Military Review

Pilsudski. A century and a half "father" of modern Poland

54
One hundred and fifty years have passed since the birth of Jozef Pilsudski, who can rightfully be considered the founder of modern Polish statehood. AT history Pilsudski entered as the avid enemy of Russia - that the king, that the Soviet. It was on the confrontation with Russia that he built the Polish ideology during the years of his rule. Although Pilsudski was born in the Russian Empire and was a Russian citizen for many years, he never felt like a citizen of Russia, but always was a Polish nationalist, dreaming of a revival of the powerful Polish-Lithuanian state.


The future marshal and de facto ruler of Poland was born on December 5 1867 of the family estate Zulov, which was located in the territory of Sventiansky district of the Vilna province. By origin, Jozef belonged to an old and noble gentry family name, dating back to the Ginetovich family. The father of the future leader of Poland, Jozef Vincent Peter Piłsudski, during the next Polish uprising 1863 of the year, served as commissar of the national government Zhond Narodovy in the Kovno district. The mother of Jozef Pilsudski, Maria Billevich, also belonged to a noble family. In the family of Pilsudskih there were twelve children, Jozef was the second son.

However, in the 1874 year, when Yuzef was seven years old, the family moved to Vilna. This is where the further development of Jozef Pilsudski took place. He enrolled in the "elite" First Vilna Gymnasium. This educational institution has given many well-known politicians in the future. Perhaps, besides Jozef Pilsudski, Felix Dzerzhinsky, the future revolutionary, Soviet party and state leader, founder and leader of the Cheka, became the most significant figure among its graduates.

“Advanced”, as they would say today, Polish youth Vilna sympathized with revolutionary ideas. The elder brother of Jozef Pilsudski, Bronislav Pilsudski, in 1882, founded the Spójnia circle, which was involved in delivering various Polish patriotic literature to Vilna. Of course, Jozef also joined the mug. In 1885, he entered the medical faculty of Kharkov University and soon began to take an active part in revolutionary activities. Together with his elder brother Bronislav Jozef Pilsudski, he joined the Terrorist faction of the People’s Will and took part in the preparation of the assassination of Emperor Alexander III. By the way, Alexander Ulyanov was executed for this conspiracy. Bronislaw Pilsudski emperor pardoned, replacing the death penalty 15 years of hard labor on Sakhalin. Jozef Pilsudski, who played a minor role in the conspiracy, was sentenced to 5 years in exile in Eastern Siberia and was soon transferred to the Irkutsk Governorate. Pilsudski served the punishment "from bell to bell", returning from exile in 1892. Then he joined the newly created Polish Socialist Party.

Quite quickly, Pilsudski acquired a major influence in PPP. His position was distinguished by a deep conviction in the necessity of combining the socialist ideology of the party with Polish nationalism. Pilsudski believed that only in this case the party will get a chance to achieve the independence of the Polish state. Nationalist beliefs were inherent in Pilsudski throughout the subsequent decades of his life. Pilsudski hated Russia and tried in every way to mobilize the Poles to fight the Russian Empire.

The position of Pilsudski in the pre-revolutionary years clearly characterizes his behavior during the Russian-Japanese and First World Wars. When the Russian-Japanese war began, Pilsudski was set on fire with the idea of ​​creating the Polish Legion as part of the Japanese army. PPP representatives contacted residents of Japanese intelligence, seeking to gain support from Japan in the armed uprising in Poland. However, the Japanese representatives rejected the idea of ​​creating the Polish Legion, since only ethnic Japanese could serve in the Imperial Army of Japan. Then Pilsudski and his associates suggested that the Japanese organize a partisan war in Poland and Lithuania, but General Yamagata Aritomo, who led the General Staff of the Imperial Army of Japan, regarded the proposal of Pilsudski as frivolous. However, the Polish socialists carried out several explosions on the railway. Gradually, the PPS turned to underground warfare, organizing sabotage, attacks on trains, expropriation of banks. Jozef Pilsudski took the most active part in organizing the attacks.

In 1905, it was Pilsudski who headed the Fighting Department of the Central Committee of the PPS, in charge of all the armed actions of the party. Under the leadership of Pilsudski, the militants of the Polish Socialist Party were trained. Shortly before the outbreak of the First World War, he headed the Strelets Union - a militarized organization that considered itself the prototype of the future armed forces of an independent Poland. The training of Polish legionnaires was carried out on the territory of Galicia with the direct patronage of the Austro-Hungarian authorities. Although part of Poland became part of Austria-Hungary after the partition, Pilsudski believed that the Austrians were a “lesser evil” compared to Russia and willingly enjoyed their support.

The leader of the Fighting Department of the PPS made the right bet - with the help of Austria-Hungary he managed to organize officer courses and prepare command personnel for the Polish units. 3 August 1914, Piłsudski created the first personnel company from the militants of the Strelets Union. 12 August 1914, the Polish legionnaires entered the Polish-Polish forces as part of the Austro-Hungarian forces. At the same time, the people of Pilsudski tried to organize an armed uprising against the Russian authorities in the Russian part of Poland.

Pilsudski. A century and a half "father" of modern Poland


Sly Pilsudski, using the support of Austria-Hungary and sending Polish legionnaires to fight as part of the Austro-Hungarian troops, in fact hatched a much more insidious plan. He believed that first the Poles should help Germany and Austria-Hungary defeat the Russian Empire, then go over to the side of the Entente and after the defeat by the forces of the Entente Germany and Austria-Hungary achieve the final independence of Poland. He practically managed to realize this plan, with the only difference that Germany and Austria-Hungary did not defeat Russia.
As soon as Pilsudski saw that the Entente was close to the defeat of the Austro-Hungarian and German troops, he immediately refused to cooperate with Austria-Hungary and ordered the Polish units to no longer swear allegiance to Berlin and Vienna. However, Pilsudski himself was arrested by the German authorities and placed in the fortress of Magdeburg. It was released only 8 November 1918 of the year.

During this time, Pilsudski gained enormous prestige among the nationalist-minded part of the Poles. This was facilitated by his halo of a martyr for a just cause, a fearless fighter for the independence of Poland. November 14 1918, after the capitulation of Germany and Austria-Hungary, all power in the country was transferred to Józef Pilsudski, who was proclaimed the first Head of the Polish State. So overnight, yesterday’s political prisoner and the day before yesterday’s militant leader turned out to be the first person in Poland to regain its independence. Naturally, Pilsudski, having come to power, immediately abandoned socialist phraseology, which he had previously actively used.

Pilsudski’s concept was to unite Poland, Lithuania, Ukraine and Belarus within the framework of the Confederation "Intermarine" (with the leading role of Poland, of course). However, following the Soviet-Polish war, when the Ukrainian and Belarusian lands were divided, it became clear that this idea was not feasible, at least in the foreseeable future. Moreover, Lithuania did not intend to lose its state sovereignty, and the Ukrainian population, which turned out to be part of Poland, still counted on gaining national independence (in Galicia, in 1920-en - 1930-s, many nationalist organizations emerged that spoke with anti-Polish slogans ).

Of course, the impossibility of implementing ambitious political plans seriously hit the political pride of Jozef Pilsudski. In 1922, Pilsudski resigned as head of state. Without Pilsudski, even harder times began in Poland. The economic crisis was growing, social problems were aggravating, and most importantly, Poland did not succeed in achieving the ambitious goal of restoring the state to the borders of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In this situation, Józef Pilsudski decided to return to politics and began to prepare for a military coup. This task was facilitated by the fact that on November 27, the post of Minister of War of the country, 1925 was occupied by the general of armor Lucian Zeligovsky - Pilsudski’s longtime ally. He “closed his eyes” at the beginning of the inauguration of the loyal Pilsudski divisions in the area of ​​the capital. 12 May 1926, began the famous "Piłsudski campaign on Warsaw." Government troops resisted. The fighting continued for three days, killing 379 people from both sides. As a result, Polish President Stanislav Wojciechowski resigned. Jozef Pilsudski was elected a new president, but he chose to give up the post of a formal head of state. Ignacy Mostsitsky became the President, and Jozef Pilsudski was appointed Minister of War and Inspector General of the Armed Forces. At the same time, everyone understood perfectly well that it was Jozef Pilsudski who was the de facto head of the Polish state, determining his domestic and foreign policy.

Having received a fully controlled government, Piłsudski set about establishing an authoritarian regime. A non-partisan block of cooperation with the government was formed, playing the role of the “party of power” under Józef Pilsudski. In domestic policy at the end of 1920-x - the beginning of 1930-x. Pilsudski was guided by the suppression of the opposition, and the most severe repressions were launched against the Polish communist movement. In the communists, Pilsudski saw not only dangerous competitors in the struggle for power, but also conductors of Soviet influence. In these years, the Soviet Union was considered by Poland as the main military-political opponent, a threat to independence and political formation. Under Pilsudski, anti-Sovietism and anti-communism acquired the features of a national ideology, replacing the former Russophobia of the Polish nationalist movement.



In addition to the communists, representatives of the Ukrainian nationalist movement were also subjected to repression, seeking to gain the independence of the lands of Galicia and Volyn that were part of Poland. In response, Ukrainian nationalists launched terrorist acts against the Polish authorities. So, the Minister of Internal Affairs of Poland B. Peratsky was killed. Pilsudski had no choice but to move on to the “pacification” (pacification) policy of Western Ukraine. In practice, it meant a total ban on any Ukrainian national organizations, including even peaceful, non-political public organizations, arrests and placement in concentration camps of Ukrainian nationalists and persons suspected of sympathizing with them. All these tough measures have turned the Ukrainian population against Pilsudski and Poland even more.

As for foreign policy, after the military coup of 1926, Poland gradually turned to the concept of “equidistance”. If at first the Soviet Union was considered the main adversary of Poland, then the gradual revival of the power of neighboring Germany also could not but disturb the Polish leadership. Actually, Poland, located between the two powers, had no choice but to maneuver between them, counting on the help of Great Britain and France.

Realizing that Poland cannot withstand the Soviet Union, Pilsudski and his entourage drew attention to the neighboring small Czechoslovakia, to which territorial claims also arose. Ultimately, this policy, after the death of Pilsudski himself, led to the partition of Czechoslovakia between Germany, Hungary and Poland, opening up a direct path to a further German attack on Poland itself.

Jozef Pilsudski passed away 12 on May 1935 of the year in 20 hours 45 minutes. The cause of death was liver cancer, the symptoms of which were actively manifested two years before the death of the Polish leader. The comrades who came to power after his death could no longer be compared with the late marshal for their leadership qualities and political talent. Pilsudski entered the history of modern Poland as a national hero, the founder of the country's independence. Admittedly, it really was. Jozef Pilsudski acted to the best of his understanding of Polish interests and sought to turn Poland into a powerful and powerful state united by a common national idea. It is clear that these aspirations of Pilsudski were contrary to Soviet / Russian state interests.
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 5 December 2017 05: 29 New
    +7
    Jozef Pilsudski acted to the best of his understanding of Polish interests and sought to turn Poland into a powerful and powerful state, united by a common national idea.


    Modern Poland is not much different from Russophobic Poland since Pilsudski ...
    it means Poland has not learned the lesson of history and it is guaranteed a new round of repetition of the past.
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 5 December 2017 10: 51 New
      +2
      You are not quite right. A fundamental difference in the change of ownership. Today it is the United States, although it exists at the expense of the EU.
      The author noted the main thing, for Pilsudski any phraseology is needed only to create a Polish directory, where he is the director-dictator-founding father, in general, the savior of the Poles.
  2. XII Legion
    XII Legion 5 December 2017 06: 29 New
    21
    Iconic personality
    Anyway - the time of the titans
    He was able to create a Polish army: from the falcons, who were uncertainly operating near Kalisz in August 1914 - to the army, which was in the 20th-1st sex. 30s was one of the strongest in Europe.
    The cunning Pilsudski, taking advantage of the support of Austria-Hungary and sending Polish legionnaires to fight as part of the Austro-Hungarian troops, actually hatched a much more insidious plan.

    Both Poles and Ukrainians are always on their mind - they acted and will act only in their own interests. Well done in this.
    He practically managed to implement this plan, with the only difference being that Germany and Austria-Hungary did not defeat Russia.
    Exactly.
    Thank you!
    1. baudolino
      baudolino 5 December 2017 07: 33 New
      12
      A criminal and a terrorist who escaped retribution for his crimes. That's the whole "titan".
      1. XII Legion
        XII Legion 5 December 2017 08: 09 New
        21
        Criminals and terrorists came at that time to power in Russia.
        Nevertheless, we consider titans laughing
        1. avva2012
          avva2012 5 December 2017 08: 16 New
          +8
          Are you talking about essers? Or have you watched the series on Russian television?
          1. XII Legion
            XII Legion 5 December 2017 08: 33 New
            20
            And about them too. This is if we talk about the Provisional Government.
            But in the Soviet government there were people with jail time - that is, legally “criminals” and so-called expropriators, and pure terrorists (the murder of government officials is also a terrorist attack). Remember - who.
            1. avva2012
              avva2012 5 December 2017 09: 21 New
              +6
              But in the Soviet government there were people with jail time - that is, legally “criminals” and so-called expropriators, and pure terrorists

              Who! Chairman of the Council - Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin); People's Commissar for Internal Affairs - A. I. Rykov; agriculture - V.P. Milyutin; labor - A. G. Shlyapnikov; for military and naval affairs - a committee composed of: V. A. Ovseenko (Antonov), N. V. Krylenko and P. E. Dybenko; for trade and industry - V.P. Nogin; public education - A.V. Lunacharsky; finance - I. I. Skvortsov (Stepanov); for foreign affairs - L. D. Bronstein (Trotsky); Justice - G.I. Oppokov (Lomov); for food affairs - I. A. Teodorovich; mail and telegraphs - N.P. Avilov (Glebov); Chairman for Nationalities - I.V. Dzhugashvili (Stalin). Direct evidence that IV Stalin, engaged in exs, no. Ter-Petrosyan, he was not a member of the Government.
              1. XII Legion
                XII Legion 5 December 2017 09: 38 New
                20
                How not?
                Maybe there are also no prison sentences for some comrades?
                But I'm not talking about that.
                Pilsudski really did a lot for Poland.
                Enemy of the Republic of Ingushetia and the USSR? Definitely.
                Prominent statesman of Poland? Undoubtedly.
                And double standards (ours is a scout, and theirs is a spy) is useless here. I just said that the former criminals in 20-30. were in governments - and not only the USSR and Poland, but also Germany, for example (And Hitler had to sit out).
                The author wrote a good balanced article.
                As I noted above
                1. avva2012
                  avva2012 5 December 2017 09: 55 New
                  +7
                  And double standards (ours is a scout, and theirs is a spy)

                  These are not double standards. Why, I wrote below. In the Volyn massacre, no one is going to justify the performers of this nightmare, but it was the policies of Poland and its leaders that led to such fierceness.
                  And about the fact that he is outstanding. Tell me, but apart from the outstanding Russophobia and anti-Sovietism, what did he personally do? I personally do not know in the article, this is not indicated. Another anti-adviser, W. Churchill, despite everything, was recognized as a great world-class figure. Books about him were published in the USSR with completely objective content. But, about this one, somehow not. He probably deserved it.
                  1. XII Legion
                    XII Legion 5 December 2017 11: 06 New
                    18
                    In no way justify Pilsudski
                    And I do not like him at all - at least for the fact that his young men in the WWI fought on the side of the Austro-Germans.
                    And from the merits to Poland, without a hitch: "Remediation" (reorganization regime), the Soviet-Polish war of 1919-1920. (from it such insignificance as Poland came out more than worthy), the creation of the Polish army is 20 years of one of the strongest in Europe.
                    1. avva2012
                      avva2012 5 December 2017 11: 35 New
                      +3
                      I understand that you do not condone. It’s just that the hunt, so that, gad, was called that way, and not otherwise. Well, we all know about the reasons why Poland won the war. There are two of them, the help of the Entente and the lack of strategic thinking in Tukhachevsky.
                      1. XII Legion
                        XII Legion 5 December 2017 13: 31 New
                        17
                        why Poland won the war, we all know. There are two of them, the help of the Entente and the lack of strategic thinking in Tukhachevsky.

                        I generally agree
                        But, as usual, there is a whole bunch of reasons. Moreover, Tukhachevsky commanded one front. And second?
                        We can also recall an unfavorable correlation of forces for the Red Army, for example (there was a period when 36000 people in the South-West Fleet (20000 1st SC and 16000 everything else) opposed 50000 Poles) - somehow, such a balance of forces was allowed. And obviously not the command of one front, but the High Command is guilty here.
                        Be that as it may - the Poles got out, what is already there.
                        It would be better to have remained divided between Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary. The scheme was ideal - several large empires instead of a host of evil national "states"
                    2. avva2012
                      avva2012 5 December 2017 13: 47 New
                      +3
                      "The scheme was ideal - several large empires instead of a host of evil national" states "
                      The Germans would have succeeded, but with us, somehow, the genocide is not very ....
                      1. XII Legion
                        XII Legion 5 December 2017 14: 28 New
                        16
                        In our country, the Poles in many ways lived more freely - than the Austrian and German Poles.
                        I don’t know what genocide there is. Probably only in the heads of party members such as Pilsudski. It is necessary to justify the fact of his being ...
                2. venaya
                  venaya 5 December 2017 10: 53 New
                  +2
                  Quote: XII legion
                  Pilsudski really did a lot for Poland.

                  Maybe he once again on a very ancient Russian lands with a once purely Russian population simply recreated from oblivion such an obviously anti-Russian state as Poland (in Latin, Polonia). The fact that it is really anti-Russian - so watch any program even on "our" TV, and then as representatives of this state. formations (like a millennium ago, clearly not independent) with undisguised hatred water our country in all its forms and formations. Think carefully, how could this even happen? And it is noteworthy that now that more than a millennium ago. Times pass and the vector of political orientation of this state. education for some reason remains unchanged. which does not surprise me in any way.
                  1. XII Legion
                    XII Legion 5 December 2017 11: 13 New
                    17
                    In my opinion, Kramzin wrote that Russia and Poland are eternal antagonists.
                    Either the Poles will come to Moscow, then the Russians to Warsaw.
                    Eternal confrontation.
                    And to the West after the revolutions, the ugly brainchild of the Treaty of Versailles was needed as a bastion.
                3. avva2012
                  avva2012 5 December 2017 15: 09 New
                  +4
                  "Our Poles have largely lived more freely"
                  So I’m talking about it, we don’t know how, and don’t have to be able to, we are genocide. With the Germans, you will not get sick. I don’t think that those Poles were holding people. And in RI, an elite university in Vilna, 5 years of settlement for preparing an assassination attempt on the head of state. In another country, not only Yuzyu would not have been found after this, but also the next of kin. Of course, I believe that this is impossible, but some characters understand this appeal only.
            2. Nikitin
              Nikitin 5 December 2017 10: 58 New
              +2
              Quote: XII legion
              And about them too. This is if we talk about the Provisional Government.

              In the Provisional Government there were no people "with imprisonment", in contrast to the so-called "Council of People's Commissars."
              Russophobe Pilsudsky was noble: it’s enough to remember how he made a ceasefire with the Bolsheviks and took part in 1919, then in 1920, so that they could transfer all their forces to defeat the Russian army of Denikin and then Wrangel in Crimea.
              1. XII Legion
                XII Legion 5 December 2017 11: 08 New
                18
                About the Provisional Government - had in mind, saying "and about them, too" ESEROV.
                And about the Council of People's Commissars - just meant with "imprisonment".
                There is such a good article - in my opinion Shteifon is the author of how Pislsudsky helped to destroy Denikin. You're right
        2. andrewkor
          andrewkor 6 December 2017 05: 26 New
          0
          Took off the tongue!
    2. venaya
      venaya 5 December 2017 10: 17 New
      +4
      Quote: XII legion
      Iconic personality
      He was able to create a Polish army: from the falcons, who were uncertainly operating near Kalisz in August 1914 - to the army, which was in the 20th-1st sex. 30s was one of the strongest in Europe.

      Tell me: how did he manage to carry out this fantastic act? I recall that Poland did not have its own aviation and aviators, from the word at all! However, at the same time, airmen served in his army along with airplanes from all over the world, even from the USA. and where did he manage to scrape so much money, did his relatives leave an inheritance. Do you even think about what you write here: it was not he who created and financed the pariah, but completely different people, the same thing with the country: he was a member of a large transnational organized crime group that organized these parties and organized all this WWI, together with everyone at that time numerous revolutions.
      1. XII Legion
        XII Legion 5 December 2017 11: 10 New
        17
        The army was first a hodgepodge of former legions plus a-b, germ. and Russian. heritage.
        The powerful support of the Entente - Poland became the "Eastern Wall".
    3. odometer
      odometer 5 December 2017 11: 12 New
      +5
      Sensibly noticed - the time of the titans.
    4. Rastas
      Rastas 5 December 2017 13: 58 New
      +4
      Have mercy, sir, well, what kind of Pilsudan titan ??? Or do we already have all the dictators with manners in Napoleons already become “titans”? Then Bokassa must be written in titans. What is so significant Pilsudski committed? He was like, according to Saltykov-Shchedrin, "everyone was expecting bloodshed from him, but he swallowed the siskin." All his activities after 1920 are mouse fuss and coups. I was in Krakow on the Wawel at his grave, or rather the sarcophagus, a familiar Pole told me that if he died Pilsudski in the 20th, he would be really great. And so. Salvation, say, so in 1939 this salvation came sideways, when Polish officers surrendered faster in red so that their local population would not lustrate. Polish army. of course was great. So great that in the 39th it held for three whole days. Therefore, Pilsudsky is remembered only by 1920, he was not remembered by anything else, but he ate the Chizhik.
      1. avva2012
        avva2012 5 December 2017 14: 33 New
        +2
        Pilsudski, it seems, lived a stormy life, but did not understand one thing, one should not hope for big boys, it is better to rely on your own strengths.
      2. XII Legion
        XII Legion 5 December 2017 14: 38 New
        18
        in the 39th kept for three whole days.

        Say also
        Held on for more than a month
        Despite the fact that on September 17, the de facto second front opened for them (Polish campaign of the Red Army).
        And it’s clearly more than all the Beneluxes combined.
        1. XII Legion
          XII Legion 5 December 2017 16: 00 New
          15
          And one more thing - I forgot to mention.
          Personalities (Pilsudski, no matter who) do nothing, going against the current of reality - especially geopolitical.
          After WWI, Poland was initially created as a BUFFER state. And in the absence of a full-fledged Russian (Soviet) front in 1939 - friendly to Poland and the Anglo-French - it DOOMED TO CONVEY.
          The Poles understood this - but still did not follow the path of different Hungary, did not follow the path of compromising with Hitlerism - but fought with it. FIRST. And they contributed to the victory of the anti-Hitler coalition (big-small, it doesn’t matter).
          1. avva2012
            avva2012 5 December 2017 16: 59 New
            +1
            So that the Germans had more Poles than against them? Shooting Soviet soldiers in the back is also their role. Unpacking the things of the Jews and settling them at home after they were first driven into the ghetto, and then to Majdanek, are they, too, victims of circumstances? Well, in any way, differently, could not? Poor Poles, no options.
            1. XII Legion
              XII Legion 5 December 2017 17: 03 New
              16
              I'm not about the Poles
              And about the state of Poland of the sample 1918-39.
              Shelf life - until the beginning of the next world war.
              1. avva2012
                avva2012 5 December 2017 17: 16 New
                0
                You can not about the Poles, you can about Poland. Who cares? You cited the example of Hungary and Romania that you have chosen. Yes, their choice can be condemned, but this is a choice, and the Poles / Poland, at that time, hung out like ..... They dreamed of joining Berlin as adults, divided Czechoslovakia. It was hoped that there are big boys, France and England, will intervene. I don’t know, the behavior of the Hungarians causes me more understanding, they did it, and not for them. Perhaps the expression of Churchill in relation to Poland was due to the role that this country played, "and we will go north ......."
                1. XII Legion
                  XII Legion 5 December 2017 17: 37 New
                  15
                  Hungary as a descendant of AB. it is clear why gravitated to Germany.
                  Poland was created as a buffer state - it played its role for 20 years under the knife. And she didn’t hang out too much - the Entente was created, and it gravitated to the Entente states. In the 39th they threw her - but that's another matter.
                  Yes, and it can exist in the 20th century as a nation-state only by entering a large military-political bloc
          2. Rastas
            Rastas 5 December 2017 19: 32 New
            +2
            In fact, the Poles were the first with the Germans to participate in the division of Czechoslovakia.
            1. XII Legion
              XII Legion 5 December 2017 21: 00 New
              15
              I know that.
              But there was still no world war.
              World war also marked the end of Poland.
              1. XII Legion
                XII Legion 6 December 2017 10: 14 New
                15
                In cooperation with Germany, not only Poland was noticed before WWII)
  3. avva2012
    avva2012 5 December 2017 07: 07 New
    +6
    His position was distinguished by a deep conviction of the need to combine the socialist ideology of the party with Polish nationalism.

    National Socialist, i.e., an outright fascist. It is not clear why they remembered the real former terrorist, bandit, traitor to everyone and everything. A creature with hands to the elbow in blood, the one who is responsible for the deaths of tens of thousands of captured Red Army soldiers, whose policy provoked the Volyn massacre. Earth glassy, ​​ghoul.
    1. Lganhi
      Lganhi 5 December 2017 10: 40 New
      +4
      Praising Pilsudski is as strange as praising Hitler. Hitler was also a patriot of Germany, he managed to restore Germany after a terrible robbery by France and England. If Hitler had died in 1939, then he would have remained in world history the greatest politician, and in the history of Germans a national hero.
      1. avva2012
        avva2012 5 December 2017 10: 56 New
        +1
        This is what I am writing about. You can, in fact, look in the opposite direction. If Poland could defeat Germany ....... Given, precisely, the national socialist views of Pilsudski, where socialism has the same name, as in the NSDAP, I think the same Jews would not be envied, and in such a reality.
      2. venaya
        venaya 5 December 2017 11: 32 New
        +2
        Quote: Lgankhi
        Praising Pilsudski is as strange as praising Hitler. Hitler also was a patriot of Germany, managed to restore Germany after a terrible robbery ..

        Do you understand what you write? It was through the policies and actions of the Austrian A. Hitler (he obtained absolutely no law citizenship of the Weimar Republic) that the population of this country ultimately suffered the largest human casualties in its entire history. Recall: such ancient cities as Hamburg and Dresden were completely demolished, and Dresden with its population. Hiroshima and Nagasaki in comparison with them smoke on the sidelines, so 3rd and 4th place in terms of losses. And the most amazing thing: Where did Hitler manage to scrape together such a lot of money for the fantastic growth of the Third Reich’s economy, is it not the USA, where from “black Tuesday” in 1928, it died from 5 (officially) to 12 (not officially) million people. Maybe, after all, Hitler himself was not very involved in the fantastic growth of the economy, but completely different people realized this economic growth for other purposes, not at all with the goals of increasing the welfare of the citizens of the Third Reich? I believe that this whole situation should be analyzed more carefully, not missing the most important tasks set for Hitler by its investors (owners), otherwise it would not be possible to remove any clarity from this story, but it should.
        1. Lganhi
          Lganhi 5 December 2017 11: 51 New
          +2
          Dear, I certainly understand that you read Starikov’s books, and I completely agree with him, but Hitler’s undoubted merit was that he was able to use this money to restore his country, rather than stuffing his pockets like Potroshenko and others representatives of the junta. Almost 4 years have passed since February 2014, but Ukraine is heading into the abyss, although the EU and the US are pouring in unreasonably dough on the restoration of the economy and army of Ukraine. That is why the uncontrolled theft of the ukrokhunta, headed by Waltzman, became the reason for his displeasure with the US leadership and now they are betting on his early overthrow, since Gunpowder could not fulfill the wishes of his Washington hosts.
          1. venaya
            venaya 5 December 2017 12: 28 New
            +1
            Quote: Lgankhi
            .. Hitler's undoubted merit is that he managed to really use these money to rebuild their countryand didn’t stuff their pockets like Potroshenko and others ..

            Do you understand what you managed to write here? It turns out that you praise A. Hitler himself in the fact that all the finns allocated to him. he really managed to send the funds to the war with Russia under the name of the USSR. By the way, I’m not as an attentive reader of Starikov himself as you, just like he really carefully studied such materials, hence the conclusions that are outwardly similar to him, they are simply based on widely available facts today. I’m just trying to form my opinion only on factual materials, hence the coincidence with the opinion of other people, although naturally not complete. So for me, Poroshenko’s position is preferable to A. Hitler’s position, although they both funded it to continue the millennium of endless attacks on Russia, as well as Mr. Pilsutsky’s. Pilsutsky with his Poloni (previously Volley Russia) was not able to create the conditions for an attack on the USSR, so the enemy and dragged the Austrian A. Hitler with his "Reich". Poroshenko, with my outskirts, in my understanding, is for us specifically preferable to both previous dictators, that is, in fact, it turns out that it is better. So I think that you should not be limited to the opinion of Starikov only, but you should go further than him in the analysis of today's events. It's my opinion.
            1. Lganhi
              Lganhi 5 December 2017 13: 14 New
              0
              Poroshenko is an ordinary thief. He went to the presidency to create patronage to his business. The Yankees made a mistake in it. So they want to change it and put in its place someone else who would stop stealing.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 5 December 2017 07: 33 New
    +4
    Filed by RI
    Pilsudski, using the support of Austria-Hungary and sending Polish legionnaires to fight as part of the Austro-Hungarian troops
    but they don’t call him Austrian, German "shpien" ... His own, anti-communist ...
    1. venaya
      venaya 5 December 2017 10: 04 New
      +2
      Quote: parusnik
      but they don’t call him Austrian, German "shpien" ... Own, anti-communist.

      Something painfully I doubt that he was just a kind of "anti-communist." After all, his party PPS (Polish Socialist Party) was created at the same time in the same place as the forerunner of the RSDLP (1898), that is, the BUND party, namely in Basel in 1897. I consider him not some anti-communist there, but a full-fledged anti-Russianist and an outstanding destroyer of Russian statehood in any form. This is really a full-fledged and most outstanding enemy of our country.
  5. sergo1914
    sergo1914 5 December 2017 10: 36 New
    +2
    I can’t take pre-war Poland differently than through the Quinto from All-In Bank. How many years have passed.
  6. Luga
    Luga 5 December 2017 11: 46 New
    +1
    An article from the series "The enemy must be known in person."
    A strange combination in one head of imperial manners ("from sea to sea") on the one hand and frenzied nationalism on the other. A kind of cute oxymoronchik.
    Our home-grown militant nationalists need to carefully study the biography of this figure along with the history of Poland in the first half of the twentieth century, with such a striking example we can understand what the attempts to combine the unconnected lead to: in the best case - a lot of blood and loss of territories, in the worst - complete loss of sovereignty. Yes, and the current Polish leadership would be worth asking ...
    Well, Russophobia of Pilsudski, in my opinion, is completely irrational, bestial, like a cherry on a cake.
    In short, the result. The character had a lot of strength and energy, but there was no systemic thinking, there was a complete mess in his head. As a result, the transformation of a sovereign state into a governor-general four years after the death of the hero of the article.
  7. Monarchist
    Monarchist 5 December 2017 12: 02 New
    +1
    Quote: XII legion
    And about them too. This is if we talk about the Provisional Government.
    But in the Soviet government there were people with jail time - that is, legally “criminals” and so-called expropriators, and pure terrorists (the murder of government officials is also a terrorist attack). Remember - who.

    There were those who remembered the first one - Ter-Petrosyan “Kamo”,
  8. Monarchist
    Monarchist 5 December 2017 12: 22 New
    0
    Quote: venaya
    Quote: parusnik
    but they don’t call him Austrian, German "shpien" ... Own, anti-communist.

    Something painfully I doubt that he was just a kind of "anti-communist." After all, his party PPS (Polish Socialist Party) was created at the same time in the same place as the forerunner of the RSDLP (1898), that is, the BUND party, namely in Basel in 1897. I consider him not some anti-communist there, but a full-fledged anti-Russianist and an outstanding destroyer of Russian statehood in any form. This is really a full-fledged and most outstanding enemy of our country.

    And I would say uncompromisingly indecent: he begins with Alexander Ulyanov, (by the way I recommend: “Everyday life of the Russian gendarmes” is about Ulyanov’s plot), then he offers his services to the Japanese, and I especially like: “First, the Poles should help Germany and Austria-Hungary to defeat the Russian Empire, and then go over to the side of the Entente "somehow with decency is not very combined.
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 5 December 2017 13: 36 New
      +1
      We must pay tribute to the Poles, about the "founding father", they didn’t write anything bad even during the time of the NDP, the maximum is the anti-communist, the strangler of the revolutionary movement and even so modestly, more than extending his merits in the pre-revolutionary time, they say what kind of guy he was, and then he got kind of screwed up, power turned its head, went the wrong way ...
    2. venaya
      venaya 5 December 2017 15: 21 New
      +1
      Quote: Monarchist
      "First, the Poles should help Germany and Austria-Hungary defeat the Russian Empire, and then go over to the Entente" - somehow with decency not very compatible

      Something I did not understand at all about what decency are you talking about here? Specifically, Pan Pilsutsky carried out the task of his masters, and as far as I understand, they almost never let them down in anything. Here it is necessary to understand decency in relation to whom: to his own investor-owners or in relation to the Russian Empire or the people of the then Kingdom of Poland. There were some random meetings with the socialist V.I. Ulyanov (Lenin) too, so Lenin, while still in Switzerland, had friendly relations with the socialist-journalist B. Mussolini, too, and in 1918 he was surprised to see the last one in Moscow at the congress just socialists. Both Pilsutsky and Mussolini worked for their masters, and not for certain fundamental ideas of socialism itself, in contrast to V.I. Lenin, by the way. Both of them were bought with all the giblets, unlike Lenin, who unexpectedly got the opportunity to realize the ideas of socialism in a single country. So Pilsutsky did not betray his masters, but betrayed the ideas of building a social society, and this is not the same thing. The general task set during the creation of all parties in 1897 in Basel was unambiguous, that is, the defeat of both the Russian Empire and all Russian that remained there to never have such a country with that name and the very language of the Rus (Slovenian) more not left. But V.I.Lenin has nothing to do with it - they didn’t create a pariah, he created the Bolshevik faction on his own, without any help and he also promoted his ideas on his own, only with the help of ideological colleagues. Neither Pilsutsky, nor B. Mussolini, nor A. Hitler could get such wide opportunities and they all worked according to an algorithm that was previously set by their masters. So what about "decency" - specify decency in relation to whom, otherwise nothing is clear about what, about what and in relation to whom "decency" you are talking about!
  9. Monarchist
    Monarchist 5 December 2017 12: 37 New
    +1
    I don’t know about you, but it seems to me that the last photo of Pilsudski is the most expressive: a kind of mixture of walrus and bulldog.
    1. avva2012
      avva2012 5 December 2017 12: 45 New
      +1
      Physiognomists claim that after 40 years, everything that is inside the person is written on the face. If so, then his portrait would look great in the section, "They are wanted by the police," especially dangerous.
  10. Dzmicer
    Dzmicer 5 December 2017 18: 25 New
    +2
    He entered the “elite” First Gymnasium of Vilna. This educational institution has given many prominent political figures in the future. Perhaps, apart from Jozef Pilsudski, the most significant figure among her graduates was Felix Dzerzhinsky - a future revolutionary, Soviet party and statesman, founder and leader of the Cheka.

    Another confirmation that the Bolsheviks along with the Poles are consistent enemies of Russia and the Russian people.
  11. Conductor
    Conductor 5 December 2017 19: 13 New
    +1
    Head of state, the position sounds strong.