Military Review

Rose is white. Rose Scarlet ... (part of 2)

161
"For curls tar grip
Your severed head

While she is warm, with her hand
In the dust with your blood I will write:
"Now changeable as the wind, Warwick
It can no longer change "".
William Shakespeare. Henry VI


Battle of Cotton

On March 29, 1461, the main battle of the first stage of the Rose War took place - the Battle of Toolon - the largest in terms of the number of participants. According to various sources, from each side thousands of people fought from 30 to 50. Neither side was in a hurry to start the battle, the time was painfully stretching until noon. The first archers of York opened fire. Bad weather Yorkistas was only on hand. Heavy snowfall and gusty, piercing wind beat in the face of the archers of Lancaster. Snow sculpted in the eyes, visibility was very bad, so the archers could not see the target and their arrows flew past, while the arrows of the enemy hit the target accurately. And yet, despite the loss, Lancasters were able to press the enemy troops on the left flank.


Battle of Toolon. Archers in the snow. Fig. Graham Turner.

The reinforcement given by the Duke of Norfolk, a supporter of York, finally decided the outcome of the battle. His squad defeated the right flank of the Lancasters, after which the army began to flee. The blood-stunned warriors did not take prisoners of war, they caught up with the warriors fleeing from the battlefield and mercilessly killed them. Historians claim that the entire field was littered with corpses, the final loss figure is still unknown (according to one data, this is 12 thousand people from York and 20 thousand from Lancaster, according to others - 8 and 20 thousand, respectively). The battle ended in victory for Edward.

Rose is white. Rose Scarlet ... (part of 2)

Battle of Toolon. The pursuit of running. Fig. Graham Turner.

Queen Margaret again escaped captivity and went to Scotland. He was followed by the hapless king Henry, who was called “the king without a kingdom” behind his eyes. Their position seemed hopeless. Somerset and Percy decided to surrender. One hope was for Scotland and France - the sworn enemies of England, but His Majesty King Louis XI of France was not in a hurry with active actions. He limited himself to Margarita’s support only in words. Some time later, in the north of England, supporters of Lancaster dragged the frontier Scots to their side and tried to raise a rebellion. They were joined by Somerset and Percy, who set off to join up with the army of Heinrich.


Those who know English can be advised to read about the Battle of Toolon, this book of Osprey Publishers. Posted by Christopher Gravette, artist Graham Turner.


And so, on April 25, 1464, in a fierce battle at Hedgeley-Mure, Lord Montague outright defeated the five thousandth army of the Lancasters, commanded by Sir Ralph Percy. For Percy, this fight was the last. Less than a month later, on May 15 of the same year, Lord Montague near the city of Exgem caught up the second part of the enemy troops and forced them to go down to the river. Sommerset troops were in a very difficult position and could not provide adequate resistance. Montague's army, rapidly rolling down a hill, instantly destroyed the center of its enemy’s troops and, splitting it into two parts, dispersed the troops stationed on the flanks. Heinrich was able to avoid captivity, and he wandered around Balkhashir for some time, in July 1465 was captured in Yorkshire and imprisoned in the Tower. England was in the hands of the Yorks, only in some parts of the country remained discontent, but this did not solve anything at all.


Knights of the era of the War of the Roses wear armor. Please note that the left knight's cuirass consists of two parts each, connected by a belt, both in front and behind. At the knight's right, the chainmail complements all the most vulnerable parts of plate armor. Artist Gerald Embleton.

The second phase of the war 1469 – 1475.

The small peaceful respite received by the country really turned out to be short. Earl Warwick was going to marry King Edward and daughter of Louis XI, and the matter was already “on the ointment” when it suddenly turned out that Edward had secretly married Elizabeth Woodville, who came from a seedy noble family. In addition to frank misalliance, this marriage alliance was made in addition to Warwick. The count was furious. In addition, Edward, as he could, interfered with the marriage of his daughter and his brother Clarence. The king continued to strengthen ties with the Burgundian court and betrayed his sister Margaret for the Duke of Burgundy Charles the Bold. All this, as well as the growing number of Elizabeth’s relatives at court, their ambitions, as well as the king’s reluctance to reckon with the “Creator of the Kings”, plus the obvious desire to limit his power and influence in various ways — all this led to enmity.


Standards: Edward IV (1,2) and Henry VI (3,4).

In 1469, a revolt broke out in Yorkshire, which Warwick and his brothers supported with all their might. The rebels were on their way to London, and on July 29 of the year, the battle of Adzkhot broke out. The battle ended with the defeat of the royal troops, Earl Rivers, a supporter of the king, was killed. Edward was captured. There was an interesting situation: in the hands of the winner were the two kings of England - Henry VI, sitting in the Tower, and Edward, located in the castle of Middelheim! Thus, the “King Maker” could become the ruler of England, but he preferred the position of minister and first adviser to the king. Edward was returned to power, once again justifying the nickname of the newly minted minister, however, he immediately forced him and his brother Clarence to flee to France. In France, the fugitives, with the direct participation of King Louis, began negotiations with one of their sworn enemies, Her Majesty Queen Margaret. They were united by hatred of Edward, and therefore very soon an agreement was reached on joint action to return to the throne of Henry VI.


1419 Knight Sword. Weight 1644 (Metropolitan Museum, New York)

13 September 1470, Sir Warwick and Sir Clarence landed in Devon and rushed to London via Plymouth. Edward, who did not have enough troops, offered absolutely no resistance and hurriedly fled to the Netherlands to his son-in-law Karl. The rebels on October 6 solemnly entered London, Henry VI was released from the Tower and again proclaimed king.


Drawings by Henry Shaw (1800 - 1873), depicting famous people of the period of the War of the Roses.

Edward did not want to put up with the loss of the throne, and with the support of Charles the Bold, who tried his best to prevent the joint military actions of England and France against Burgundy, landed on the coast of England with a team of 1,500 German and Flemish mercenaries. Disgruntled noblemen approached the army with their troops and, as the "combined squad" moved inland, it constantly grew with new and new supporters. The army, led by the Duke Clarence, whose task was the immediate and complete destruction of the enemy, suddenly turned to his side. Edward's army safely increased by another 12000 man. After such a frank treachery on the part of Clarence, which also gave a significant superiority in the number of troops, Warwick and Oxford, stationed with their troops near Coventry and waiting for Edward, considered it reasonable not to start any hostilities. And besides, do not obstruct Edward's army on its way to London. The city fell ingloriously, and King Heinrich was once again taken prisoner, this time not for long - in a few weeks he died (according to another version - killed) in the Tower.


Death of Richard Neville, 16 of Earl Warwick at the Battle of Barnet. "The Chronicle of England" Edmund Evans 1485 (1864).

Edward and his brother Richard met a number of Warwick troops in 9000 people near Barnet, where 14 April 1471 and the battle took place. Opponents moved in the early morning, when the fog was still spreading on the ground and did not have time to dissipate under the rays of the morning sun. The battle began with the attack of the right flanks of the opposing sides. The left flank of Edward's army was soon crushed by a detachment of Count Oxford. But then there was a bobble: because of the dense fog, the "fighters" of Oxford in the fever attacked the center of their troops. The attacked soldiers decided that the count had betrayed them, this rumor instantly spread throughout the army, which led to the disruption of the morale of the troops. At that moment, the cavalry reserve of Edward struck the utterly bewildered soldiers. The army of Oxford faltered, and panic and general flight soon began. Warwick, fighting on foot, died. There is another version, according to which, already being seriously wounded, he was simply finished off by marauders after the end of the battle. Pal and his brother Montague. The defeat of the army was complete, but the number of the dead was not great - 1000 is a man on the part of Warwick and less than 500 - by Edward.


John Neville, 1 of the Marquis of Montague at the Battle of Barnet. Fig. Graham Turner.

The next day, Queen Margaret's army landed in England, where she received news of the defeat of Warwick. Margarita went to join the army of her supporter, Count Pembroke, but was overtaken by Edward's army, and was forced to take the fight near Tewksbury, which took place on 4 in May 1471. Supporters of Lancaster (and there were about 3 000 people) took a very good position. Using the natural terrain, or rather, the stream bed, the right flank secured an obstacle for Edward's army. It currently has approximately 4 500 people.


Duke Gloucester Richard (the future King Richard III) during the Battle of Barnet. Fig. Graham Turner.

At the beginning of the battle, Sommerset climbed over the stream and went on the attack against Richard Gloucester's squad, intending to crush him with a blow to the flank and smash before help arrived. The task of Wenlock was to attack the center of King Edward. While Sommerset was trying to bypass Richard and go to the rear, he was attacked by a squad of two hundred cavalry soldiers who were left in an ambush just in case of the development of such a variant of events. Wenlock hesitated to attack, and in the end was forced to take up defense ...

To be continued ...
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  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 12 January 2018 07: 14 New
    +3
    Interesting. Like fog - so in its own way. However, in the context of civil wars, this is not so surprising.
    1. seti
      seti 12 January 2018 10: 11 New
      +5
      Many thanks to the author for the material - we are waiting for the continuation.
      1. kalibr
        12 January 2018 16: 54 New
        +1
        It will, of course, be the third part. But then my materials about the military affairs of that time, armor and other things, as an addition will come.
        1. seti
          seti 12 January 2018 19: 46 New
          +1
          Thank you very much for your work. He himself just the other day read Peter Hammond’s latest book, Richard 3 and The Battle of Bosward. I recommend.
          Just these events are very interested.
    2. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 13 January 2018 23: 03 New
      +2
      On their own they beat often without fog. There was no military uniform. Heaped around the banners.
      If the banner fell, the reference point disappeared, who is their own.
  2. XII Legion
    XII Legion 12 January 2018 07: 32 New
    20
    Feudal wars - a terrible and sad sight ...
    In less than 100 years ...
    1. Cat
      Cat 12 January 2018 11: 54 New
      +2
      Quote: XII legion
      Feudal wars - a terrible and sad sight ...
      In less than 100 years ...

      Would you like to discuss events in the Moscow Princely House?
      Or wash the bones of Britons on the next internal turmoil in the Foggy Albion?
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 12 January 2018 16: 27 New
        +5
        And at this time in the far-distant galaxy was built caravel "Nina" ...
        Vanity
      2. Warrior-80
        Warrior-80 12 January 2018 22: 18 New
        0
        In general, I wonder where ambition leads people, it seems that everyone under God goes, that is, everyone is equal in front of him, and some want to be more equal, but it’s not for nothing that there is a reason for the eye of a needle
  3. Albatroz
    Albatroz 12 January 2018 07: 50 New
    17
    But actually - what a difference what a rose!
    All One in England Nothing Changes
    Hood!
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 12 January 2018 07: 50 New
    +4
    They cut each other with great pleasure ... They took a break for 100 years, and then again ...
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 13 January 2018 23: 07 New
      +1
      But they still had no revolutions after Cromwell. The guys thought about it and stopped cutting each other ... good
      1. Luga
        Luga 14 January 2018 12: 34 New
        0
        Quote: voyaka uh
        But they still had no revolutions after Cromwell.

        There were. Check it out.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 14 January 2018 13: 53 New
          0
          Do you mean the landing of the Dutch by William of Orange?
          But this is the same chain of the 17th century. After the Bill of Rights,
          since the end of the 17th century there have been no revolutions. How was parliamentary
          constitutional monarchy, and still is.
          1. Luga
            Luga 15 January 2018 08: 52 New
            0
            Quote: voyaka uh
            Do you mean the landing of the Dutch by William of Orange?

            Yes, Glorious Revolution. The change of dynasty, a significant restriction of royal rights, the proclamation of civil liberties. It seems to me that to consider this revolution exactly a revolution is correct.
  5. Dimmih
    Dimmih 12 January 2018 08: 23 New
    +4
    Great article. With trepidation, I am waiting for one of the followers of Fomenko. I wonder how these events can be refracted through the muddy lens of the New Chronology.
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 12 January 2018 09: 06 New
      +5
      How, all this J. Martin made up what would write PLIO
      1. Dimmih
        Dimmih 12 January 2018 09: 30 New
        10
        Wangyu, that in fact two branches of the Russoar were cut down on the interpretation of an obscure moment in the Veles book. And all the European Jews incited them (according to the instructions of the protocols of the Zionic muds), the most ancient population of Europe, because the inscription on the sword in the photo in Hebrew. Although it may be runes or even Sanskrit, I am illiterate. I think soon in the comments the followers will explain to me the whole intrigue.
        1. Maki Avellevich
          Maki Avellevich 12 January 2018 21: 42 New
          +3
          Quote: Dimmih
          And all the European Jews incited them (according to the instructions of the protocols of the Zionic muds), the most ancient population of Europe, because the inscription on the sword in the photo in Hebrew. Although maybe it's runes or even Sanskrit, illiterate az am


          Arabic, sir.
          more precisely, the Mamluks from Alexandria distinguished themselves

          The inscription reads in translation: "Donation of al-Mālik al Mu'ayyad Abū al-Nasr Shaykh to the armory in the frontier city of Alexandria [in the] year 822 [AD 1419]."

          ps Hebrew is very different from Arabic, visually.


          1. Mikado
            Mikado 12 January 2018 21: 53 New
            +2
            ps Hebrew is very different from Arabic, visually.

            At one time, the teacher told me that curses are often the same. Truth? drinks
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 13 January 2018 00: 00 New
              +2
              Of course, because "our people are a quarter there," and many Arabs taught our "ichtamnet" wink
            2. Maki Avellevich
              Maki Avellevich 13 January 2018 09: 05 New
              +2
              Quote: Mikado
              At one time, the teacher told me that curses are often the same. Truth?


              Arab has a solid place in the reserve of curses in Hebrew. I think this is a compliment
          2. Dimmih
            Dimmih 13 January 2018 11: 33 New
            +1
            This sarcasm was, as I immediately warn, and that I will write further. The new chrono-lodgers must be supported, otherwise the agents of imperialism will peck. So, the working version is this: the Arabic inscription, the Arabs-Semites, the Jews-Semites, therefore, could not do without the Masons and the Vatican.
            1. Maki Avellevich
              Maki Avellevich 13 January 2018 21: 05 New
              0
              Quote: Dimmih
              This sarcasm was, as I immediately warn, and that I will write further.


              Gd sees, I will bite anyone for sarcasm, but sometimes you need to give him a rest.
        2. Warrior-80
          Warrior-80 12 January 2018 22: 34 New
          0
          In vain you ernichat, I think you are doing the same harm as any Fominkov’s who are called upon to turn a scientific search into a farce. I also don’t believe that Russian history is limited for 1000 years as you get me
          1. Curious
            Curious 13 January 2018 00: 31 New
            +3
            What do you have with spelling? Or are you a principled opponent of a competent presentation of thoughts?
          2. Dimmih
            Dimmih 14 January 2018 18: 13 New
            +1
            Judging by the comment, you need to tighten the spelling. And with spelling at the same time, to learn a story. And everything will work out.
    2. Curious
      Curious 12 January 2018 09: 22 New
      +5
      Why do you have to wait. You open "G.V. Nosovsky, A.T. Fomenko. Slavic conquest of the world" and find out that in the XIV century the Slavs conquered Europe, Asia and North Africa.
      “Slavic” people embittered almost all peoples in the Universe with their weapons; ruined Persis: ruled Asia and Africa, fought the Egyptians and the great Alexander; conquered Greece, Macedonia, the Illyrian land; took possession of Moravia, the Slask land, Czech, Polish and went to the shores of the Baltic Sea to Italy, where he fought against the Romans for a long time, sometimes he was defeated, sometimes fighting in battle, he took revenge on the Romans with great death, sometimes fighting in battle, he was equal. Rome ruined their provinces, giving tributaries of the Caesars of Rome, which the whole world didn’t repair. He owned Franzius, England, and established power in Ispania; he conquered the best provinces in Europe: and from this always glorious people in times past, the strongest peoples ; that is, SLAVES, VANDALS, BURGONTIONS (probably - BURGUNDS IN FRANCE), GOTHS, SHARP, RUSSIA OR RACES, VISGOTS, Gepids, Getyalans (Goths-Alans), Uverla, or Gr uly; Avars, Skyrrs, Gyrrs, Melanden, Bashtarn, Peuki, DAKI, SWEDISH, NORMAN, TENNAS OR FINNES, Ukrainians, or UNKRANS (Ukrainians? Or Hungarians-Ugrians?), Markomanes, Quads, FRACKS (or Truckes, if you read fitu as “ t ”), Allery was near VENEDOV, or the Genets, who populated the coast of the Baltic Sea, and were divided into many principles; that is, Pomeranians (now this is the German MEASUREMENT), Uvilsy, ​​Rugyany, Uvarnava, Obotry, Polaba, Uvagirs, Lingons, Tolentsi, Redat or Riaduti, Tsyrtsipanny, Kizin: Eruly, or Eluhelds, Levbuzy, Uvilin, Storodany, and BRI probably referring to BRITAIN-ENGLAND or BRETON in France), with many others who were all the Slavic people themselves. "
      So the described events occur on the territory of the ancient Slavic mega-empire. Obviously this is one of the armed confrontations provoked by the masters of the West with the aim of the collapse of this very mega-empire, which they achieved in the XNUMXth century by organizing the Great Troubles.
      1. Cat
        Cat 12 January 2018 11: 58 New
        +6
        It all started - first, second, third! Slippers in the corner! Koshak goes to fight with the "Fominkovshchina" !!!
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 12 January 2018 13: 21 New
          +5
          It all started - first, second, third! Slippers in the corner! Koshak goes to fight with the "Fominkovshchina" !!!

          it looks like this:

          let me work today, Vladislav, as a “Doctor”. drinks
      2. Dimmih
        Dimmih 12 January 2018 12: 55 New
        +4
        No, I won’t open it, let the adepts-streams of words excuse me without a thought drove me to sleep. It’s somehow more fun to communicate with adherents, they are partly living people (and partly trolls and bots). Fomenko with Nosovsky .... Do they even exist in wildlife or is it a collective of authors?))))
      3. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 13 January 2018 23: 30 New
        +3
        One cannot deny Fomenko the scale of fantasies: "shoot - shoot like that."
        In his "new chronology" one cannot invent something, but leave something "in the old way."
        Here Bolshevism: "destroy to the ground, and then ... we we will build our new world .."
        To be honest, I was most struck by their "excavated ancient St. Isaac's Cathedral
        in St. Petersburg. "To come up with this, you need to have extraordinary courage, agree?
        1. Dimmih
          Dimmih 14 January 2018 18: 16 New
          +2
          Or he considers the readership to be something like um ..... the primordial mass, which can feed everything that is pleasing, "People unleash everything!" Underestimation and contempt in one bottle.
    3. Weyland
      Weyland 12 January 2018 21: 46 New
      +1
      Quote: Dimmih
      I wonder how these events can be refracted through the muddy lens of the New Chronology.

      Well, probably as an identification of someone from Lancaster with Dmitry Shemyaka, and York with Vasily the Dark! laughing
  6. Kot_Kuzya
    Kot_Kuzya 12 January 2018 09: 05 New
    +1
    29 March snowfall in southern England? !!! Yes, in Southern England, even in January-February, snow is a rarity!
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 12 January 2018 09: 09 New
      +9
      Small ice age, no heard.
      1. Dimmih
        Dimmih 12 January 2018 09: 23 New
        +4
        I warned you, slowly it begins, the snow cannot fall in March in England ... Dear Colleague, I have never heard of snow in Egypt, even in our time, that I will tell you far from England, even though South. Again, what year? Neither the greenhouse effect for you, nor anything else. England, though South, is not necessarily near the equator. Here they are, waking up, chrono-inhabitants ....
        1. Kot_Kuzya
          Kot_Kuzya 12 January 2018 09: 26 New
          +2
          For your information, at the end of March, leaves on trees and flowers are already blooming in London. Even in Moscow in other warm years, trees begin to turn green.
          1. kalibr
            12 January 2018 10: 18 New
            +7
            In the 1984 year of 19 on May, on pioneer day, I was in Moscow. Tulips bloomed and ... it snowed! And heaped a lot. It was especially funny to watch the Hindu barefoot and in slippers running along Red Square ...
            1. Romulus
              Romulus 12 January 2018 10: 25 New
              +5
              Quote: kalibr
              it is snowing! And heaped a lot. It was especially funny to look at the Hindus barefoot and in slippers

              What a stiff you laughing
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 12 January 2018 16: 43 New
              +5
              04.07.92/20/30., After +50 in Murmansk 17 cm of snow fell. The day before, two American frigates arrived at the port for a memorial event (XNUMX years since the defeat of PQ -XNUMX). Came from the Mediterranean Sea. For the first time in my life, I saw blacks from the cold of black!
              1. Kot_Kuzya
                Kot_Kuzya 12 January 2018 18: 27 New
                0
                Murmansk and London were compared. What stupid comparisons result! Maybe the Karamzin people will still give me Tiksi and Odessa as an example that they have the same summer! What? !!! In Tiksi +30 also happens!
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 12 January 2018 19: 01 New
                  +5
                  No one has yet convicted me of stupidity on this site. Even ghouls. Congratulations on your championship!
                  1. avva2012
                    avva2012 13 January 2018 03: 36 New
                    +4
                    Anton, the insult was worse, he called you a Karamzin wassat laughing Treat him with understanding, the child first uttered such a difficult word. Especially from newspeak.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 13 January 2018 07: 45 New
                      +4
                      This is the same as you are called a Leninist. Are you offended?
                      1. avva2012
                        avva2012 15 January 2018 04: 51 New
                        0
                        No, Anton, but I think I'm not worthy to be called that.
                2. Weyland
                  Weyland 12 January 2018 21: 51 New
                  +1
                  Quote: Kot_Kuzya
                  Maybe the Karamzin people will still give me Tiksi and Odessa as an example that they have the same summer!

                  Do not forget: the Sea of ​​Azov freezes in winter, but the Barents Sea does not! tongue Gulf Stream ...
          2. Cat
            Cat 12 January 2018 12: 06 New
            +4
            Quote: Kot_Kuzya
            For your information, at the end of March, leaves on trees and flowers are already blooming in London. Even in Moscow in other warm years, trees begin to turn green.

            Brother in the tail! Since when have a real Russian cat been troubled by the problems of British lousy mongrel?
            A little more and agree -Every British cat "one meter of heating" in Siberia!
            I have minus 20 degrees outside the window, so what? Although it is sometimes interesting to watch at -35 ° easily dressed tourists. But to be honest, except for pity, such gophers do not cause.
            1. Kot_Kuzya
              Kot_Kuzya 12 January 2018 12: 11 New
              +1
              It is warm in London, during the whole winter there only a few times the temperature drops below zero. And snowfall is an emergency for them, since the British do not put winter tires, therefore they cancel classes at schools, and at many enterprises they make weekends.
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 12 January 2018 17: 37 New
              +5
              "I will accept the gift of two cats of the" British "breed. I guarantee a place on the heating main.
              Sincerely. Kolya Desyatnichenko. New Urengoy."
      2. Kot_Kuzya
        Kot_Kuzya 12 January 2018 09: 36 New
        +1
        Have you heard of the Gulf Stream? Here's what the Wiki says about London's climate:
        Snow cover lasts on average 5 days a year, and the height of the snow cover is negligible (about 25 mm). Southwest winds prevail throughout the year. Because of its distance from the Atlantic, London is least affected by winds blowing from the ocean. Winds blowing from the Atlantic Ocean bring coolness in summer and warm in winter. The frequency and strength of the winds peaks from December to February. Storms occur on average 1-2 times a year.


        At the end of March, the average daily temperature is +8. The end of March in London corresponds to the end of April in Moscow:

        Did you see a blizzard in late April in Moscow? The March 29 blizzard in London is all the more incredible, because England is an island, and the Arctic air, when moving south towards England, inevitably warms up over the warm ocean.
        1. tlauicol
          tlauicol 12 January 2018 10: 00 New
          +5


          you are right - snow in England only happens in May, but never in March good
          here he came and shit in a good article with his average temperature in the hospital
          1. Kot_Kuzya
            Kot_Kuzya 12 January 2018 10: 28 New
            0
            Bad weather to the Yorkists was only at hand. Heavy snow and gusty, piercing wind hit Lancaster archers in the face. Snow sculpted in my eyes, visibility was very bad, so archers could not see targets and their arrows flew past
            This is not just a snowfall, but a snowstorm! What the hell is a blizzard in South England at the very end of March? !!!
        2. Curious
          Curious 12 January 2018 10: 11 New
          +9
          Instead of Wiki with a description of today's climate, you better read something worthy, for example, "Climate of the Earth: past, present, future." Learn about climate change and its impact on society.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 12 January 2018 19: 08 New
            +3
            I get the impression that this is the reference strain of the "historical virus." "Now in the meteorological format! Meet!"
        3. Warrior-80
          Warrior-80 12 January 2018 10: 14 New
          +5
          You were answered in the Middle Ages in the world and Europe in particular, there was a period of cooling, the Thames completely froze, look at the Dutch skating engravings and winter landscapes, you will not see this now in Europe
        4. kalibr
          12 January 2018 10: 16 New
          +8
          If so, we have GLOBAL WARMING. And at that time there was a cooling. It is known for sure that under Henry 8 on the Thames ice bulls were fried !!! At the stake and ice did not melt to the water!
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 12 January 2018 18: 35 New
            +4
            Vyacheslav Olegovich, do you have any idea how at least a pig is fried on an open fire?
            1. Curious
              Curious 12 January 2018 19: 11 New
              +3
              Swarm a hole 1.5 meters deep (this is for a pig weighing 55 kilograms. If more, you can increase it). The bottom of the pit must be filled with dry rounded stones of different sizes (rather large than small). Stones must be dry!
              We make a big fire in the pit. Fire in the pit must be maintained until the stones are white-hot.
              We extinguish the bonfire, remove large firebrands, and cover the stones with banana leaves, if any, or large sheets of foil, if bananas do not grow nearby.
              The piglet is prepared in advance - washed, dried, salted. On top of the piglet should also be covered with leaves or foil.
              So that the smell of bananas turns the piglet into a real Kalua dish, you can cover it with bananas in their peel.
              Then the pit is covered with a moistened heavy tarp so that the heat from the pit does not come out. Tarpaulin is covered with earth with a layer of about 15-20 centimeters.
              A pig is baked in a pit for about 12-16 hours (with a weight of a pig of 55 kilograms; the more weight, the longer it will take).
              1. Sling cutter
                Sling cutter 12 January 2018 19: 27 New
                +2
                Quote: Curious
                A pig is baked in a pit for about 12-16 hours (with a weight of a pig of 55 kilograms;

                Not a little pig belay
                Here is the pig

                and you some boar describe))))
                1. Curious
                  Curious 12 January 2018 19: 46 New
                  +3
                  Normal pig. The boar is 200 and more.
                2. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 12 January 2018 19: 47 New
                  +5
                  Such a normal Ukrainian pig. In Ukraine, any artiodactyl weighing less than a centner is a pig, more than two are a goby! laughing The fertile land - spit in the arable land, the grapes will grow!
              2. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 12 January 2018 19: 54 New
                +3
                Victor Nikolaevich! Firstly, the recipe was ignited. Secondly, this is not hot, but baking, and thirdly, even with such a non-energy-intensive process, 12-16 hours is clearly news for Vyacheslav Olegovich.
                1. Curious
                  Curious 12 January 2018 21: 48 New
                  +6
                  Well, here's the heat.
                  We take a bull-calf for 600 kilos. We hammer, remove the skin, gutting.
                  Inside, we put the calf’s carcass, also previously gutted, then put the gutted ram carcass in the calf’s carcass, put the turkey carcass in the ram’s carcass, put the gutted goose in the turkey’s carcass, put the duck’s carcass in the goose, and the chicken’s carcass. You can still put chicken eggs.
                  We start all this with plenty of seasonings that you like with meat and which are suitable for meat (cilantro, basil, tarragon, leek, mint, garlic, saffron, cinnamon and nuts, etc.)
                  We equip abundantly with red pepper.
                  You yourself understand that you can’t manage a barbecue here. We kindle a hefty bonfire in order to have enough coal and reserve ourselves with patience for several hours and rotate these few hours with the forces to rotate.
                  A decent part of the carcass will burn naturally, but what’s inside is worth it.
                  The recipe is verified.
                  1. Sling cutter
                    Sling cutter 13 January 2018 00: 32 New
                    +4
                    Quote: Curious
                    We take a bull-calf for 600 kilos. We hammer, remove the skin, gutting.

                    Colleague, you, besides abundant saliva, squeeze envy out of a tube of irreconcilability, we also have envy ... We don’t have such gobies; request
                    1. Curious
                      Curious 13 January 2018 01: 11 New
                      +4
                      Come on. Congress in the Buguruslan district of the Orenburg region.

                      Goby -18 months, 700 kg. And you say no.
            2. kalibr
              14 January 2018 12: 50 New
              +1
              I read the chronicles, it is described there that the bulls were fried ... why should they lie? It was their life, or rather its little things! I believe just the little things.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 14 January 2018 19: 35 New
                +1
                Vyacheslav Olegovich, I do not question your words about the depth of freezing of the Thames in those days. I say that preparing a carcass weighing half a ton, entirely on an open fire, is very problematic.
                1. Curious
                  Curious 14 January 2018 22: 34 New
                  +2
                  But probably. Nevertheless, stories about roasting carcasses in history are common. And given that the people were not spoiled with meat then (and it was obviously not aristocrats who roasted on the street), they could eat half-baked.
        5. Saling
          Saling 12 January 2018 11: 43 New
          +8
          As I understand it, meteorologists appeared here, judging the weather in medieval England from their current observations? I’m afraid to disappoint them, but where are they with their snout? Kids, not everything that is written on Wiki is true. laughing
          600 years ago, the climate on earth differed significantly from the current one.
          By the way ... no later than last 2017, at the end of April, a snowstorm in Moscow was the same on April 23, 2010. laughing And again, in 1461 the climate was completely different.
    2. seti
      seti 12 January 2018 10: 11 New
      +4
      Quote: Kot_Kuzya
      29 March snowfall in southern England? !!! Yes, in Southern England, even in January-February, snow is a rarity!

      Nevertheless, eyewitnesses of those events recalled the heavy snowfall and wind that day. The same is noted in the chronicles of those days. It was this anomaly that allowed the much smaller supporters of York to defeat the Lancastrians at the Battle of Tawton.
  7. Warrior-80
    Warrior-80 12 January 2018 09: 58 New
    +3
    It’s interesting to know the principle of building a battle, I think 10% of the troops had good armor, noblemen and every nobleman had their own so-called nukers (guards), it’s interesting how the battle strategy and troop control were built then
    1. kalibr
      12 January 2018 10: 12 New
      +6
      Be sure to write about it !!! Exactly how you ask.
  8. sivuch
    sivuch 12 January 2018 10: 40 New
    +3
    Something the numbers of the participants in the battle and losses at Tauton look terribly exaggerated. Tens of thousands on each side for a not-so-big and rich kingdom - are somehow too much. Even in the Centennial this was not observed
    1. Dimmih
      Dimmih 12 January 2018 11: 55 New
      0
      They always loved to trick, even in your story, to beat the darkness of an enemy with one vario with a donkey jaw more honorable than to beat an enemy with less skill or a smaller number.
    2. Kot_Kuzya
      Kot_Kuzya 12 January 2018 12: 02 New
      +2
      Of course they lied. Even in the armies of the New Age, for example, in the Thirty Years' War, kings and dukes could assemble armies of a maximum of 30-40 thousand people. I hope you will not take seriously Herodotus, broadcasting about the one and a half million army of Xerxes? Likewise, do not take for granted the writings of 18th-century historians on the Mongols with their 200th army. Each Mongol had three horses - on two he rode in turn to give his horse a rest, and on the third he carried his belongings, weapons and supplies. 1 million 800 thousand horses would die from a nest, especially since the Mongols hiked in the winter and walked along riverbeds.
      1. Curious
        Curious 12 January 2018 12: 19 New
        +6
        You, too, seem to be a historian and love to trick three times so. Two hundred thousand Mongols with three horses each had six hundred thousand horses. And you have three times more.
        1. Cat
          Cat 12 January 2018 16: 15 New
          +7
          I do not like to raise such questions, but I think that the strength of the Mongol Tatars during the invasion of Batu Khan within the borders of Vladimir-Suzdal Rus did not exceed 30 thousand wars. If we take it as an axiom, then that the Mongols were about three horses (with two clockwork and one pack) we get under 100 thousand goals.
          Now the question is in the studio? Do you think there was enough fodder on the territory of the principalities of Vladimir-Suzdal Rus?
          Given that the Mongol-Tatars were driving out (wide strip), gathering strength only in the event of opposition and siege of cities. I think that there were no problems with horses. And if you take what the nomads used horse meat themselves, this may explain the mobility of Batu Khan.
          You can go further and the falk story will lose its appeal.
          1. Luga
            Luga 12 January 2018 17: 21 New
            +6
            Quote: Kotischa
            I do not like to raise such questions, but I think that the strength of the Mongol Tatars during the invasion of Batu Khan within the borders of Vladimir-Suzdal Rus did not exceed 30 thousand wars.

            Seven khans took part in the western campaign; according to the customs of the Mongols, each commanded Tumen (ten thousand). Actually the invasion was carried out by four tumens under the general command of Batu, two tumens stood in the south, ensured order in the steppe, one was sent to the north, providing an invasion from the right flank. Every battle or siege, starting with the battle in Voronezh with the Ryazan princes, is a loss. It is assumed that near Kolomna one tyumen was generally defeated by the Russians (Khan Kulkan died). So your assumptions are very close to the truth.
            Lovers of killing Mongolian horses in the Russian winter should remember that in Russia itself there was a horse in every farm, and even not one, plus cows, sheep and other cattle. In each village, for the winter, as much hay, oats, etc., was stocked as was necessary to feed domestic cattle all winter.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 12 January 2018 18: 13 New
              +4
              I sometimes think about historical statistics. God be with them, with horses, and here is another draft cattle, where did he feed from? After all, siege weapons cannot be transported by horses. And you can’t take Ryazan equestrian. So, oxen, carts and "pehtur"?
              1. Luga
                Luga 12 January 2018 18: 54 New
                +5
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                After all, siege weapons cannot be transported by horses.

                They were collected on the spot. This is in the annals. The sieges of large cities lasted an average week. Just the time to collect the tools, break the wall and ... that's it. The siege of Torzhok and Kozelsk is the longest and most recent. There were already few Mongols, so they lingered.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 12 January 2018 19: 22 New
                  +5
                  Michael, but there has always been a division of labor! Required to make - specialists, disassemble, assemble - specialists, service in operating mode - specialists. You don’t think that he has condescended before that, a man who, from 3 years old with a bow, from 4 years old in the saddle, from 5i with a saber, and at 10 shed the first blood.
                  1. Luga
                    Luga 12 January 2018 20: 42 New
                    +7
                    Quote: 3x3zsave
                    You don’t think that he has condescended to this, a man who has been with onions since 3

                    Of course not. The engineers were "imported", most likely made in China, although they were probably imported from Khorezm. wink They built minarets there - do not grieve for your mother, why not trebuchets to build? wink The Maverannahr Engineering School was quoted, don’t you know? smile
                    Something today I have a cheerful mood, from the moment that the respected Curious tactfully pointed out errors smile He’s been laughing straight all day. smile
                    But seriously, the illiterate nomads had not only competent engineers, but also doctors, diplomats, and scouts. Without a twinge of conscience and any prejudice, they attracted to their service all who could be useful to them. Pragmatic imperial approach.
                2. Cat
                  Cat 12 January 2018 19: 45 New
                  +5
                  Dear Michael and Anton! In fact, all your statements as a whole supplement or confirm my knowledge. By the word "tumen" - "ten thousand" in the state in most cases had a shortage. Given the combat and sanitary "decline" of personnel. We get those unfortunate 30 wars.
                  Was Batu Khan enough strength to crush Russia? Apparently yes, given the tactics of the Mongols to lure princes with squads in the field. With the subsequent capture of cities with the right siege. Kozelsk and Torzhek did not send troops to Sit. So perhaps this explains the loss of Batu Khan.
                  The fact that the capture of Vladimir-Suzdal Rus was expensive for the invaders is proved by archaeological finds. Even more expensive the invasion cost Russia itself, according to various opinions of scientists from the annals, a third to half of the names of cities disappeared.
                  How many and whether there were foot Mongol wars there is no definite answer, but in addition to the monnols, other conquered peoples also participated in the hostilities. No one canceled the blood tribute.
                  1. Warrior-80
                    Warrior-80 12 January 2018 22: 44 New
                    +1
                    Please list these archaeological finds, it is interesting to know, I am interested in this topic and have never read about the excavation sites of the horde's battles with the Russian military, thanks in advance
                    1. Cat
                      Cat 13 January 2018 05: 56 New
                      +5
                      Old Ryazan hillfort, Vladimir.
                      Dear comrades already recalled Archaeological collections and encyclopedias. So in any city library they are. Go do not be lazy, sure you will not regret it.
                      Especially characteristic is a description of skeletal damage and assumptions about the causes of death.
                    2. kalibr
                      14 January 2018 12: 44 New
                      +1
                      There were a lot of articles about the Zolotarevskoe hillfort!
            2. Warrior-80
              Warrior-80 13 January 2018 20: 58 New
              +1
              Something you confuse, firstly not every family had a horse and if there was such a rokash they took it to the forest and thirdly you tried to fight on a plow horse, it's some kind of game
              1. Cat
                Cat 13 January 2018 23: 25 New
                +3
                Quote: Warrior-80
                Something you confuse, firstly not every family had a horse and if there was such a rokash they took it to the forest and thirdly you tried to fight on a plow horse, it's some kind of game

                Dear Igor! May you be right, every family did not have horses. But, the way of the family in the current period was still being formed, tribal relations were strong. Lived essentially courtyards. Several generations under one roof, and such a "yard" the horse had definitely. And not one. There were even more cattle, about piglets, sheep and chickens, I simply will not say anything. And now the question is how much hay is needed to feed a cow?
                For a year, two or three good stacks + wheat or rye at least half a ton. what
                I don’t even know how for a city dweller to explain this on fingers?
                Have you seen a timber truck semi-trailer with a fiscars? Imagine it with hay - the length of the semi-trailer is 9-10 meters, 2-3 meters high and 3 meters wide. So this is the annual supply of fodder per cow with litter. For wheat? About a day you need to give two buckets of steamed wheat with pulp or rye, you can oats. Then the cow will give milk.
                On horsebacks you need about one and a half times more.
                And this is all in order to feed one head!
                Now get on the internet the number of Vladimir-Suzdal Rus before the invasion of the taaro-Mongols? In order to feed 100000 horse-drawn hordes, a quarter of the fodder stock for a year was enough.
                On the cattle, but led away, hid, and hid themselves. What about hay? Previously, the timber carriers I described above the Urals were not there, so hay was transported in the sleigh in winter. I think not many of the owners returned back to the forest running away from the Tatars.
                Well, the last thing, why put a peasant horse under the saddle of the nomads? Easier to spit on it, the masses of the Horde were nomads and horsemeat did not disdain.
                Regards KOTISHCH!
                1. Warrior-80
                  Warrior-80 14 January 2018 15: 37 New
                  0
                  Thank you for the answer, but there are a lot of contradictions in it, you described how much fodder you need for one horse and colorfully said that you need a big trailer and a small cart, and then you almost grafted it to the number of Suzdal Russia, as if you were conducting a census, you gave an example, I will also give, to feed 100000 horses you need a mountain of hay in an efeliva tower every day, how do you explain it
                  1. Luga
                    Luga 15 January 2018 09: 13 New
                    0
                    Quote: Warrior-80
                    feed xnumx horses you need a hay mountain to the efeliva tower every day, how do you explain it

                    I would venture to answer your question.
                    Dear Kotische, it seems to me that I had in mind that the stock of fodder stocked by peasants from areas devastated by the Mongols would be enough to feed the invading army, including horses and horsemen, especially since the number of those and others was steadily decreasing after each skirmish or siege .
                    Grazing on pastures begins in April - May. Until May, domestic cattle feed in stocks with stored food. Horses were in every farm (more often - a few), otherwise it is simply not a farm - there is nothing to plow on. At the time of the invasion, each horse and cow head in every yard had food left for at least ninety days. If we consider that on average there is one horse and one cow in each yard, then from one yard during the day 180 of Mongolian horses or 60 of horsemen could feed. A village of five yards (not uncommon in Russia) provided for one day with forage for up to three hundred horsemen. The calculations are the most approximate and modest. In reality, I think, peasant stocks were much larger.
  9. Luga
    Luga 12 January 2018 12: 19 New
    +7
    Well, wait smile
    Just note the rich illustrative material in the article, thanks to Graham Turner. But personally, I was more interested in the drawing of Henry Schau, the one in which there are three figures with animals in their legs. Far from the right, as I understand it, Richard III, in any case, he is dressed in the colors of the royal coat of arms (red and blue, lily and lion), and he has a boar in his legs, whose figure was used as an emblem by Richard.
    But who are the other two?
    I venture to suggest that the far left is Richard Neville 16 Earl of Warwick, the "doer of kings." Firstly, he has a bear at his feet (the emblem of this particular character), a monarch’s figure in his hands, and if you go back to the first part of the article, where his coat of arms was disassembled, you can recognize the colors of the Boshanov clan on clothes - a golden belt in an scarlet field and colors Newburgh - the ermine rafters - are actually the symbols from the first quarter of the coat of arms of Warwick.
    It remains to resolve the issue with the third character. At his feet are animals unknown to me. The clothes are colorless. There was only the coat of arms on the shield. This emblem (three spindles and a green eagle) belongs to the Lords of Contact, the Earls of Salisbury and is an integral part of the second quarter of the emblem of Count Warwick. Probably the picture depicts Warwick's father, Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury.
    But the picture depicting the death of Warwick caused me doubts. On clothes, I see a white slanting Neville cross with a title and that's it. Only Father Warwick could have worn such a thing, and only then until his marriage and earning the title of Earl of Salisbury.
    The content of the article is again haphazard and messy. In general, I am free to navigate this topic and understand in most cases what it is about, but a person who is poorly familiar with the topic of the Rose War, it seems to me, will not understand much, will get confused. Considering that the article, apparently, is intended by the author specifically for the reader who is first acquainted with the topic, it turns out that it (the article) does not fulfill its task. Although, this, of course, is my personal opinion.
    Even in the place of the author, I would definitely note that, having married his daughter to George Clarence, brother of Edward IV of York, during his stay with Louis XI of France, he married his second daughter Anna to Edward Lancaster, son of Henry VI, thereby literally forcing his ally Clarence to return to his brother. Clarence’s return to his brother and his refusal from an alliance with Warwick eventually decided the fate of the latter. Three brothers of York - Edward, George and Richard with the joint efforts of Warwick still defeated.
    And one more remark. The article breaks off somehow unexpectedly, right in the middle of the battle. But it is with this battle that the next stage of the war is being pumped - the years of peace will follow (relative, of course) during the reign of Edward right up to the 1483 year, more than ten years. A couple of paragraphs should be added to this part of the article, and not be cut short.
    In general, the level of the second part of the article, it seems to me, is inferior to the first.
    The author needs to cheer up, pack up and end the cycle on a major note, especially since there are a lot of interesting things waiting for us - intrigues in the royal family, the battle for Warwick’s inheritance, the fate of George Clarence, who killed the Tower Princes, the genealogy of Heinrich Tudor, the chopped crown of the last Plantagenet ... In short, "intrigues, scandals, investigations," ominous secrets, vile betrayals ...
    Author, more energy, passion! The last part of the triptych can and should simply break the audience!
    1. Curious
      Curious 12 January 2018 12: 49 New
      10
      "But personally, I was more interested in the drawing of Henry Schau, the one in which there are three figures with animals in their legs."
      Michael, you conducted a brilliant investigation and determined exactly who is in the picture. Your persons coincide exactly with the signatures in the picture below, under each of them depicted.
      1. Luga
        Luga 12 January 2018 12: 56 New
        +7
        Quote: Curious
        Michael, you conducted a brilliant investigation and determined exactly who is in the picture. Your persons coincide exactly with the signatures in the picture below, under each of them depicted.

        laughing laughing laughing
        Yes, I’m the one ... I can only excuse the fact that for some reason these inscriptions on my screen are not that they are unreadable, but even completely invisible. Only after your message took a closer look and found something there.
        Yes, I made fun of the people.
        Nothing happens. laughing
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 12 January 2018 13: 24 New
          +9
          Yes, I made fun of the people.

          They didn’t make fun, but showed knowledge independent of the picture. My respect!hi
          1. Curious
            Curious 12 January 2018 13: 38 New
            +9
            Yes, I agree! My comment is extremely friendly and does not detract from the erudition of Michael.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 12 January 2018 13: 40 New
              +4
              I get it, of course. You stand each other. Sincerely! No, it's really nice to read such detailed things. hi good
            2. Luga
              Luga 12 January 2018 14: 58 New
              +4
              Quote: Mikado
              showed knowledge independent of the picture

              Quote: Curious
              does not detract from the erudition of Michael.

              Thank you, colleagues, you are right to me, too indulgent. smile
              You still need to be careful.
              Another drawing. The caption of the bear says it is Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, and not Richard Neville, the “king-man” at all. Such a character (Richard Bosch) really existed, but thirty years earlier, it was his daughter and “king-maker” who was married to him, and through her he received the title of Earl of Warwick, but he did not stop being Neville from this. The colors of the clothes in the figure in the picture do not indicate his affiliation with the Neville clan, which emblem Richard Bosch used I do not know, maybe the same bear. Thus, the fact that confirms my version of the identification of the figure in the figure remains only the image of the king in her hand. Well, and indirectly, the fact that Richard Beaucham died long before the start of the Rose War. In my opinion, this is not enough to dispute the correctness of the signature, arguing that the figure still depicts Neville. I have to admit that I'm not only inattentive to the inscriptions repeat , but also inclined to draw hasty conclusions, and this is already much sadder. My only excuse is that I was smart enough to express my conclusions in the form of assumptions. sad
              So the investigation is far from brilliant, unfortunately. recourse But there was a reason for discussion. smile
              1. Curious
                Curious 12 January 2018 15: 32 New
                +4
                You know, in all these genealogical intricacies of the English medieval aristocracy, the devil will break his leg. I'm certainly not an expert. However, on the drawing of the famous effigy of Richard Bosch, Earl of Warwick in the church of St. Mary in Warwick the bear is present in the muzzle!

                A drawing of the effigy of Richard Bocham. You can see the most beautiful example of Milanese armor, a tournament helmet of the toad type with a claynode in the form of a swan head emerging from the crown and the heraldic emblem of the count: a bear in a muzzle and a griffin. Because of this famous effigy, this type of armor is sometimes called Warwick.
                1. Curious
                  Curious 12 January 2018 15: 34 New
                  +6

                  And this is a general view of the tombstone of Richard Boscham.
          2. Paranoid50
            Paranoid50 12 January 2018 15: 08 New
            +4
            Quote: Mikado
            but showed knowledge independent of the picture. My respect!

            Connectity-wah, Nicorai-san! hi I subscribe. Moreover, we live in an era of speed, which often sacrifices accuracy. No, of course Osprey is an authoritative publishing house, but, damn it, no one is safe from inaccuracies and mistakes (the Internet taught us to do this). And Mikhail's comment just confirmed the signatures to the illustration. Yes, by the way, in the store that I remember recommending you, there is an extensive selection of these illustrated editions from Osprey. good
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 12 January 2018 15: 12 New
              +3
              And Mikhail's comment just confirmed the signatures to the illustration.

              of course! Alexander, I, by a sinful thing, sometimes read on Wikipedia before going to bed the rulers of England. That is, from Harold to, say, the Hundred Years War. There you go crazy, relatives to each other. In general, the topic is complex, and the fact that Mikhail knows her so masterfully - what to say, he found his own layer of history in which the dock. hi
              oh, for a long time Osprey did not buy ...
      2. Curious
        Curious 12 January 2018 13: 09 New
        +4
        "But the picture depicting the death of Warwick makes me doubt."
        He was painted by the famous British artist and antiquarian James Doyle. The full name is "Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, overtaken by York supporters while trying to escape during the Battle of Barnet." 1864
        Doyle is the author of the illustrated Chronicle of England from 55 BC to 1485, a man of authority in the matter.
        1. Curious
          Curious 12 January 2018 13: 36 New
          +4

          John Adam Houston. Image of the Shakespearean version of Earl Warwick's death at the Battle of Barnet in 1471. 1872
          1. Cat
            Cat 12 January 2018 15: 43 New
            +7
            That's why I love you and respect my friends, that all your comments make any article invaluable !!!
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 12 January 2018 16: 01 New
              +4
              we, too, are the heads of the Cat, we love and respect! drinks
              1. Curious
                Curious 12 January 2018 16: 10 New
                +5

                Our cats do not complain about life.
                1. Curious
                  Curious 12 January 2018 16: 12 New
                  +5

                  In general, cats are our friends.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 12 January 2018 17: 26 New
                    +5
                    My Pallas has the same sacrificial muzzle when something scoops up (which is daily!) Labradors, damn it!
                    1. Curious
                      Curious 12 January 2018 18: 32 New
                      +4
                      Manipulators they are unsurpassed.
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 12 January 2018 18: 47 New
                        +3
                        Doesn't roll with me. She rumbles only in my absence. And then, such eyes, forgive me Big Dog God !!! They say that by the age of two they sharply get smarter .... Have you happened?
              2. Cat
                Cat 12 January 2018 17: 09 New
                +4
                Thank you so much friends!
                We appreciated the dog in the bathroom!
                1. avva2012
                  avva2012 12 January 2018 17: 46 New
                  +4
                  Quote: Kotischa
                  Thank you so much friends!
                  We appreciated the dog in the bathroom!

                  Muslims believe that cats are the eyes of God on earth. And in heaven, a bad person or a good one will testify.
                2. Curious
                  Curious 12 January 2018 18: 35 New
                  +2
                  So you have a "peach" smoky? One to one my cat, only larger and slightly darker.
                  1. Cat
                    Cat 12 January 2018 19: 07 New
                    +3
                    The breed is called "Siberian chinchilla."
                    In fact - there is a lot of wool, a little mass. A six-year-old cat is mistaken for a six-month-old kitten. The flexible character is still not able to scratch, but with a fee !!!
                    1. Curious
                      Curious 12 January 2018 19: 17 New
                      +1
                      So we also have one and a half kilos with wool. I bought a vacuum cleaner and Thomas, to clean this wool. And the character is terrible. The classic "old maid".
                      1. Cat
                        Cat 12 January 2018 19: 59 New
                        +3
                        You will laugh!
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 13 January 2018 09: 02 New
                        +2
                        With the appearance of the dog in the house, I had to solve this problem more radically - I bought a semi-professional model of "Karcher".
        2. Luga
          Luga 12 January 2018 17: 33 New
          +1
          Quote: Curious
          Doyle is the author of the illustrated Chronicle of England from 55 BC to 1485, a man of authority in the matter.

          I don’t remember where, it was a long time ago, but I read for sure that the color of the liveries of Earl of Warwick's servants was brown with the green in color of his emblem - a chained bear with an uncircumcised trunk, which depicted on a green background. If so, then in battle he probably should have worn such colors himself.
          But it seems to me that the information about the color of the livery was in some book written with "more". I do not remember.
    2. kalibr
      12 January 2018 16: 45 New
      +4
      Luga I'm afraid it won’t work out. I already read it ...
      1. Luga
        Luga 12 January 2018 17: 35 New
        +3
        Quote: kalibr
        Luga I'm afraid it won’t work out. I already read it ...

        Send me i will fix smile
        1. kalibr
          12 January 2018 18: 57 New
          +4
          I can not! Copyright Rights!
          1. Luga
            Luga 12 January 2018 19: 40 New
            +4
            Quote: kalibr
            I can not! Copyright Rights!

            Then I will criticize. smile Cruel and sophisticated. bully
  10. avva2012
    avva2012 12 January 2018 17: 19 New
    +4
    I decided to take a closer look at the Knight's sword 1419 g .. presented in the article. And I found this beauty here !!!
    and then this
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 12 January 2018 17: 44 New
      +4
      Hello doctor colorfully! good
      1. avva2012
        avva2012 12 January 2018 17: 54 New
        +5
        Hello, Nikolay!
        Only their screams are heard ...
        White herons are invisible
        In the morning in the fresh snow.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 12 January 2018 18: 19 New
          +4
          White herons are invisible
          In the morning in the fresh snow
          If you do not beat the "snipe"
          1. avva2012
            avva2012 12 January 2018 18: 30 New
            +5
            Sprinkled red with snow?
            1. Sling cutter
              Sling cutter 12 January 2018 18: 52 New
              +6
              Quote: avva2012
              Sprinkled red with snow?

              this is another topic .... why did we forget there.? can the motherland?
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 12 January 2018 19: 29 New
              +4
              Yes, and you, I look, "in the mood"?
        2. Mikado
          Mikado 12 January 2018 20: 00 New
          +3
          Doctor, the picture is Hokusai, it seems?


          Good Doctor has come.
          Joy in the heart.
          I’m still going to pour sake. drinks
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 12 January 2018 20: 17 New
            +4
            How many sake do not take ...
            The doctor came to visit
            "Run" is all one - have to
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 12 January 2018 20: 38 New
              +5
              An hour and a half left before the sake merchant closed.
              Law!
              I don’t have enough time to drink to run there.
          2. avva2012
            avva2012 12 January 2018 20: 20 New
            +5
            Yeah, he is.
            The sound of a dull silence
            A shadow fell into the snow
            Only a watch at the post.
            soldier
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 12 January 2018 20: 36 New
              +4
              Sake spilled into the veins.
              Quiet evening.
              Let the doctors calmly pass soldier
              1. avva2012
                avva2012 13 January 2018 05: 01 New
                +5
                The shaman, however, you are Nikolai. All are alive, bye. And here are our reforms:
                1. kalibr
                  15 January 2018 15: 05 New
                  +1
                  Our work is creative. Her - no!
      2. Curious
        Curious 12 January 2018 18: 29 New
        +6

        In the village
        Totally lean cat
        He eats one barley porridge ...
        And also love!

        Matsuo Basho
        1. avva2012
          avva2012 12 January 2018 18: 44 New
          +5
          Cats in love
          Shut up. Looking into the bedroom
          Foggy moon.
          1. Sling cutter
            Sling cutter 12 January 2018 18: 49 New
            +4
            Quote: avva2012
            Foggy moon.

            Again the night came to heaven
            And the moon is hanging again.
            Lunar Hare in a sleepy city
            Goes for a walk.
            He sneaks down the boulevard
            On which the noise fell silent.
            Lunar hare to meet
            Wailing the Moon Wolf.

            Telling the nightly news
            On a deserted pavement
            will feast together
            Chocolate star.

            And then morning comes
            As happens in the morning.
            Moon wolf
            And the Lunar Hare
            Run away in the corners.

            Neat windshield wiper
            Will come out with a windy broom.
            From a star a shiny candy wrapper
            Deftly deflate from the pavement.
            1. Cat
              Cat 12 January 2018 19: 14 New
              +3

              I'm sitting in the snow and I'm looking at you
              I look at you and do not bother
              I don’t bother at all, I'm sitting in the snow
              I am sitting in the snow and I am looking at you .........
              1. avva2012
                avva2012 12 January 2018 19: 28 New
                +4
                Baby dancing on the table
                The whisper of the walls, the moon in the window
                Two speakers
                The sound is quiet ...
                Fall in the sweet wave
                My baby, come on ...
                Misty look
                Drinking nirvana ...
              2. Mikado
                Mikado 12 January 2018 20: 58 New
                +5
                Vladislav added an avatar! drinks Now - the real Cat! good
                Well, I have an association with the word "cat" like this:
                1. Cat
                  Cat 12 January 2018 21: 20 New
                  +3
                  Nikolay you are the best!
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado 12 January 2018 21: 38 New
                    +3
                    bow down drinks No, I always liked this cat of the Ministry of Internal Affairs system in the photo! fellow good I was looking for this photo for a long time. yes
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 12 January 2018 19: 31 New
              +4
              The Lunar Hare is somewhat from the other side of the Yellow Sea. No?
  11. Curious
    Curious 12 January 2018 19: 56 New
    +6
    3x3zsave,
    My almost eight. I sometimes think he understands everything, just does not speak. And his behavior is absolutely differentiated. He clearly knows from whom what can be achieved and how to behave with whom. I don’t remember the leash when I took it. Come, walk, talk, than grandmothers amaze. He became intolerant of other males. Immediately into the fray, regardless of breed and size. Shepherd tore off his ear, he himself was also sutured.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 12 January 2018 20: 34 New
      +4
      The ear of the shepherd is strong! My so far is even interested in rats in the natural sciences.
      1. Curious
        Curious 12 January 2018 21: 23 New
        +5
        And the owner of the shepherd was upset twice. The first time with the ear of her dog, since she was to go to the exhibition, and the second with her ear, in which he received for encouraging her to attack, I wanted to watch how his dog’s lab chase. They drove.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 15 January 2018 16: 55 New
          0
          and the second with his ear, in which he received for

          I always knew that you were a dangerous person ... what good
      2. Cat
        Cat 12 January 2018 21: 30 New
        +5
        In adolescence, I had a Giant Schnauzer named King. He had one misfortune being stronger than all the dogs in the local garbage dump, he was inferior to my uncle in the neighboring one. Breast on the chest King inherited from the mastiff for a sweet soul. So he stole the favorite dog’s stick (meter birch tree) in the forehead and barked at the open house. When the dog came for the wand in the morning, King honestly flew at him from the yard through the gateway.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 12 January 2018 21: 40 New
          +5
          So in revenge he stole his favorite dog stick (meter birch tree) and buried near our house. When the dog came for the wand in the morning, King honestly flew at him from the yard through the gateway.

          it reminds a famous cat revenge
          1. Curious
            Curious 12 January 2018 21: 58 New
            +4
            Somehow I tried to arrange a check of a friend’s cat. Moreover, a friend liked it very much when the guests, leaving home, found such a surprise in shoes. Kitties are in trouble, at that time I went to the toilet and got into the preliminary preparation phase. After that, the cat, when I came to visit, simply disappeared. True, a friend was offended for two months, called him a vivisector.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 12 January 2018 22: 24 New
              +5
              After that, the cat, when I came to visit, simply disappeared. True, a friend was offended for two months, called him a vivisector.

              fanatic! laughing it's worse than wild monkeys! drinks
  12. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 12 January 2018 20: 51 New
    +5
    I was always impressed by people trying to beat their fathers on their field. Bravo, Svetlana !!!
  13. tlauicol
    tlauicol 13 January 2018 05: 13 New
    +1
    The author did not write an article to be flooded! Stop already guys! Have respect for the work of others!
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 13 January 2018 08: 25 New
      +5
      Dear Ivan, you noticed that such discussions, in this composition of the participants, are usually accompanied by articles published under the "label" of V.O. Shpakovsky (yes, Svetlana Denisova - nee Shpakovskaya). This probably means that the author does not mind, on the contrary, he takes an active part in them. And we flood in other comments, for example, to a recent article about TMI by a certain famous author. If we stop doing this, the ghouls will destroy the History that we know and love, at least on this site, but it all starts with a small one.
      In addition, all of us (by the way, you, too) have a long-standing diagnosis - acute sensory hunger. In Russian - there’s no one to talk to. Here we find interlocutors, like-minded people and friends. Be lenient to the sick! yes
      1. kalibr
        13 January 2018 10: 24 New
        +4
        Although I’m not Ivan, I must answer. Svetlana Denisova is ... Svetlana Denisova. I don’t know what she was in girlhood. This is my work colleague. My daughter is also Svetlana, yes, but she has a different surname and is not printed under her. Just as a woman with abilities, she wants ... creativity, but to climb the sites of museums and translate from English. lang in Russian - I do not want to. Therefore, she publishes her materials on my page, and I slightly correct them and provide illustrations. Such is our joint work. My wife’s name is Elena and she ... also wrote and writes articles, but very rarely. Especially now. She even has a book for children, published in Germany about the life of two girls in a wealthy family before the revolution. We did not succeed in publishing it. So everything that you all write good to Svetlana Denisova is what Svetlana Denisova receives. Although I also read and, sometimes, answer on her behalf. But rarely.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 13 January 2018 11: 20 New
          +5
          This is what I flew in !!!! lol I apologize!
          But is everything else the case?
          1. kalibr
            13 January 2018 15: 28 New
            +4
            You could not know that! By the way, you are not the first. Many of the articles here were authored by Svetlana Timoshina, and many also believed that this was my daughter. But what is not, is not. And so that's right, why not ...
  14. Romario_Argo
    Romario_Argo 13 January 2018 12: 40 New
    +2
    John Neville, 1 of the Marquis of Montague at the Battle of Barnet. Fig. Graham Turner.

    first discharge exoskeleton - in the figure the pikiner on the left, shoulder hooks for long unloading of weight of peaks