Military Review

Energomash Fulfills Export Contract for Supply of RD-180 to the USA

63
Research and Production Association (NPO) "Energomash" reported on the fulfillment of export orders for the supply of X-Rum-XNumx rocket engines in 2017.


The RD-180 engine was shipped, the contractual obligations to foreign customers were fully met.
- reported corporate newspaper NPO "Energomash" "For the Motherland".

Energomash Fulfills Export Contract for Supply of RD-180 to the USA


The head of "Energomash" Igor Arbuzov told the publication that the coming 2018 year will be no less intense and interesting. Ahead of the implementation of a large production program, development and creation of an RD-171MV engine for the new Russian Soyuz-5 rocket, modernization of the production base. Russia supplies USA RD-180 engines.

Earlier, Igor Arbuzov reported that in 2018, the most extensive delivery of Russian rocket engines was planned, in particular, in the USA: 11 RD-180 and four RD-181.

The American company Orbital Sciences used the NK-33 rocket engines on Antares launch vehicles. After the accident in 2014, she began using the RD-181 rocket engines manufactured by NPO Energomash. RD-180 engines manufactured by the same enterprise are used by the United Company United Launch Alliance in the Atlas-5 launch vehicle.
Photos used:
http://www.globallookpress.com/
63 comments
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  1. Lavrenti Pavlovich
    Lavrenti Pavlovich 20 December 2017 16: 53 New
    12
    Or maybe the engines are enough for our enemies to sell or the money doesn’t smell. Then immediately the calibers or Sarmatians will come out more expensive.
    1. Black water
      Black water 20 December 2017 16: 59 New
      +3
      the American side on the issue of sanctions has bypassed the cosmic theme and deliberately bypasses, and on all fronts, sanctions ... except for cooperation in space matters, and they do not sign an agreement banning the deployment of weapons in space ... that's such a .. bell. ...
      1. maxim947
        maxim947 20 December 2017 21: 38 New
        +2
        development and creation of the RD-171MV engine for the new Russian Soyuz-5 rocket

        Too loudly said, the engine has long been developed. It is necessary to finalize and repeat the entire test cycle. This is also not small, but not so much.
    2. x.andvlad
      x.andvlad 20 December 2017 17: 00 New
      +5
      Or maybe it's time to put on them a self-liquidation system on command from Russia? laughing
      It would be puzzling to our hackers. I think such an idea will “get them”.
      1. SRC P-15
        SRC P-15 20 December 2017 17: 47 New
        +5
        Quote: x.andvlad
        Or maybe it's time to put on them a self-liquidation system on command from Russia?

        Well, what will it give? Well, the engine will explode once, twice and they will refuse them. Or, even worse, they will demand a forfeit from us for “marriage”. Correctly we do that we sell the USA the engines. Firstly: the employment of plant personnel, and secondly: the influx of currency. I remember that with our weapons-grade uranium, which we supplied to the United States, we brought their nuclear industry to such a state that they lagged far behind us in the enrichment of uranium. We have gone far from them in this matter. So with the engines, I hope the same thing happens: they simply lose the technology for producing such rocket engines.
        1. x.andvlad
          x.andvlad 20 December 2017 18: 07 New
          +3
          Yes, actually it was a joke. But if even one engine explodes (anything happens), then they will have frames that will begin to search for Russian hackers.
          Quote: СРЦ П-15
          So with the engines, I hope the same thing happens: they simply lose the technology for producing such rocket engines.

          Do not expect. They are not going to fly forever on our engines. They are already developing their own.
          1. SRC P-15
            SRC P-15 20 December 2017 18: 14 New
            +3
            Quote: x.andvlad
            Do not expect. They are not going to fly forever on our engines. They are already developing their own.

            But what can they not do the engines on which they "flew" to the moon? And how many years they are still developing their new engine, while failing to make an analogue of the Russian RD-180.
            1. Vadim237
              Vadim237 20 December 2017 23: 50 New
              0
              For the moon, here upgraded RS 25
        2. Lavrenti Pavlovich
          Lavrenti Pavlovich 20 December 2017 18: 14 New
          +7
          "Employment" - and what do we have in total and there is nothing for people to occupy? We ourselves already have trouble in the space industry, and qualified specialists work for the enemies. It is better to sell the DPRK cheaper - more good. When to stop measuring everything for currency, money should not be in the first place.
          1. SRC P-15
            SRC P-15 20 December 2017 18: 23 New
            +3
            Quote: Lavrenty Pavlovich
            "Employment" - and what do we have enough and there is nothing to occupy people? We ourselves already have trouble in the space industry, and qualified specialists work for the enemies.

            Well, what do you propose to produce instead of the RD-180? Thanks to the proceeds from these engines, new ones are being developed at the plant:
            Ahead is the implementation of a large production program, the development and creation of the RD-171MV engine for the new Russian Soyuz-5 rocket, and the modernization of the production base.
            1. loginovich
              loginovich 21 December 2017 00: 21 New
              +1
              Correctly P-15, and store the proceeds in the bonds of the reserve fund.
          2. Paranoid50
            Paranoid50 21 December 2017 00: 16 New
            +2
            Quote: Lavrenty Pavlovich
            It is better to sell the DPRK cheaper - more good.

            Well, no one knows what engines stand, say, on the Hwason-15. And the statement by the DPRK on the start of the implementation of the space program is clearly not only due to Wishlist. In any case, "they had with them." yes
    3. Gonchar
      Gonchar 20 December 2017 17: 04 New
      +4
      Quote: Lavrenty Pavlovich
      enough engines to sell to our enemies
      Very true, it is better to pay a penalty.
      1. Lavrenti Pavlovich
        Lavrenti Pavlovich 20 December 2017 18: 00 New
        +1
        What are the forfeits? Sanctions - force majeure.
        1. Gonchar
          Gonchar 20 December 2017 18: 49 New
          +2
          Quote: Lavrenty Pavlovich
          What are the forfeits? Sanctions - force majeure.
          Have you seen the contract?
    4. marline
      marline 20 December 2017 17: 15 New
      +2
      Quote: Lavrenty Pavlovich
      Then immediately the calibers or Sarmatians will come out more expensive.

      No, we will provide them for free with delivery, but not now ....
    5. Geisenberg
      Geisenberg 20 December 2017 17: 40 New
      +4
      Quote: Lavrenty Pavlovich
      Or maybe the engines are enough for our enemies to sell or the money doesn’t smell. Then immediately the calibers or Sarmatians will come out more expensive.


      The longer they buy Russian engines, the longer they will not have their own. So let them buy.
      1. Lavrenti Pavlovich
        Lavrenti Pavlovich 20 December 2017 18: 03 New
        +1
        Who told you that. They have already created two engines and are completing the tests.
        1. SergeBS
          SergeBS 20 December 2017 22: 59 New
          +2
          “Created” and “Finish Testing” are two big differences.
          As the saying goes, the device should not work "in principle", but "in the case."
          Until the tests are completed, this is R&D, but not an industrial product.
    6. perm23
      perm23 20 December 2017 17: 50 New
      0
      it’s time to deliver such engines so that they break after some time. How much can the enemy feed it.
      1. MadCat
        MadCat 20 December 2017 22: 54 New
        +2
        Quote: perm23
        it’s time to deliver such engines so that they break after some time. How much can the enemy feed it.

        and the Cossack is mishandled, who do you work for? Energomash has many competitors, will they cease to start, of course, more expensive to sell others, is there an garage anestend?
  2. The comment was deleted.
    1. Kasym
      Kasym 20 December 2017 17: 02 New
      +6
      Bush Jr. signed the new lunar program, now Trump - and things have been there for two decades now.
      I’m afraid that the analogs will come out so expensive that sooner or later they will have to decide everything with the Russians. hi
      1. The comment was deleted.
  3. Strips
    Strips 20 December 2017 17: 09 New
    +3
    The United States will soon introduce a new package of sanctions, and Russia will supply engines. Cool, you can’t say anything.

    Peskov said that
    “But at the same time [in the strategy] there are also modest positive aspects, in particular, this is the willingness to cooperate with Russia in those areas that are in the interests of the Americans. This absolutely corresponds to our approach, which was voiced by [Russian President Vladimir Putin], because that Moscow is also seeking cooperation with the United States where it is beneficial to us, and as much as our American colleagues are ready to go, "the Kremlin representative added


    In fact, Russia takes what is beneficial to the United States. And the United States benefits for itself, and then calls Russia an enemy and introduces constantly new sanctions.

    The next sanctions will reportedly be in February.
    1. Sergey53
      Sergey53 20 December 2017 17: 46 New
      +3
      There is nothing that is beneficial to US, there is only what is beneficial to the United States. Everything that supposedly we consider beneficial to us, beneficial to the United States, we can’t even shut off oxygen to them in anything. Some kind of tautology.
  4. The comment was deleted.
    1. corporal
      corporal 20 December 2017 18: 18 New
      +2
      Quote: A. Privalov
      Here, in fact, what lies behind the headlines of the Russian media, "America cannot do without Russian engines."

      laughing Well, is it possible? Local patriotic cognitive dissonance will happen.
      ======================================
      Greetings Alexander hi . I was waiting for the third part of the "Doomsday" winked
      1. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov 20 December 2017 19: 02 New
        +2
        Quote: Corporal
        Quote: A. Privalov
        Here, in fact, what lies behind the headlines of the Russian media, "America cannot do without Russian engines."

        laughing Well, is it possible? Local patriotic cognitive dissonance will happen.
        ======================================
        Greetings Alexander hi . I was waiting for the third part of the "Doomsday" winked

        Most patriots do not know what it is. what
        The third part will finish by the end of the week. I hope, on Monday-Tuesday, it will be released to the readers. hi
        1. SergeBS
          SergeBS 20 December 2017 22: 56 New
          0
          Quote: A. Privalov
          The third part will finish by the end of the week.

          Abram, where did the comment go, which was that “American firms can do better and cheaper”?
          Why is it suddenly removed? I ask the author of "A. Privalov" this.
          Yes, the name may not have guessed, but the nationality is clear.
          Quite a simple question: if the “missing comment” is true, then why is ya.n.ki. pay more "damned undemocratic russkim", instead of for the smaller money from their own am.e.krikosovskih firms to buy goods better? Somehow unlike the United States.
          Maybe the problem is that “talking is not carrying bags”, and there is simply no replacement for the RD-180? laughing
          And then do not bother with your 3 volume. We will not understand. For a very clear reason.
          1. A. Privalov
            A. Privalov 21 December 2017 09: 37 New
            +1
            Quote: SergeBS
            Quote: A. Privalov
            The third part will finish by the end of the week.

            Abram, where did the comment go, which was that “American firms can do better and cheaper”?
            Why is it suddenly removed? I ask the author of "A. Privalov" this.
            Yes, the name may not have guessed, but the nationality is clear.
            Quite a simple question: if the “missing comment” is true, then why is ya.n.ki. pay more "damned undemocratic russkim", instead of for the smaller money from their own am.e.krikosovskih firms to buy goods better? Somehow unlike the United States.
            Maybe the problem is that “talking is not carrying bags”, and there is simply no replacement for the RD-180? laughing
            And then do not bother with your 3 volume. We will not understand. For a very clear reason.

            Prosha, Fedya or Stepashka, with the name may not have guessed, and nationality is not important. Not a question for me, but for the Moderators. It is they who protect patriots from cognitive dissonance. Actually, do not bother. I do not understand. For a very clear reason.
            1. SergeBS
              SergeBS 22 December 2017 21: 32 New
              0
              Quote: A. Privalov
              Not a question for me, but for the Moderators.

              Yeah. 282 article.
              Those. I was fucked up with my "missing comment" and a heart-rending screech began - "I, on the other hand, are Lying to the BUT!"
  5. bald
    bald 20 December 2017 17: 13 New
    +4
    They trample us down, violating all agreements - and we deliver observing - they correctly say "grandmas don’t smell."
    1. Sergey53
      Sergey53 20 December 2017 18: 56 New
      +1
      Quote: bald
      They trample us down, violating all agreements - and we deliver observing - they correctly say "grandmas don’t smell."

      In any liberal government, they will always do this with us.
      1. bald
        bald 20 December 2017 19: 18 New
        0
        There is no other visible on the horizon, it seems the whole world is like that.
        1. Ronald Reagan
          Ronald Reagan 20 December 2017 19: 21 New
          +2
          The world has always been like this, only the screen has changed.
          1. bald
            bald 20 December 2017 19: 31 New
            0
            Approve !!! - I completely agree.
            1. SergeBS
              SergeBS 20 December 2017 23: 08 New
              0
              Oh, come on. If, contrary to their sanctions, the United States buys from us something NOT at our loss, but to our advantage - what’s wrong with that? What do they buy and bring US income? Kindergarten, pants on the straps.
              We’ll just fantasize: for example, there will be a LOT of goods that the US will be forced to buy from the Russian Federation, spitting on its own sanctions. It will also be called "they trample us down," or vice versa - "nowhere do yanks go, so they break their own rules"?
              But as a result, when we will be as profitable as China to trade with the United States, their links will turn into a "dead law" - everyone knows it and everyone violates it.
              And Ya.K. esa always break their own rules. If only NOW it was profitable (cheaper than otherwise) to do.
              1. bald
                bald 21 December 2017 02: 08 New
                0
                For whose good? - to yours, or mine, or your neighbor. You at least have a penny from this. USA - green toilet paper at least some stamp. And they soar to us, pouring shit on us and smiling at our titan and others. Remain with your opinion - and I am more honored.
                1. SergeBS
                  SergeBS 22 December 2017 21: 39 New
                  0
                  Quote: bald
                  For whose good? - to yours, or mine, or your neighbor. You at least have a penny from this.

                  Don’t, baby, move off the topic and screech for toilet paper.
                  I repeat: if, contrary to their sanctions, the United States is buying from us something NOT at our loss, but to our advantage, what’s wrong with that? What do they buy and bring US income? Kindergarten, pants on the straps.
                  Well, scream again that "instead of selling RD-180 in the USA (having income from this and INCREASE in pension - my comment), increase the pension better." Do not be shy. All according to the training manual.
    2. MadCat
      MadCat 20 December 2017 22: 57 New
      +1
      Quote: bald
      They trample us down, violating all agreements - and we deliver observing - they correctly say "grandmas don’t smell."

      don’t deliver it, do a favor to American companies, create more jobs there. Scared so scared the hedgehog naked booty.
      1. SergeBS
        SergeBS 20 December 2017 23: 27 New
        0
        drinks
        Well, why would a Russian Ivan squander money from the US for a "deficit"? Nahai American John will work on this (if he can winked ).
      2. bald
        bald 21 December 2017 02: 14 New
        0
        I didn’t spit on the number of their jobs - you need to think about our number, and this green trash will not give you work.
        1. MadCat
          MadCat 21 December 2017 04: 32 New
          0
          Quote: bald
          I didn’t spit on the number of their jobs - you need to think about our number, and this green trash will not give you work.

          uncle what are you talking about Write clearly.
          1. If you have already signed a contract, deignly fulfill it.
          2. Deliveries are made through private contractors, for not fulfilling the contract you will PAY FORCE.
          3. When the stars have already come together and you are delivering the goods, deign not to blackmail with trampolines, or else another one like Mask will come, and all the employees of Energomash will put their teeth on the shelf. I’ll give away your throwing-neotdam only shows that companies from Russia are not reliable and nobody will conduct business with these companies tomorrow.
          1. bald
            bald 21 December 2017 05: 17 New
            0
            We have completely opposite opinions - let us leave them to ourselves.
            1. SergeBS
              SergeBS 22 December 2017 21: 42 New
              0
              Update the training manual. It was at Mechen - "we will spread our legs and the West will do us well." And under E.B.N. was - eat your "independence" in three throats. Take a walk in this. This is in a straightforward manner.
          2. SergeBS
            SergeBS 22 December 2017 21: 46 New
            0
            Quote: MadCat
            When the stars have already come together and you are delivering the goods, deigned not to blackmail with trampolines, otherwise another one like Mask will come, and all employees of Energomash will put their teeth on the shelf.

            Yes shazz. Your Mask "for free" raped all NASA technology. What is the result?
            So the example is “a little unsuccessful”, a la Mavrodi with his Three-Mu.
            Mask was stolen with all the state support like "our private trader is cooler in space than the Russian Federation." laughing
  6. opus
    opus 20 December 2017 17: 27 New
    +1

    "Export"?
    fool

    Autor.
    Tse photo from the museum of the plant NPO "Energomash", or as it is called here "Showroom".




    The RD-180 that is shipped and used in the United States looks and is labeled somewhat differently.


    In the photo in the article they are not even numbered (these are layouts)
  7. Wolka
    Wolka 20 December 2017 17: 29 New
    +5
    I do not approve of this, disgusting, disgusting and insulting for the state ...
  8. Altona
    Altona 20 December 2017 18: 21 New
    +2
    Quote: Geisenberg
    The longer they buy Russian engines, the longer they will not have their own. So let them buy.

    -----------------------------------
    Trade in the Motherland can always be justified.
    1. goblin xnumx
      goblin xnumx 20 December 2017 21: 15 New
      0
      and how he justified the "proser" of uranium reserves - a sight for sore eyes and only ...
    2. SergeBS
      SergeBS 20 December 2017 23: 21 New
      0
      Quote: Altona
      Trade in the Motherland can always be justified.

      But what exactly is the "trade of the homeland"? In a profitable sale of a high-tech product (but not technology)?
      And then what is NOT trade in the homeland? Do not sell such goods with anyone, only give raw materials, looking back at the cheapest oil prices of the Emirates (for example)? Did I understand correctly?
  9. pafegosoff
    pafegosoff 20 December 2017 21: 51 New
    +1
    And what would not sell all our nuclear bombs and strategic missiles to the Americans? The people in our government are wonderful: they cut money for Vostochny, built a Panama Canal called Angara, they will now cut Soyuz-5
    Trillions were sawed off by pensioners, children, state employees (I wish the Zhirika and the entire Duma to be demolished by a hurricane - meteorologists are cut by 10–11 thousand in Siberia! They killed the aircraft tightly — aerodromes and others remained in big cities.) Well, it’s better to make titanium Details for Boeing and Airbus - we have only experienced flaws. And SSD-100? He is 80% foreign. Our factory workers only collect, as well as imported cars. The Central Bank drives trillions of rubles in the United States.
    And why? Yes, everything is on the hook. So we work for the CIA, NSA, the Pentagon ...
    It’s the military and reconnaissance satellites that launch Russian engines! The super-killer James Klapper repeatedly denounced this.
    1. SergeBS
      SergeBS 20 December 2017 23: 17 New
      0
      Quote: pafegosoff
      They killed the aircraft tightly - airfields and others remained in large cities.

      Who ditched - names in the studio! Or shaw, where is it bad - is it not a bear-labeled with E.B.N.
      And attempts to make his own - "of course not count." am
      1. pafegosoff
        pafegosoff 21 December 2017 09: 10 New
        +1
        You are welcome! First of all, my former colleagues, at the very top of Okulov before getting into Aeroflot. Well, not personally, of course, but through the “family” of the father-in-law, whose name was EBN.
        Aeroflot could not fly at all, but receive air navigation fees from all companies whose airplanes plow open spaces of Russia. Handsomely. Become a monopoly with a win-win!
        Here is a far from recent report:
        “At present, the Ministry of Transport’s register contains 383 airports, including 69 international ones. In 2005 their number decreased by another 10 (seven with artificial coverings and three with unpaved) due to the disposal of regional and local airports Vozdvizhenka, Balakovo, Nefteyugansk, Siversky, Velikiye Luki, Novgorod, Severouralsk, Berezniki, Sortavala and Pudozh airports (as well as unpaved
        Middle, Usoltsevo, Kuznetsovo, Ermakovskoe, Bomnak, Oktyabrsky, Khvoyny and Beregovoi), but three new ones were included with the BVPP (Kaluga (Grabtsevo), Inta and Myachkovo) and five with the GVPP (Yarkino, Solnechny, Essey, Krutorechka and Lopatkovo). By the end of 2005, the registry was
        19 Class A airfields (BVPP length of more than 3200 m),
        26 - class B (from 2600 to 3200 m),
        76 - class B (from 1800 to 2600 m),
        97 - class G (from 1300 to 1800 m),
        38 - class D (from 1000 to 1300 m) and
        127 - class E (from 500 to 1000 m).
        225 Russian civil airfields (59%) have artificial
        coating and
        158 (41%) - soil (1 - class B, 39 - class D, 17 - class D and 101
        - class E).
        In total, since 1992, when Russia had 1302 airports, the aerodrome network of civil aviation was reduced by 86 aerodromes with artificial coverings and 822 (!) Unpaved ones. During the same time
        only 25 new aerodromes with BVPP were commissioned ... "
        Arithmetic: 822 + 86 = 908. 1302-908 = 394
        A reduction of around 330%
        Why did the report take 1992? So EBN came to power! And the son-in-law began to forge iron, while it’s hot! All this spread to regional offices, which in 1991 quickly turned into airlines.
        1. SergeBS
          SergeBS 22 December 2017 21: 14 New
          0
          So who ditched small aircraft and most regional airfields?
          No need to screw for a "stale report." We simply state: E.B.N., and the company TERRORED small aircraft, and now, it turns out, those who are a drunk with a disability (3 fingers lost while turning) were to blame for this, they pushed nafig. wink
  10. rew1969
    rew1969 20 December 2017 23: 31 New
    +2
    The RD-180 engine, created in the framework of Russian-American cooperation (developed in Russia by order of the United States). The owner of the RD-180 license (until 2030) is a company from the United States. All rights to use the RD-180 in the United States also belong to firms from the United States. To comply with US legislation, Pratt & Whitney and NPO Energomash are considered to be the joint manufacturer of RD-180. So that the profit from the sale of engines is received by American firms and not by Russia.
    1. SergeBS
      SergeBS 21 December 2017 00: 41 New
      +1
      Quote: rew1969
      So, that the profit from the sale of engines get American firms and not Russia.

      Uh-huh.
      And the American company does not pay royalties for each engine. And "Energomash" free of charge all units that the United States can not produce, gives the "companion". laughing
      Maybe stop writing fairy tales?
      1. rew1969
        rew1969 21 December 2017 20: 09 New
        0
        ROYALTIES - periodic (current) deductions to the seller (licensor) for the right to use the subject of the license agreement. In practice, ROYALTIs are established in the form of fixed rates in% of the cost of net sales of licensed products, their cost, gross profit, or is determined per unit of output.
        Who is the owner of the engine license ???
        Energomash, of course, receives payment for the completed order. If there was no order what fate would await this well-deserved (in the literal sense) enterprise is unknown.
        1. SergeBS
          SergeBS 22 December 2017 21: 49 New
          0
          Quote: rew1969
          Who is the owner of the engine license ???

          Guess what. Hint: a company from the USA cannot build this engine itself.
          Why?
          1. rew1969
            rew1969 22 December 2017 22: 57 New
            0
            Why spend more than you need?
            1. SergeBS
              SergeBS 22 December 2017 23: 46 New
              0
              Quote: rew1969
              Why spend more than you need?

              Those. in terms of royalties has already merged. laughing
              The next stage went - "we will buy from the damned Raska, and not from our super-cool companies," bringing income is clear to anyone, because it's CHEAPER! Am I spelling it right? winked
              1. rew1969
                rew1969 23 December 2017 19: 30 New
                0
                For royalties, read what it is and to whom payments are made and you will understand that the Americans do not pay these payments, since they are the owners of the license for RD-180 (as well as all the technical documentation for its production). They buy from our firms at the lowest prices, and then resell at higher prices already in the USA (i.e., they minimize their costs, including tax).
  11. Mikhail Zubkov
    Mikhail Zubkov 21 December 2017 01: 27 New
    +2
    Quote: Lavrenty Pavlovich
    They have already created two engines and are completing the tests.

    Actually, these are also sold de jure American, and Energomash de jure is only a manufacturer. Exclusive, true. And the cheapest and most successful. And NASA strained with money. In general, Trump with money is sour - debts of more than $ 20 trillion. And $ 700 billion has already been shredded into the military budget. And NASA is a scientific space. According to our estimates, in order to return to the level of financing of the scientific space of 1965, they need to increase the current funding by 19 times. And it seems like they wanted to PR for the moon. Allegedly, "again" - 50 years after the secret filming on this subject.
  12. Jurkovs
    Jurkovs 21 December 2017 06: 59 New
    +1
    The main thing is that the corporate newspaper is called "For the Motherland". And everything else is not important.
    1. pafegosoff
      pafegosoff 21 December 2017 09: 21 New
      +1
      And we have 90% of factories, factories, steamers owned by the West. From all kinds of food, to machine builders. And do not believe it if it says "95% - from the oligarch ZyuZyu, and 5% - from a Western company).
      The oligarch has the citizenship of country N and secretly belongs to a western company. In general, the same tale about Gazprom, which has 49,9% of the official Western owners, and the remaining shares are in free trade on all exchanges in the world.