Military Review

Weekend reading. How Charlemagne Invented the Military Occasion for the Modern West

56
And the “Favorite Weekend” column presents a short story about the events of more than a thousand years ago, which to this day remain without an unequivocal interpretation of historians. It is about the founder of the Carolingian dynasty, King of the Franks Charlemagne, and about his Iberian campaign. A campaign in which the army of invincible Charles, considered the founder of the Western European Christian world, suffered a crushing defeat for the first time.


The historiographic oddity is that Karl, starting his campaign as a Christian king, who is going to help the Christians of the Iberian Peninsula in the struggle against the Muslim emir conqueror, ended up being the killer of Christians. At the same time, the Christians themselves, who lived in the territory of modern Spain, pinned great hopes on the campaign of Charlemagne - as on the campaign of the liberator from occupation by the Arabs and Moors. But the "liberation" did not take place.

As a result, under the occupation of Arabs and Moors, those territories that were not Muslim before Karl’s arrival also fell. First of all, we are talking about Pamplona - the Christian city, which was plundered with particular cruelty by the Franks. Meager historical sources say that the soldiers of Charlemagne robbed and killed everyone in Pamplona, ​​despite the fact that these people were their co-religionists, who were waiting for protection from the Frankish Christian army.

It is really difficult to explain this, if one nuance is not taken into account. For the Pyrenees, the great army of Charlemagne passed at that time only with the declarative goal of “liberating Christians”. In fact, for Charles, the subordination of these territories to the kingdom of the Franks — along with resources — was important. As indirect evidence, one can cite the fact that the campaign to Spain took place after a conversation with the then head of Zaragoza. And this chapter was a Muslim religion. Moreover, the Muslim "governor" asked the Christian king to help him in the fight against another Muslim leader in Spain, Abdrahman - Emir of Cordoba.

Naturally, requested not free of charge. Namely, the word “non-paid” was the key, as many other details of the rule of the future first emperor of medieval Western Europe show.

That is, money, land and other resources are in the first place, and “help to Christians” as a pretext. Nothing like today's day, if you change the word "Christianization" to the word "democratization"?

Recall that the first Crusade took place only three centuries after the campaign of Charlemagne to Spain, but it turns out that Karl showed future Western generations how, under the specious pretext of Christianization and the struggle against the invaders, to wage an aggressive campaign, leaving chaos after the intervention.

Returning to the attack of Charles' troops on Christian Pamplona, ​​one cannot fail to report the retribution that the Franks had expected. Outraged by the actions of the "Christian brothers", the Basques (then - the Vascons) staged a "bloodbath" for the Frankish troops.

Weekend reading. How Charlemagne Invented the Military Occasion for the Modern West


15 August 778, in the Ronneval Gorge, they attacked, according to some data, the entire Frankish army, according to others - its rearguard. The Franks were defeated, losing several prominent warlords, including the margrave of Roland, later sung in the Germanic epic.
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  1. jolly deckhand
    jolly deckhand 23 December 2017 10: 29 New
    11
    “That is, money, land and other resources - in the first place” is the quintessence of the article! Thanks to the author, I swallowed simply, it’s a pity that I would read and read ...
    1. Finches
      Finches 23 December 2017 10: 45 New
      17
      After the time of Karl, in Europe there came a time of feudal fragmentation, and the faithful caliphate controlled the Mediterranean Sea and actually impeded the development of trade, so the local kings suffered nonsense, taxing everything that moved through their territories and having fun between feuds, and the warlike Arabs were not going to stop there! The church begins to panic: the flock is being slaughtered, the lands are leaving ..., all kinds of Don Quixote are spreading outrage a la 90s ... The critical mass has reached its peak, which resulted in the idea of ​​the Cross of a new campaign - put the Arabs in their place, clear the trade routes, let off the knights of the militants who are kicking the stick! And it all happened ... laughing
      1. Vladimir16
        Vladimir16 23 December 2017 12: 07 New
        +2
        Scanty historical sources report that ...

        This is the most interesting. As always in the West (and ours too) - we know about it, take our word for it.
        Galimatia has no grounds whatsoever. Not any facts. The inventions of people calling themselves "historians", but in fact storytellers.
        1. Orionvit
          Orionvit 23 December 2017 13: 18 New
          +1
          Quote: Vladimir16
          The inventions of people calling themselves "historians", and in fact storytellers

          So it is so, but in Western politics, by and large, nothing has changed since ancient times. Maybe only the methods of warfare are sometimes different, but the goals are the same.
        2. trampoline instructor
          trampoline instructor 24 December 2017 05: 18 New
          +1
          Historical sources still report, although they are scarce.
          Therefore, it cannot be argued that there is “neither any reason”, “nor any facts”.

          PS Either you skipped Russian lessons, or the teacher was not able to convey to you the light of relevant knowledge ...
      2. Viktor.12.71
        Viktor.12.71 23 December 2017 16: 15 New
        +2
        Considering the fact that the Arabs fought against each other more often than with the Christians suggests the lies of European historians, the Shiites slaughtered with the Sunnis and the whole Middle East was covered in blood, that is, the Arabs were scattered and weakened for more than a century. Then Europe united against the Arab threat, which was not, and in our time they invented the Russian threat.
    2. Megatron
      Megatron 23 December 2017 11: 45 New
      15
      But who looted Constantinople and actually destroyed Byzantium?
      Christians are crusaders!
      1. Basil50
        Basil50 23 December 2017 12: 22 New
        +3
        The author was apparently afraid to write that the true inventors of the * liberation campaigns * were Christian figures, no matter what they called themselves there, Catholics or Protestants, or those who today call themselves * Orthodox *. They are all the same. If they say a lot about the Crusades of Catholics or about the Inquisition in Europe, then they write about the Crusades of the Byzantines or about the bloody * baptism * RUSI much less, or even even approve of it, and they try to cancel the inquisition in the RUSSIAN EMPIRE in 1836 not to mention. However, as about the priests' denunciations in the RUSSIAN EMPIRE, they killed whole villages. Then, already at the end of the 19th century, they began to talk about * self-immolations * and even found eyewitnesses to such self-immolations.
        Even today, religious figures are embarrassed and do not remember that during the Civil War in EVERY gang, EVERY chieftain had priests. By the way, Antonov also had priests who consecrated the murders of teachers and doctors together with their families, these gangs also had merchants and * former * nobles who were robbed and killed by ejecting about hidden treasures.
        1. Weyland
          Weyland 23 December 2017 14: 12 New
          +5
          Proofs, of course, will not be? wassat Especially about
          Quote: Vasily50
          that the Inquisition in the RUSSIAN EMPIRE was canceled in 1836, they try not to mention.

          For it was canceled a hundred years earlier (and it existed in RI, EMNIP, only twenty years ago)
        2. Alex Justice
          Alex Justice 24 December 2017 15: 56 New
          0
          Religion is just a business. They want your money in exchange for fairy tales.
      2. 97110
        97110 23 December 2017 13: 09 New
        +2
        Quote: Megatron
        and actually destroyed Byzantium?

        These are the Byzantines themselves. Ukrainians from the South brought grain for the builders of the pyramids in Egypt, in Chanak-kala out of habit, they took whiskey from an agent, infected and left ...
      3. trampoline instructor
        trampoline instructor 24 December 2017 05: 11 New
        0
        1. Actually, everyone who was not lazy was robbed there.
        2. But in fact it was destroyed by the Turks in the middle of the 15th century. That is, almost 250 years later.
  2. Teberii
    Teberii 23 December 2017 10: 31 New
    +6
    History needs to be honored, and the one who has forgotten is doomed to repeat it - the Moors are returning.
    1. Pirogov
      Pirogov 23 December 2017 11: 28 New
      +4
      Quote: Teberii
      History needs to be honored, and the one who has forgotten is doomed to repeat it - the Moors are returning.

      Europe deserves it, I hope the Catholics will receive the caliphate in Europe, although I am an Orthodox Christian, but for me it is Protestants, Catholics and Uniates who are the most vile and worst enemies.
      1. Orionvit
        Orionvit 23 December 2017 13: 27 New
        +7
        Quote: Pirogov
        Although I am an Orthodox Christian, for me it is precisely Protestants, Catholics and Uniates that are the most vile and worst enemies.

        Traditions are traditions, but for me, frankly speaking, the whole Christian idea does not give a pleasant smell, and sometimes it just stinks. Especially when you read the Bible with inspiration. However, this applies to all religions that have been concocted on the basis of the Torah, where duplicity is simply amazing. As in that joke about the priest:
        - Tell the holy father to kill, is it a sin?
        - The worst, my son.
        - And for faith?
        - For faith, this is a holy cause.
        1. Weyland
          Weyland 23 December 2017 18: 45 New
          +2
          Quote: Orionvit
          And for faith?
          - For faith, this is a holy cause.

          This is not a joke - but this is the case with Catholics. The Orthodox even for the murder of the enemy in the war put epithemy (although not very difficult). There is simply a choice of two evils: desertion is considered a much more serious sin than killing an enemy in a war!
        2. rodus
          rodus 25 December 2017 11: 39 New
          0
          In the Bible, Verna and Truth, only Chapter 1 - the rest of the census and writing, A tool for subordinating the Post.
          Unfortunately.
          PS A person of any psychological type in his comments, thoughts, etc. leaves “marks” of his personality (individuality) and no matter how you “spin” you cannot get rid of them. Without "tags" only the machine or the Absolute can comment. So - Chapter 1 of the Bible was not written by man, but starting from the 2nd Chapter, the personality type is easily and explicitly determined, and the 2nd Chapter immediately begins to contradict the 1st Chapter. The only question is why did they leave Chapter 1 and not touch more than one letter?
      2. Hammerlock
        Hammerlock 23 December 2017 13: 27 New
        +2
        I don’t know for Protestants, but Catholics and Uniates, yes. In general, I would VERY drastically reduce priests (priests, bugs), as an unnecessary layer between the Lord and a believer.
        Matthew says:
        6: 6 But when you pray, enter your room and, having shut your door, pray to your Father, who is secret; and your Father who sees the secret will reward you clearly.
  3. Tusv
    Tusv 23 December 2017 10: 31 New
    +2
    The first founder of the European Union. The bourgeoisie has a holiday, finally happened. And HE was friends with the head. He knew that in the East the evil Russians had a balalaika and tame bears
    1. katana
      katana 23 December 2017 11: 39 New
      +3
      Quote: Tusv
      The first founder of the European Union. The bourgeoisie has a holiday, finally happened. And HE was friends with the head. He knew that in the East the evil Russians had a balalaika and tame bears

      In the East, there were no “evil” Russians, as well as “evil” Ukrainians. And the then Franks were not the current French, but most likely the current Germans. smile
      1. 97110
        97110 23 December 2017 13: 15 New
        +3
        Quote: katana
        as the "evil" Ukrainians

        You do not say it is independent. Who then fed the Egyptians with grain while they built the pyramids? Who dug up the sea to carry grain to Egypt? Where does the dump of soil come from for the Georgians to hide?
        1. Vasyan1971
          Vasyan1971 23 December 2017 17: 07 New
          +1
          Quote: 97110
          Who then fed the Egyptians with grain while they built the pyramids? Who dug up the sea to carry grain to Egypt? Where does the dump of soil come from for the Georgians to hide?

          And who, rinsing his onuchi, all the dug up sea gas?
      2. Tusv
        Tusv 23 December 2017 14: 14 New
        0
        Quote: katana
        In the East then there were no "evil" Russians

        Good luck Priekule. Why are we so big then? Carlos still tada zabizili probably were small ?. Ushkuyniki vs Wiggings, the latter finally decided to work in other kingdoms.
        And where is the beauty of Barbara, the wondrous braid?
        Not much from the Byzantines. " Var Var Vara, my wise daughter"In a fairy tale a lie, but in it a hint, a lesson for good fellows hi
  4. Jedi
    Jedi 23 December 2017 10: 34 New
    +5
    it was Karl who showed the future Western generations how, under the plausible pretext of Christianization and the struggle against the invaders, could lead, in fact, an aggressive campaign, leaving chaos after intervention.

    Why are the equestrian statues of Karl from pure gold still not standing in the main squares in the USA? recourse
    1. Going
      Going 23 December 2017 13: 11 New
      +4
      Maxim, by his deeds they erect a monument to him around the world.
    2. 97110
      97110 23 December 2017 13: 19 New
      +2
      Quote: Jedi
      Why in the USA horse statues of Karl from pure gold are still not standing in the main squares

      African Americans versus. Karl, it turns out, was, because he was white.
    3. Vasyan1971
      Vasyan1971 23 December 2017 17: 08 New
      +2
      Quote: Jedi
      Why are the equestrian statues of Karl from pure gold still not standing in the main squares in the USA?

      Or at least from gilded tungsten.
      1. Jedi
        Jedi 23 December 2017 17: 26 New
        +4
        Quote: Vasyan1971
        Or at least from gilded tungsten.

        It is in the spirit of fair play by the United States. wink
  5. Pereira
    Pereira 23 December 2017 10: 38 New
    +5
    A good excursion into history. Especially because, according to popular beliefs, the heroic Roland fell in the battle with the Moors.
    1. Weyland
      Weyland 23 December 2017 18: 47 New
      +1
      Quote: Pereira
      according to popular belief, the heroic Roland fell in the battle with the Moors.

      This is the French view. And the Spaniards have a national hero - Bernardo del Carpio, who soaked Roland in the Ronsevalles battle (according to the Spanish version - supposedly in a fair fight)
      1. Pereira
        Pereira 23 December 2017 23: 43 New
        0
        In Russia, they know about Roland rather from the lessons of literature - The Song of Roland. And there is not very much focused attention on how exactly Roland was in the gorge.
  6. CAPTIVE
    CAPTIVE 23 December 2017 10: 41 New
    +4
    I didn’t understand anything Karl .... Who dunked whom? laughing
    1. ando_bor
      ando_bor 23 December 2017 11: 02 New
      +5
      Quote: captive
      I didn’t understand anything Karl .... Who dunked whom? laughing

      It was not bad for the Christians, - it didn’t get cold, they were cut - they were reduced, no matter how,
      And the Moors — the dust, their weather came, they occupied the liberated territory — it was their landscape, they didn’t even need to cut those who lived there before, they cut themselves when the climate changed.
      And now the “Moors” are not bad, - the East is drying up, they are cutting - are shrinking, and smart people know how the story works, the massacre is directed in the right direction, it’s not always true, because it’s a natural process - an avalanche, you can lower it, but The descent process is problematic.
      1. CAPTIVE
        CAPTIVE 23 December 2017 14: 05 New
        +3
        Quote: ando_bor
        Quote: captive
        I didn’t understand anything Karl .... Who dunked whom? laughing

        It was not bad for the Christians, - it didn’t get cold, they were cut - they were reduced, no matter how,
        And the Moors — the dust, their weather came, they occupied the liberated territory — it was their landscape, they didn’t even need to cut those who lived there before, they cut themselves when the climate changed.
        And now the “Moors” are not bad, - the East is drying up, they are cutting - are shrinking, and smart people know how the story works, the massacre is directed in the right direction, it’s not always true, because it’s a natural process - an avalanche, you can lower it, but The descent process is problematic.

        Well now I understood in kind ..! With respect.. drinks laughing lol
        1. ando_bor
          ando_bor 23 December 2017 16: 25 New
          +1
          Quote: captive
          Well now I understood in kind ..! With respect..

          Please.
          In this world, everything is simple, logical, clear and understandable, if not, then we do not know something or do not understand correctly.
    2. rotmistr60
      rotmistr60 23 December 2017 11: 05 New
      +5
      As a result, they “killed” those who longed for liberation and had hopes for Franks. Today the same thing is happening.
      1. ando_bor
        ando_bor 23 December 2017 13: 06 New
        +2
        Quote: rotmistr60
        As a result, they “killed” those who longed for liberation and had hopes for Franks. Today the same thing is happening.

        In general, yes, but now it’s a bit more complicated. It all depends on the weather, it has climate, there are places for the Moors, there are for Christians, when the weather of the Moors came to the Christians, they themselves were cut out, the Moors who were not cut remained cut or they pretended to be the Moors.
        Then the weather changed and everything went in reverse - the reconquista.
        But there is one point - Christians around the 12th century “climbed the hills” as they call the process of loss as a result of the growth of the productive forces of strict attachment to the landscape, and the Moors slowed down, because Christians are superior in any Moors.
        And today, when the Moors for natural reasons - the East is drying up, cutting or knocking down from the Mavrostan, those who understand this, are trying to direct the natural processes in the right direction, today it is possible to maintain order in the Mavrostan, because the Moors poorly mastered the “hills” but for this you need to be a dictator.
        A dictator who didn’t lie under the Americans — they are destroyed by them, an “avalanche” is launched onto it - natural processes of reduction, while the deserted avalanche is already problematic to control.
        We now know all these laws, take them into account, and Putin correctly applies them.
      2. Orionvit
        Orionvit 23 December 2017 13: 34 New
        +3
        Quote: rotmistr60
        Today the same thing is happening.

        Nothing changed....
        Bunny received an invitation from Wolf
        Come to him with his wife for a banquet.
        Another would have written: "... Accept assurances ...
        I’m unwell ... Mercy ... Sorry ... Hello ... "
        But this Wolf, although he was not a humanist,
        I didn’t growl at rabbits when I met
        They did not poison them in the forest, did not touch them in a clean field,
        He bowed to their bow ...
        That’s why, flattered by the invitation,
        Having told Zaychikha: “Get your hair done!” Let's go to!",
        Inventing a loud toast, anticipating a treat,
        And full of reverence
        Hare came to the Wolf for a reception.
        The owner is glad to the guest: “How long have you seen!
        Yes, you got better! " -
        “A whole kilogram!”
        While the bunnies were in the hallway
        The owner winked at the toothy cooks ...
        I will not describe that banquet.
        For clarity, I can only say
        That the cooks served the dish to the table,
        And that was ... rabbit stew!

        My comparison may be rude,
        But I meant rabbits in the NATO system.
        Source: https://pritchi.ru/id_6048
      3. CAPTIVE
        CAPTIVE 23 December 2017 15: 25 New
        0
        Quote: rotmistr60
        As a result, they “killed” those who longed for liberation and had hopes for Franks. Today the same thing is happening.

        Bonded means! Well, in kind, there’s a wide range ...
    3. nickname7
      nickname7 23 December 2017 11: 11 New
      0
      At first, Karl won, relaxed, and then the locals himself counterattacked him using knowledge of the area. They scouted the location of the headquarters and hit, killing the officers.
      1. dubovitskiy.1947
        dubovitskiy.1947 23 December 2017 11: 19 New
        0
        Quote: nickname7
        At first, Karl won, relaxed, and then the locals himself counterattacked him using knowledge of the area. They scouted the location of the headquarters and hit, killing the officers.

        The Moors already had tomahawks.
  7. Masya masya
    Masya masya 23 December 2017 10: 49 New
    +5
    Does it resemble anything from today if we change the word “Christianization” to the word “democratization”?

    nothing changes in this world ... they do not bring, but they instill earlier “Christianization”, now “democratization”, as a result, violence, blood, death ... in a word, blatantly-Saxons ...
  8. Strashila
    Strashila 23 December 2017 11: 21 New
    +1
    This was the beginning of the West and the formation of their ideologists ... it received further development under the backing of Byzantium, imposing its values ​​... mainly from the promises of a better life, to betray and surrender to the enemy.
  9. Conductor
    Conductor 23 December 2017 11: 47 New
    0
    Moors right now climb silent glanders and clouded Europe touches)))
    1. trampoline instructor
      trampoline instructor 24 December 2017 05: 32 New
      0
      Europe is at least touched, and Russia only quietly grumbles. But nothing can really be done, although here we have more of our "Moors" than enough. They cannot even be counted :(
  10. SCHMEL
    SCHMEL 23 December 2017 11: 49 New
    +1
    The Franks were defeated, having lost several prominent military leaders, including the Margrave Roland, later glorified in the Germanic epic.

    The largest units created by the German Abwehr for sabotage, reconnaissance, police and punitive actions in the USSR were the Nachtigal and Roland battalions - special forces consisting of members of the Bandera OUN.
  11. yarema vishneveckiy
    yarema vishneveckiy 23 December 2017 12: 33 New
    0
    The data on the Pyrenees campaign are very different, according to other reports, the campaign was quite successful, only the next Saxon uprising forced Karl to change his plans and hastily transfer the army to the East. “That is, money, land and other resources come first,” unfortunately, the usual goal of almost all wars on earth, including those waged by Russia))
  12. Altona
    Altona 23 December 2017 12: 59 New
    0
    Quote: katana
    And then the Franks - this is not the current French, but most likely the current Germans.

    ---------------------------------
    The French, Germans, Jews, and now Ukrainians are historically very young names. European statehood was very weak until the 19th century.
  13. Altona
    Altona 23 December 2017 13: 02 New
    +1
    Quote: yarema vishneveckiy
    “That is, money, land and other resources come first” - unfortunately, the usual goal of almost all wars on earth

    --------------------------------
    Land was a valuable agronomic resource, so the feudal states sought to expand their land holdings. On the other hand, the peasant population itself willingly passed under the tutelage of the feudal lord, who offered more sparing operating conditions. A good example is Ukraine.
  14. Altona
    Altona 23 December 2017 13: 04 New
    0
    Quote: Masya Masya
    now "democratization", in the end, violence, blood, death ... in a word, brazenly Saxons ...

    ------------------------------
    Jewish kings were also particularly cruel. It was common practice to completely cut out the vanquished, that is, banal genocide.
  15. Weyland
    Weyland 23 December 2017 14: 10 New
    +4
    Much more interesting is the other. About 30 years before the events described in the Caliphate, there was a coup - the Abbasid dynasty overthrew the Umayyad dynasty. The Umayyads managed to stay in Spain by creating an alternative "Cordoba Caliphate", to which the Abbasids treated roughly the same as the PRC to Taiwan. So, watch your hands: Charlemagne entered into an alliance with the Abbasids (the notorious Harun ar-Rashid) against the Umayyads ... and Byzantium (for the latter was in no hurry to recognize him as emperor, quite logically considering him a usurper of the title!)
    1. zoolu350
      zoolu350 24 December 2017 10: 35 New
      0
      But Empress Irina herself set up Byzantium. And there the pope was more zealous.
  16. Normal ok
    Normal ok 23 December 2017 17: 25 New
    0
    considered the founder of the Western European Christian world

    The founders of the Western European Christian world (as well as the Eastern European) are considered the apostles and not some kind of Karl, even with the title of Great.
    1. the lord
      the lord 23 December 2017 21: 51 New
      0
      You are not strong in this either: the apostles are considered to be the founders of the Christian worldview, and not the West European and East European world. In their times, both Asian lands and African (almost all of the Mediterranean) belonged to Christianity. Only these lands even belonged to Christians and there were many pagans and even "heretics." Such as those who believed the Nazareth was not a God-man. but a man-god.
      But Karl actually delineated the limits of the Western European world, creating his empire. He also helped the Vatican gain full power on earth, placing it above all other thrones. Where are your apostles there ...
  17. Anchonsha
    Anchonsha 23 December 2017 22: 51 New
    0
    So Western bastards and Europeans invaders went from Karl. what is still going on. Only with a slightly different motivation for the robbery and appropriation of energy resources, supposedly for the democratization of countries
  18. Alex Justice
    Alex Justice 24 December 2017 15: 59 New
    0
    Quote: Hammerlock
    In general, I would VERY drastically reduce priests (priests, bugs), as an unnecessary layer between the Lord and a believer.

    So they gave you a profitable place! Hold your pocket wider.