to get isoprene from rubber, and later 19 years, in 1879, Frenchman Bushard performed a reverse experiment - he obtained rubber from isoprene. In 1884, another Englishman, a chemist Tilden, isolated isoprene from turpentine. However, in spite of all the experiments listed above, it was not possible to adjust the production of synthetic rubber on an industrial scale. The complexity of technical processes, expensive raw materials - all this impeded the industrial production of synthetic rubber. Naturally, the impossibility of its production on an industrial scale played into the hands of the owners of the Hevea plantations and those countries that acted as exporters of rubber - Great Britain, the Netherlands, and Brazil.

Nevertheless, chemists did not leave any doubt as to whether isoprene is really needed for the manufacture of rubber or can be dispensed with using any other hydrocarbons. In 1901, the Russian scientist Kondakov as a result of another experiment found that dimethylbutadiene, if left for a year in a dark atmosphere, turns into a substance resembling rubber. During the First World War, Germany, which could not export rubber from the British and Dutch colonies, was forced to switch to rubber synthesis experiments using the Kondakov method, but the resulting products had very poor quality compared to natural rubber. Therefore, after the end of the First World War, the experiments on the creation of methyl rubber were discontinued and were no longer reproduced.

Taking up experiments on the synthesis of rubber, Sergey Lebedev and his assistants conducted them in very difficult conditions. There was not enough equipment or materials, so the Soviet chemists resorted to improvised means. So, in order to get ice for the experiment, Lebedev and his students went to the winter Neva. Sergey Vasilievich preferred not to experiment with isoprene, as his English and French predecessors, but chose divinyl. To receive divinyl, Lebedev first decided to extract it from oil, but then he stopped on alcohol. So it was found the cheapest and suitable initial raw materials. However, a suitable catalyst was needed that would allow the decomposition of ethyl alcohol into divinyl, hydrogen and water. Sergei Lebedev long thought about what can be used as a catalyst, but then he stopped on one of the natural clays. In 1927, he traveled to the south of the country, where he began studying clay samples in the North Caucasus and the Crimea. The most suitable version of the clay was discovered by scientists at Koktebel, which made it possible to significantly speed up the experiments. Already at the end of 1927, Sergei Vasilievich was able to conduct a long-awaited operation to obtain divinyl from alcohol. It was possible to say that the initial stage of the experiment on the synthesis of rubber was completed successfully. Next, Lebedev began the polymerization of divinyl. He spent it with metallic sodium, and at the final stage the obtained rubber was mixed with magnesia, kaolin, and soot to prevent decomposition.

At the end of December, 1927, Sergey Lebedev and his assistants, managed to complete the experiment. Two kilograms of the rubber obtained as a result of the experiment was sent to Moscow - to the jury of the competition of the Supreme Economic Council. 1 January 1928, the jury received material - two kilograms of synthetic sodium-butadiene rubber, as well as related technical documents. The experiment ended with the victory of Sergei Lebedev, for which the scientist received an award. The Soviet state began to provide technical and economic conditions for the organization of mass production of synthetic rubber. In 1930, the first pilot plant for the production of synthetic rubber based on the technology of Sergey Lebedev was built, and in the next 1931, the scientist was awarded the Order of Lenin for special achievements in solving the problem of obtaining synthetic rubber. Sergey Vasilyevich was elected to the Academy of Sciences and became one of the recognized authorities of Soviet chemical science.

For the Soviet state, Lebedev’s experiment was of decisive importance. Thus, it is difficult to overestimate its consequences for the victory of the Soviet Union in the Great Patriotic War. In 1930 in the USSR, several factories for the production of synthetic rubber were established, each of which produced at least 10 thousand tons of rubber per year. Factories operated in Efremov, Yaroslavl, Voronezh, Kazan and used food products as raw materials, first of all - potatoes. The problem of replacing imported rubber with high-quality synthetic rubber has been solved. Now, in order to provide one Soviet car with rubber, it was no longer necessary to buy rubber at great prices from the British or the Dutch - it was enough to put about 500 kg of potatoes at a rubber factory. Already in 1934, 11 thousand tons of synthetic rubber were produced in the USSR, 1935 thousand tons in 25, 1936 thousand tons of rubber in 40 year. Dependence on rubber imports has been overcome. Unfortunately, Sergey Vasilyevich Lebedev himself managed very briefly to observe the triumph of his brainchild. In 1934, he fell ill with typhus and died at the age of sixty. But the experiment on the creation of artificial rubber perpetuated his name for posterity.

During the Great Patriotic War, the Soviet rubber industry was able to meet the needs of the military-industrial complex, as for cars, armored vehicles, tanks, aircraft and ships needed more and more rubber. But even after the war, until 1991, the Soviet Union remained the world leader in the production of artificial rubber. Unfortunately, the collapse of the great state only radically changed the situation.
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  1. Blue cop
    Blue cop 11 January 2018 07: 28
    29
    An important achievement of the 1st Five-Year Plan!
    Honor and glory to S.V. Lebedev.
    Super!
    1. Artek
      Artek 11 January 2018 07: 58
      10
      It turns out that the Russians also came up with artificial rubber.
      1. Lycan
        Lycan 11 January 2018 14: 37
        +3
        And with all this:
        Sergey Lebedev and his assistants conducted them in very difficult conditions. There was not enough equipment or materials, so the Soviet chemists resorted to improvised means.

        ... somehow it’s very in Russian: to have a steady enthusiasm for current research, making masterpieces practically “on the knee” (sometimes, despite looking at barely holding pants).
      2. antivirus
        antivirus 13 January 2018 17: 41
        0
        rubber suit,
        continuous steel spill installation and
        case easily. cars (hid wheel arches under the body and increased body volumes)
    2. Olgovich
      Olgovich 11 January 2018 08: 58
      +5
      Quote: Blue Cop
      Honor and glory to S.V. Lebedev.

      Definitely, glory to the Russian scientist!
      She created this and other scientists who made up the glory of the country-Imperial Russia.
      1. MrK
        MrK 11 January 2018 10: 30
        +8
        Quote: Olgovich
        Created the same and other scientists who made up the glory of the country-Imperial Russia.


        Great scientists in imperial Russia were. But the attitude towards them from the authorities. Recall that Mendeleev, Stoletov, Lebedev, Timiryazev, Mechnikov and Sechenov (world-famous scientists, the pride of Russia !!!) were never elected to the Academy of Sciences (well, they were not Germans ...), and the inventor of radio communications Popov remained a modest teacher at the naval school.
        1. verner1967
          verner1967 11 January 2018 18: 38
          +4
          Quote: mrark
          were never elected to the Academy of Sciences

          so what, this scoop had to be in some sort of sect, sorry, union or association. Then the scientists did their favorite thing and received substantial fees without these conventions. Their merits were duly rewarded, for example, I.M. Sechenov:
          - Emeritus Professor of Moscow University (1896)
          - in 1878 he was already indicated as a real state councilor
          - Corresponding Member of the Biological Department (1869-1904),
          - Honorary Member (1904) of the Imperial Academy of Sciences
          - Knight of the orders of St. Stanislav I degree, St. Anna of the III degree, St. Equal to the Apostles Vladimir III degree.
          And it would be better not to be in the Academy than in the Gulag, like Vavilov NI, for example.
          But under the USSR they scored no one in the AN, no exhaust. Most of them feed on co-authorship and outright robbery of young employees of non-members of the Academy of Sciences.
          1. MrK
            MrK 12 January 2018 00: 13
            +7
            Quote: verner1967
            But under the USSR they scored no one in the AN, no exhaust.


            I agree with you. Indeed, such academicians in the USSR as Korolev, Aleksandrov, Glushko, Glushkov, etc., this is completely sucks. For this, there are three times more academicians in the current Russian Federation than in the USSR. And the main thing is to be from the family of an academician. Then you will surely become a minimum of dick. And this is not bullshit and does not suck.
            By the way. If you attach a fountain pen to the phallus, you get a Russian correspondent member in the field of medicine. with one publication in a western magazine. But the main thing is mom academician.
            1. verner1967
              verner1967 13 January 2018 23: 09
              +1
              Quote: mrark
              Indeed, such academicians in the USSR as Korolev, Aleksandrov, Glushko, Glushkov, etc., this is completely sucks.

              No need to distort, in the ANSSSR there were pillars, but there were pillars, moreover, there are more second ones.
          2. Alex
            Alex 8 February 2018 22: 44
            +1
            Quote: verner1967
            Mendeleev, Stoletov, Lebedev, Timiryazev, Mechnikov and Sechenov (world-famous scientists, the pride of Russia !!!) were never elected to the Academy of Sciences

            Quote: verner1967
            so what, this scoop had to be in some sort of sect, sorry, union or association. Then the scientists did their favorite thing and received substantial fees without these conventions.

            I wonder what kind of fees Mechnikov received from the union of Russian livestock owners (it seems that this organization was called then)? Probably so many that he was forced to leave for Paris for a beggarly salary at the Pasteur Institute. And even when he became its director after the death of Pasteur, he also did not chic.

            Mendeleev wasn’t even accepted into his Academy (this is despite the fact that he was a member of 19 of foreign academies), they didn’t even put forward a Nobel Prize (they examined the issue three times and never took decisions, the person died ...) . Yes, he conducted research on the orders of industrialists, but it was only occasionally and this did not bring him special capital.

            I even want to talk about Popov: at first they didn’t let him work, then he was blamed for the backlog of work (almost sabotage). And the same. who first got in the way. How is it in our opinion ...

            I mean, do not idealize the empire. In Europe, it was not uncommon when a successful scientist (and sometimes not so) could establish his own business and receive a solid income for it, but in Russia it was rare. Such that I, for example, cannot say this about chemists.
        2. Dedall
          Dedall 13 January 2018 20: 46
          +1
          well, the last one to drink had less. To drink in the Russian sense of the word.
      2. albert
        albert 11 January 2018 21: 27
        +4
        Quote: Olgovich
        Created the same and other scientists who made up the glory of the country-Imperial Russia

        Lies, you are our monarchist. These people were born and lived in Tsarist Russia. but they were able to CREATE only in the USSR. Tsiolkovsky, Michurin and many others could not even interest the stupid tsarist government with their work.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 12 January 2018 07: 32
          +1
          Quote: albert
          Lies, you are our monarchist. These people were born and lived in Tsarist Russia. but they were able to CREATE only in the USSR

          Vernadsky, Ioffe, Khlopin, Mysovsky and others - the parents of the atomic project took place as scientists в of Russia-, Kurchatov and others. Their students studied at the IMPERIAL Universities and the IMPERIAL teachers were not Soviet., Propagandist You are our illiterate ..
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. jjj
            jjj 13 January 2018 14: 33
            +1
            I remember from the school bench - styrene butadiene rubber
  2. EvilLion
    EvilLion 11 January 2018 08: 23
    +6
    "Total" 500 kg of potatoes per 1 car. 10 million vehicles 5 million tons of potatoes. Eat what?

    In addition, the dependence on natural rubber is not completely overcome, even here, literally on rubber bags that KAMAZs carefully transport, a certain amount of natural is used from the chemical plant to the tire factory, since it has fundamentally different gas permeability indicators.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 11 January 2018 08: 56
      10
      Quote: EvilLion
      "Total" 500 kg of potatoes per 1 car. 10 million vehicles 5 million tons of potatoes. Eat what?

      Well, let's say that the author has gone too far with alcohol, you can get not only potatoes. There are many varieties of raw materials:
      This is just the production of edible alcohol.
      And still rubber nodules were grown: "RUBBER-BEARING PLANTS form and accumulate rubber (see) in the course of their life activity. About 1500 species of K. p. they contain rubber and are suitable for exploitation upon exit. The most important K. p. ); from the family euphorbia. " http://agrolib.ru/rastenievodstvo/item/f20/s00/e00
      000819 / index.shtml
      1. EvilLion
        EvilLion 11 January 2018 09: 19
        +6
        If rubbery plants were readily available, no one would steal hevea seeds to grow them in Indonesia. For the most part, these "rubber noses" from the category of "drown with straw."

        However, there is one problem with natural rubber of any origin, it will not be completely identical chemically even from neighboring trees, even if you crack.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 11 January 2018 14: 59
          +2
          Quote: EvilLion
          If rubbery plants were readily available, no one would steal hevea seeds to grow them in Indonesia. For the most part, these "rubber noses" from the category of "drown with straw."


          Absolutely right! The lifetime of GEWA is approximately 200 years. At 5, she begins to give rubber, and at 25 --- stops, after which it is cut down on plantations. Apparently at the beginning of the XNUMXth century they did not know about it, because Percy Fawcett did not write about this (he lived at the same time, at the beginning of the last century). Therefore, contain BARRACA, i.e. a rubber plantation in South America was then very unprofitable. Moreover, the danger from the Indians, then very belligerent! Percy Fawcett wrote about this in his diaries and letters from travels in South America.
          Percy Fawcett (1867 -------- ~ 1925) --- British topographer and traveler. He made his first expedition to South America in 1906 to map the borders of Brazil and Bolivia. After that there were 6 more expeditions. From the latter, he did not return with his eldest son. About the causes of death --- only assumptions.
          1. Monarchist
            Monarchist 11 January 2018 16: 25
            +1
            Dima, thanks for the additional information. , I have repeatedly noted that sometimes capitals will tell more than in the article
            1. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 12 January 2018 09: 18
              0
              Glory, hello! I love chemistry, I love the achievements of the USSR, I am interested in Indians !!!
      2. MrK
        MrK 11 January 2018 10: 59
        +9
        Quote: Amurets
        The most important K. r. are the following: from sem. compound flowers - Soviet rubber-bearing beetles: kok-sagyz, crimea-sagyz, tau-sagyz (see), and also guaula (see); from this euphorbiaceae. "


        I totally agree. In those same years, Stalin turned to scientists, researchers and Komsomol members with a request to find plants in the USSR that could replace rubber.
        And in the second half of the 1920's, one of the expeditions, looking for the "Soviet Hevea" in the remote corners of the Tien Shan (a mountain range on the border of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan), found out that local people like to chew some dry roots for fun, from which in the mouth remains a lump of elastic mass resembling rubber. When the roots fell into the hands of the expedition, doubts disappeared, they had real rubber!
        The locals called this plant kok-sagyz (green chewing gum). When scientists asked local residents to show where the mysterious rubber grows, their surprise knew no bounds: they were presented ... dandelions! True, then it turned out that this is a special plant, still unknown to science. But with dandelion, it really is in the closest relationship.
        Wild kok-sagyz grows only in mountain Kazakhstan. But the plant of cool and humid mountain valleys took root well on the lands of Ukraine, in the Moscow Region, in the Leningrad Region. Agronomists have developed special techniques for cultivating coc-sagyz for seeds and for the production of rubber. It was possible to grow 100, 120 and even 130 centners of Kok-Sagyz roots per hectare. This was a good result - up to 100 kilograms of pure rubber per hectare. Kok-sagyz together with synthetic rubber became the main raw material of the Soviet rubber industry.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 11 January 2018 13: 28
          +3
          Quote: mrark
          Wild kok-sagyz grows only in mountain Kazakhstan. But the plant of cool and humid mountain valleys took root well on the lands of Ukraine, in the Moscow Region, in the Leningrad Region. Agronomists have developed special techniques for cultivating coc-sagyz for seeds and for the production of rubber.

          Pomnitsa, the "evil genius of Soviet genetics" - Trofim Denisovich Lysenko played the leading role in the cultivation of the kok-sagyz. It was he who solved the main problem of coc-sagyz - how to avoid plant degeneration with the loss of rubber-bearing properties when grown outside the natural distribution area.
        2. hohol95
          hohol95 11 January 2018 14: 15
          +1
          However, there was one more side of the coin - cultivation of Kok-Sagyz was still too expensive. The roots are small. To dig them out of the earth, labor is needed. It propagated in the same way as a dandelion - white balls with parachute seeds lay on the ground itself, no machine could pick them up. So, it was also necessary to collect the seeds manually - this was most often done by peasant children. The "rubber" plantations needed constant weeding, otherwise they were quickly "occupied" by a non-rubber-related relative - an ordinary dandelion. Again the extra costs. In a word, over time, in Kok-Sagyz, they began to gradually become disappointed.
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 11 January 2018 15: 28
            +4
            That's right: kok-sagyz is an extremely specific solution to the problem of natural rubber. Only for situations where imported rubber is either not available or too expensive.
        3. Monarchist
          Monarchist 11 January 2018 16: 27
          0
          And who knows: what is the situation now?
      3. Alex
        Alex 8 February 2018 23: 36
        +1
        Quote: Amurets
        Well, let's say that the author has gone too far with alcohol, you can get not only potatoes. There are many varieties of raw materials

        It is now, and 20-30 years alcohol was obtained only enzymatically from starch. The cheapest raw material for obtaining it from us at that time was potato, so it was used. Although you are right: this path was not cheap. Therefore, they were looking for an alternative even after its implementation. Now everything is simple, petrochemistry works wonders.
    2. andj61
      andj61 11 January 2018 09: 29
      +7
      Quote: EvilLion
      "Total" 500 kg of potatoes per 1 car. 10 million vehicles 5 million tons of potatoes. Eat what?

      500 kg of potatoes is the most “simple” raw material. During the Second World War, they mainly used woodworking waste - made from sawdust, wood chips, etc. hydrolysis alcohol.
      Quote: EvilLion
      In addition, the full dependence on natural rubber is not overcome

      Using natural rubber makes it easier to achieve decent winter tire performance. Artificial components for similar purposes are somewhat more expensive. Well, and, as you have already noted, gas permeability is improved, although this characteristic is not so important - reducing tire pressure is much more dependent on the quality of the manufacture of rims and operating conditions.
      Now there is no critical dependence on natural rubber, as it was at the beginning of the 20th century, which means that you can use it. hi
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 11 January 2018 10: 35
        +3
        Quote: andj61
        Well, and, as you have already noted, gas permeability is improved, although this characteristic is not so important - reducing tire pressure is much more dependent on the quality of the manufacture of rims

        Then it did not limit, and now too. Most of the tires are car-truck cargo. But the gas tightness of the cameras is really important.
        Quote: EvilLion
        If rubbery plants were readily available, no one would steal hevea seeds to grow them in Indonesia. For the most part, these "rubber noses" from the category of "drown with straw."
        However, there is one problem with natural rubber of any origin, it will not be completely identical chemically even from neighboring trees, even if you crack.

        After the United States imposed an embargo on the supply of strategic goods and technologies in connection with the Soviet-Finnish War in 1939, it was necessary to use such "rubber carriers." Moreover, during WWII, most Japanese plantations of hevea in Southeast Asia were captured by the Japanese, and rubber production in Brazil had to be restored. "Oddly enough, Brazil was again able to experience the joy of" rubber fever. "During the Second World War, the Japanese captured most of territories where hevea plantations grew. The United States and Great Britain had no choice but to buy raw materials from Brazil. " https://pikabu.ru/story/kauchukovaya_likhoradka_2
        852914
        1. EvilLion
          EvilLion 11 January 2018 12: 07
          +1
          It recalls how Khrushchev “increased” the production of meat in a couple of years, by buying it up by the population in shops and returning it. It seems to be from the village, and the old fool was unaware that the calf could not be raised faster than it was physically possible.

          You can’t grow WWII and hevea over the years, so maybe everyone has broken into Brazil, but only because they started reintroducing hevea there some time before WWII.
          1. Amurets
            Amurets 11 January 2018 13: 29
            +2
            Quote: EvilLion
            You can’t grow WWII and hevea over the years, so maybe everyone has broken into Brazil, but only because they started reintroducing hevea there some time before WWII.

            I agree with you, because during the WWII in Brazil rubber was collected from wild trees, the plantations were hit by a fungus. In terms of what they started to breed, Henry Ford suffered the greatest collapse in Brazil in the 1930s on his plantation in Fordland. Brazil.
            http://neobychno.com/18909/fordlandiya-zateryanny
            j-gorod-v-brazilskix-dzhunglyax /
            http://www.newchemistry.ru/printletter.php?n_id=4
            127 This is a link to Michelin
    3. Servisinzhener
      Servisinzhener 11 January 2018 09: 32
      +6
      I very much doubt that even potatoes were used to produce even such important material as synthetic rubber. Rather, the sources of alcohol were different, from more waste materials. For example, at the Krasnodar Rectinal plant, molasses, which was obtained from the processing of sugar beets, were used as raw materials for the production of alcohol. Also, alcohol can be obtained by hydrolysis of cellulose or by hydration of ethylene.
      1. EvilLion
        EvilLion 11 January 2018 12: 09
        +4
        But this is literally straw.
        I think that I will not be mistaken if I assume that in the Second World War there was already rubber production from oil.
        1. Servisinzhener
          Servisinzhener 11 January 2018 12: 53
          +4
          Either corn crumb laughing Such hydrolysis alcohol was even used to produce vodka, but due to the large number of by-products of the reaction, the product was not very good. Our lecturer in organic chemistry spoke very badly about her. In the same factory in Soviet times, furfural was made from the husks of seeds from the neighboring MZhK. But by the time I went through internship there, only alcohol production remained. And the plant itself was more reminiscent of Pavlov’s house with equipment from the Mad Max movie, or Kin-dza-dza laughing
          1. antivirus
            antivirus 13 January 2018 17: 52
            +2
            if vodka were not driven from sawdust, then what would we have from four bottles .. "
        2. Alex
          Alex 8 February 2018 23: 42
          +2
          Both the hydrolysis of cellulose and the hydration of ethylene are already the property of the post-war period. Experiments to obtain alcohol were carried out, the reactions were known, but there was no basis for industrial production. The hydrolysis of cellulose requires much more stringent conditions than for starch (a barrel does not dissolve in water, while starch hydrolyzes, albeit slowly, even in cold water). So it was a tough necessity.
  3. Fotoceva62
    Fotoceva62 11 January 2018 08: 45
    +2
    Yes ... This, you are not a nanochubais and the invisible hand of the market. How could these quilted jackets without Liza’s business patriotism actually do something?
    1. Servisinzhener
      Servisinzhener 11 January 2018 09: 23
      +5
      What are you talking about? And what kind of photograph? Why is she?
  4. gafarovsafar
    gafarovsafar 11 January 2018 09: 25
    +5
    USSR sounds proudly
    1. Des10
      Des10 11 January 2018 12: 39
      +4
      Like the Roman Empire ... there are none.
  5. EvilLion
    EvilLion 11 January 2018 12: 19
    +2
    But in general:

    "The first patent for a process for producing butadiene synthetic rubber using sodium as a polymerization catalyst was granted in England in 1910. The first small-scale production of synthetic rubber using a technology similar to that described in the English patent took place in Germany during World War I. Production of butadiene in Russia began in 1915 using technology developed by II Ostromyslensky, who later emigrated to the United States. In the USSR, work on the production of synthetic rubber was continued by BV Buizov SV Lebedev, who developed Soviet industrial technology for producing butadiene in 1928, commercial production of synthetic rubber began in the USA in 1919 (Thiokol), and by 1940 more than 10 of its brands were produced in the world, the main producers were USA, Germany and the USSR [1]. In the USSR, the production of synthetic rubber was started at the SK-1 plant in 1932 by the method of S. V. Lebedev (production of butadiene from ethanol followed by anionic polymerization of liquid butadiene in the presence of sodium) [2]. The tensile strength of Soviet synthetic rubber was about 2 000 psi (for natural rubber this figure is 4 500 psi, for Neoprene, which was launched by Du Pont (USA) in 1931 in 4 000 psi). In 1941, in the framework of deliveries under the Lend-Lease program, the USSR received a more advanced technology for producing synthetic rubber [1].

    In Germany, sodium butadiene rubber has found quite widespread use under the name "Buna" "


    https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B0%D1%83%
    D1%87%D1%83%D0%BA%D0%B8
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 11 January 2018 13: 34
      +2
      Quote: EvilLion
      But in general:

      There is nothing to add to you a lot of pluses. +++++++++++++++++++++
  6. bnm.99
    bnm.99 11 January 2018 12: 19
    0
    S. V. Lebedev is very similar to V. I. Lenin
  7. hohol95
    hohol95 11 January 2018 14: 09
    +4
    The young Land of Soviets was in dire need of substitutes for natural rubber. Importing it from abroad was very expensive, but hevea did not grow on the territory of the USSR. In the event of war, Soviet industry and the army risked being left without rubber. In 1931, Stalin in his speech "On the tasks of business executives" declared: “In our country, there is everything except rubber. But in a year or two, we will have our own rubber. ”
    Hopes were pinned on scientists - in 1927, the Soviet chemist Lebedev developed a technology for the production of artificial rubber from alcohol. In 1931, the only synthetic rubber factory in the world at that time was launched in Leningrad. In 1937, more than 70 percent of rubber in the USSR was made from domestic synthetic latex. However, synthetic rubber (officially called - SK) was inferior to natural in all respects, so its creation did not completely solve the problem. We needed a domestic substitute for hevea. And he was found.
    In the second half of the 1920s, one of the expeditions, looking for a “Soviet Hevea” in the remote corners of the Tien Shan (a mountain range on the border of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan), found out that the locals like to chew some dry roots for entertainment, from which a lump of elastic mass resembling rubber remains in the mouth. When the roots fell into the hands of the expedition, doubts disappeared, they had real rubber! Locals called this plant Kok-Sagyz (green chewing gum). When scientists asked local residents to show where the mysterious rubber grows, their surprise knew no bounds: presented to them ... dandelions!
    True, then it turned out that this is a special plant, still unknown to science.
    But with dandelion, it really is in the closest relationship.

    Wild kok-sagyz grows only in mountain Kazakhstan. But the plant of cool and humid mountain valleys took root well on the lands of Ukraine, in the Moscow Region, in the Leningrad Region. Agronomists have developed special techniques for cultivating coc-sagyz for seeds and for the production of rubber. It was possible to grow 100, 120 and even 130 quintals of Kok-Sagyz roots per hectare. This was a good result - up to 100 kilograms of pure rubber per hectare. Kok-sagyz has become the main natural raw material of the Soviet rubber industry.
    Famous Soviet biologists, genetics and agronomists, even famous for their struggle against pseudoscientific genetics, Academician Lysenko, were engaged in the selection and breeding of the Kok-Sagyz. It was he who solved the problem of the rapid degeneration of Kok-Sagyz - in the European part of the USSR, the Tien Shan dandelion did not grow very well and quickly lost its rubbery properties. Lysenko proposed to plant kok-sagyz not by seeds, but by cutting the cuttings.
    Forcibly introduced, the unprofitable kok-sagyz after Stalin's death was quickly forgotten. Moreover, Soviet scientists managed to develop new types of synthetic rubber, superior in quality to coc-sagyz.
    1. EvilLion
      EvilLion 11 January 2018 15: 46
      +1
      The same hevea gives 1-2 tons of latex per ha. Of course, such a straw does not cause joy. For the cultivation, go, more oil will go than if you immediately make rubber out of it.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 11 January 2018 15: 56
        +1
        Hevea is not in our climate and is prone to fungal diseases - there were outbreaks that destroyed plantations! On bezrybe - ... boil
  8. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 11 January 2018 14: 36
    18
    If, together with a wheel, in ancient times, a tire was invented ...
    Wow how would history go good laughing
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 11 January 2018 15: 36
      +3
      Yes, and a spring suspension or spring ... wassat
    2. EvilLion
      EvilLion 11 January 2018 15: 47
      +3
      And ICE immediately.
  9. midshipman
    midshipman 11 January 2018 16: 07
    +2
    Dear Ilya, it’s wonderful to become a Russian scientist who worked all his life only for the good of Russia. Bright memory to him. Only you missed the article about Lysenko, who wanted rubber from dandelions and interfered with the development of science and industry in the USSR. I have the honor.
  10. Monarchist
    Monarchist 11 January 2018 16: 33
    +3
    Quote: gafarovsafar
    USSR sounds proudly

    So it was
  11. Zloy
    Zloy 11 January 2018 18: 09
    +4
    Yes, Lebedev was a brilliant scientist. His textbook is still relevant. It is a pity that now many industries are closing due to a shortage of raw materials (alcohol is now economically impractical as a raw material). And so SKD export product for a dollar can be sold.
  12. A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 11 January 2018 18: 18
    +3
    I will not belittle the merits of Lebedev. In those days, it was a very serious technological breakthrough. However, Lebedev's synthetic rubber had a significant drawback - it was weak to break. The tensile strength of Soviet synthetic rubber was about 2 000 psi, and for natural rubber this figure is 4 500 psi. By then, the Americans were already releasing their synthetic rubber - neoprene with strength - 4 000 psi. Please note, the article ends the story of Soviet synthetic rubber in the prewar years. The fact is that in the framework of deliveries under the Lend-Lease program, the USSR received from the Americans a more perfect
    technology for synthetic rubber, which until the 1991 year, the Soviet Union produced this useful product.
    1. iva12936
      iva12936 12 January 2018 11: 41
      +1
      The collapse of the Great State exacerbated all that is possible.
  13. Zloy
    Zloy 12 January 2018 11: 43
    +5
    God's chosen colleagues, as always, distort, exaggerating the role of the United States in history. Neoprene is DuPon chloroprene rubber. It is not an analogue of natural rubber, although it does have a tensile strength higher than SKD rubber. Chloroprene rubbers are special-purpose rubbers, their share in the rubber production volume is small. The production cost and price are higher than that of SKD. And none of the chloroprene rubbers do tires. So in the conditions of war tires as they did from SKD and did so. Moreover, in neoprene mines, the operating temperature is 20 ° C, which for Russia is somehow not very. Well, if you want tires to crack in the winter, you can make them out of chloroprene. Isoprene rubber, an analogue of natural, appeared only in 1960, the process was developed by Shell. To date, the production technology of polyisoprene rubber on neodymium catalysts is domestic and the Russian polyisoprene rubber production capacity is in 1st place in the world.