Military Review

Arctic arithmetic: when three is more than six

36



At the time of the collapse of the USSR, its fleet had six nuclear-powered icebreakers. At the same time, the cargo turnover on the routes of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) was 7,6 mln. Tons. Today, they are being replaced with only three new “Arctic” 22220 projects, which will be able to provide much greater freight traffic along the northern sea routes.

In 2017, more than 8 million tons of cargo will be transported along the SMP along the routes, and then the growth will be exponentially. Thus, despite the sanctions and the crisis, the Russian program for the development of the resources of the Far North is coming to the finish line and will become a very important driver of economic growth.

But not so long ago everything looked very sad. In 1990, after the collapse of the USSR, the annual cargo traffic by the routes of the Northern Sea Route fell to miserable 1,5 million tons, and it seemed that a little more, and the potential of the Russian Arctic could be forgotten for a long time.

Helped by chance.

Norilsk Nickel is the savior of Atomflot, Russia

4 November 1989 of the Year The Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a resolution on the creation of a state-owned concern for the production of non-ferrous metals “Norilsk Nickel”. And even earlier in Finland two unique nuclear icebreakers were built, the main task of which was to work in the mouths of Siberian rivers.

The fact is that in the mouth of the Yenisei in some places the depths were just 10 meters, and the draft of the serial Soviet atomic icebreakers "Arktika" was up to 11,5 meters.

And therefore, to ensure year-round operation of the plant, there were only two ways: either deepen the bottom of the Yenisei, or build three new nuclear-powered icebreakers with a draft of no more than 9 meters. They thought it was cheaper to build ships ... However, only two managed to be built before the collapse. It was “Norilsk Nickel” that became the main client of Atomflot in the most difficult years (1990 and 2000). Thanks to him, he survived.

Next - just ahead

Today everything is completely different. The economic development program of the Arctic region is a priority. Today there is no shortage of contracts. On the contrary, already approved and implemented plans suggest a sharp increase in freight traffic along the NSR in the next year or two.

According to Stanislav Golovinsky, Deputy General Director for Atomflot Development, a contract has already been signed with Yamal LNG for the export of 17,5 million tons of cargo per year. All the gas from this project for more than twenty years ahead has already been contracted.

An agreement was also signed with Gazprom Neft for the annual maintenance of 8 million tons of cargo.

The development of the Taimyr coal basin with a total stock of high-quality coal in 185 billion tons looks very promising. The first posting of the bulk carrier took place in February — March of the current year. Already today there is a firm agreement with the Vostok-Ugol company to export up to 10 million tons of coal (with a prospect of up to 2030, to increase volumes to 30-50 million tons) and smaller contracts. And still it is necessary to provide large-scale construction projects and the rapidly growing population of the region.

Thus, already after 2030, the icebreaking fleet of Russia must provide at least 60-70 mln. Tons of cargo, or maybe all 100 mln. Tons. How to achieve this?

A twig to a twig - it turns out a broom



The first point can be called "God to help." Global warming over the past decades has drastically reduced the area and thickness of the Arctic ice fields. Today it is quite possible to consider the zone to the Taimyr Peninsula as an area with year-round navigation.



Point two. Construction of special merchant ships. Today, Russian companies operating in the Arctic are intensively updating their merchant fleet. They give priority to ships of special construction, which at least part of the time of the year can do without the help of icebreakers (classes arc4, arc7, etc.).

Point three. Icebreaker capacity growth fleet. Icebreaker icebreaker strife.



The nuclear-powered icebreaker “Arktika” of the 10520 project and the nuclear-powered icebreaker “Arktika” of the 22220 project, having almost the same power, are very different from each other in their main parameter - the ice permeability. At the speed of the 1-2 node, the first can overcome the ice with a thickness of 2,6 meters, the second to 3 meters, and at the speed of 5 nodes, these figures will be 2,25 and 2,6 meters respectively.

At the same time, the Taimyr icebreakers are even weaker. At the speed of the 2 node, he can overcome the ice with the thickness of the “total” 1,77 meter. And with a run-up no more than 2,1 meter.

That is, the same ice fields, new icebreakers can pass much faster. At the same time, 22220 vessels are universal and can change their draft if necessary. When they need power, they fill ballast tanks and crush ice of maximum thickness. When they need to enter the shallow waters, the tanks are emptied and their draft does not exceed the 8,5 meter needed for work in the mouths of Siberian rivers.

In addition, the width of the channel being laid has also grown, along which merchant ships following them (from 29 to 33 meters) will be able to follow the icebreakers. And this is a sharp increase in the deadweight of vessels served. As a result, only a change of generations of Russian nuclear icebreakers will increase the number of cargoes transported with their help several times.

Arctic arithmetic: when three is more than six


The development of an even more powerful Leader icebreaker (120 MW), which is intended for transit pilotage of ships from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic, is now being completed. At the same time, ice fields with thickness up to 2,5 meters will be covered at the “cruising” speed of 11 knots.

New Russian diesel-electric icebreakers are not far behind their stronger brethren. Now in St. Petersburg, albeit with problems, but the construction of the lead ship of the 22600 project "Viktor Chernomyrdin" (with a capacity of 25 MW) ends. It also, as in the project 22220, laid the "universality". The ship has a lot of innovative solutions that allow it to work even in heavier ice than it leaves in history nuclear icebreakers "Taimyr". At the end of the tests and when confirming the declared characteristics, the series can be increased to five units.



A little earlier, a series of icebreakers of the 21900 “Moscow” project were built, which, having the power of “all” 15MW, are able to overcome ice with a 2 node speed up to 1,5 meter thick.

Total: by 2030, the Russian “group” of linear icebreakers will consist of at least three (or four) nuclear ships and up to ten diesel-electric ones. It will be one or two less icebreaker than during the collapse of the USSR (six + nine), but due to the growth of their capacity and other factors, this will increase the volume of freight traffic in the Arctic by almost ten times.

This is the arithmetic that comes out ...
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  1. 210ox
    210ox 22 November 2017 07: 35
    +3
    The Arctic was, is and will be OUR!
    1. stalkerwalker
      stalkerwalker 22 November 2017 10: 09
      +9
      Good article, in the spirit of "And with us - everything is in a bundle!".
      From the point of view of developing the Northern Sea Route - yes, the ice has broken ... This is exactly the case when private business helped the state. On the transportation of goods from Dudinka to Murmansk. Now that the gas terminal was built in Sabietta, the LPG tankers also carried cargo to the west.
      And what is transported from the west of the country to the east? What is the efficiency and cost of transport on the SMP? After all, if you listen to the enthusiastic author
      by 2030, the Russian “grouping” of linear icebreakers will consist of at least three (or four) nuclear ships and up to ten diesel-electric ones. This will be one or two icebreakers less than during the collapse of the USSR (six + nine), but due to the growth of their capacity and other factors, this will increase the volume of cargo transportation in the Arctic by almost ten times.
      This is the arithmetic that comes out ...

      Main question "Who pays for the icebreaker escort for transport vessels?" Those. it turns out that today the state provides profit to private companies engaged in the extraction and sale of minerals and natural gas (and coal in the future).
      What would not bore, I express my opinion.
      Only then the operation of the Northern Sea Route will be effective when the cost of the transported cargo by transport vessels does not exceed the cost of icebreaking assistance 50% of the first. When the tonnage of goods transported in both directions will be increased in comparison with today’s, at least 10-20 times. I do not take into account goods for the needs of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation - this is a different story. It remains to be invested in the infrastructure of the NSR. In the meantime, what happened, marine rescue centers cannot quickly and efficiently carry out rescue operations in the space from Novaya Zemlya to Dezhnev Strait ...
      1. evil partisan
        evil partisan 22 November 2017 10: 18
        +4
        Ilyich. hi
        It’s good that I can’t let it go! am Shaw for the habit of elderly patriots spoil the mood !! sad
        Hi! drinks
        1. stalkerwalker
          stalkerwalker 22 November 2017 10: 23
          +4
          Yuri, hi!
          hi
          Maybe Yuri Podolyak, originally from Sumy, knows better what is happening in our Arctic ....
          But personally, I see another picture.
          drinks
      2. Yurasumy
        22 November 2017 10: 46
        +3
        You would only have to criticize the “all-props”. You do not like digits. Coal delivery from Taimyr to the same Holland is several times cheaper than from Kuzbass. This difference covers both icebreaking and profit. If this is a zrada, then I’m embarrassed to ask, but what’s your problem?
        1. IS-80_RVGK2
          IS-80_RVGK2 22 November 2017 11: 09
          +2
          Quote: yurasumy
          You would only have to criticize the “all-props”.

          And will you be more careful when hanging labels?
          Quote: yurasumy
          You do not like digits.

          And in your article there aren’t any particular figures.
          Quote: yurasumy
          If this is a zrada, then I’m embarrassed to ask, but what’s your problem?

          To understand how far this is, you need to know a little more than just about the price of transportation.
        2. stalkerwalker
          stalkerwalker 22 November 2017 17: 39
          +5
          Quote: yurasumy
          You do not like digits

          What about de won?
          belay
          Quote: yurasumy
          Coal delivery from Taimyr to the same Holland is yes times cheaper than from Kuzbass

          Helium extracted on the Moon is 3 times cheaper than that obtained on Earth .... wassat
        3. Jodina
          Jodina 24 November 2017 01: 34
          +1
          In Taimyr and the coal, a little other money costs;)
      3. IS-80_RVGK2
        IS-80_RVGK2 22 November 2017 11: 02
        +3
        Quote: stalkerwalker
        From the point of view of developing the Northern Sea Route - yes, the ice has broken ...

        There is still an interesting question, how long has this ice moved. I do not believe in the technogenic theory of global warming. If this is due to solar activity, then I wonder how long it will last. Is it possible that after 30 years the warming will be replaced by a cooling. And all our investments in the project will turn into a pumpkin.
        1. stalkerwalker
          stalkerwalker 22 November 2017 18: 35
          +2
          Quote: IS-80_RVGK2
          And all our investments in the project will turn into a pumpkin.

          Absolutely agree....
          I remember the navigation of the late 80's when the White Sea froze from the mouth of the Northern Dvina to the throat of the White Sea. And today, opinions about the future prospect of ice coverage along the Northern Sea Route in connection with global warming do not give rise to optimism.
      4. siberalt
        siberalt 22 November 2017 11: 28
        0
        It would be necessary to make sure that the northern sea route did not have time to freeze up to two meters of ice thickness. And the speed of the icebreaker is 1-2 knots no more than the speed of a pedestrian. This greatly affects the structure in the cost of transportation of goods.
        1. stalkerwalker
          stalkerwalker 22 November 2017 18: 36
          +2
          Quote: siberalt
          And the speed of the icebreaker 1-2 node is not more than the speed of a pedestrian. This greatly affects the structure in the cost of transportation of goods.

          All true.
          It remains to answer the question "Where is the money, Zin?" for icebreaking support? "At whose expense is the banquet?"
      5. leonid-zherebtcov
        leonid-zherebtcov 22 November 2017 15: 44
        +1
        ... probably all the same to Cape Dezhnev or the Bering Strait ...is Cape Dezhnev. About the rescue fleet - the development and construction process is underway, and by the way, rescue functions are also prescribed for icebreakers ... Well, the cargo flow in both directions is simply guaranteed, you just need to not demagogue, but work. Almost for all shippers of Southeast Asia and Europe it is much more profitable "road" of the Northern Sea Route than the route of the "Opium Clippers" through the Suez Canal ... drinks
        1. stalkerwalker
          stalkerwalker 22 November 2017 18: 47
          +2
          Quote: leonid-zherebtcov
          About the rescue fleet - the development and construction process is underway, and by the way, rescue functions are also prescribed for icebreakers ..

          How long have Norwegian rescuers (not ours, widely publicized) rescued the crew of Viktor Tallallikhin? What has changed since then for the better?
          I re-expose the photo of the Laiba (Lord save their lives!), On which transportation from Arkhangelsk is regularly made.
          1. leonid-zherebtcov
            leonid-zherebtcov 23 November 2017 10: 21
            +2
            I absolutely agree with you, but everything is relative ... - This is the floating base "Alexander Obukhov", right at the pier in Vladivostok, if memory serves me in 1983, there were dead ...is the Fotiy Krylov rescuer, finally managed to return him to Russia, had a chance to work on it in 1995 under the Cyprus flag and contributed to his return ... [thumb] https://topwar.ru/uploads/ posts
            /2017-%2011/1511421561_21760016.jpg[/thumb] -This obs "Bars" at the same time was in Vladivostok ..., 1996 was sold to China ...
  2. Antianglosax
    Antianglosax 22 November 2017 07: 55
    10
    the construction of the lead ship of project 22600 “Viktor Chernomyrdin” ends

    Why not "Yegor Gaidar" or so: "Oppositionist of the Germans"!
    Ugh! There are thousands of heroes and worthy people in the country, and the ship of the Russian fleet is called horribly. Maybe the bosses still call something hunchback-labeled?
    1. ibnvladimir
      ibnvladimir 22 November 2017 08: 36
      +2
      There will also be Gorbachev in a spotted Arctic camouflage, and a “reddish” Chubais. Which immediately lead the Arctic fleet to collapse.
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 22 November 2017 11: 25
      +2
      Quote: Antianglosaks
      Why not "Yegor Gaidar" or so: "Oppositionist of the Germans"!

      Judging by the history of the construction of this ICE, it was not for nothing that it was called that.
      We wanted the best, but it turned out as always и Spawn this did not happen, and again the same You can immediately put epigraphs on the epic saga about building an icebreaker according to project documentation that does not correspond to the statement of work, and suddenly discovering this discrepancy at the stage when it was almost impossible to change anything.
      1. IS-80_RVGK2
        IS-80_RVGK2 22 November 2017 13: 53
        0
        Quote: Alexey RA
        Judging by the history of the construction of this ICE, it was not for nothing that it was called that.

        Well, at least the icebreaker is not nuclear. laughing And still, with a shudder, I think about the fate of the ship. smile
        1. Julio Jurenito
          Julio Jurenito 23 November 2017 09: 01
          0
          What did you want from a ship with that name ?!

          As you call a yacht, so she sails.
  3. AllXVahhaB
    AllXVahhaB 22 November 2017 07: 58
    +2
    David Hunt on The Daily Caller:
    America still takes the wrong steps, playing "Arctic chess" with Russia.
    Barack Obama recently said that he does not want his grandchildren "could not, climbing a mountain, to see the glacier, because we did not do something for this."
    According to the author, the grandchildren of Obama, however, will be able to see something more alarming from the mountain: for example, units of the Russian troops fighting for the Arctic. The day is not far when the Russians will say: the whole Arctic is Russian, and only Russian.
    As long as the Obama administration continues to pursue a policy that “does not fully meet” the security interests of the United States, the Russian military continues to put American national security at risk. Today, the Arctic has become one of the important geopolitical regions of the planet and a strategic hot spot.
    The analyst recalls that Russia recently submitted an application to the United Nations on 1,2 a million square kilometers of the Arctic sea shelf, including at the North Pole. The territory may contain about 5 billion tons of oil and gas. As for the northern coast, the Russians claim “ownership” here too: they are interested in the developing Northern Sea Route.
    38.000 military, 110 aircraft, 41 ship, 15 submarines. 6.000 soldiers additionally arrived in the north-west of the Murmansk region. New radar, new missile systems on the coastal strip. A fleet of six nuclear-powered icebreakers and at least ten diesel-powered icebreakers. And three more, and even more, atomic icebreakers will appear at Moscow by the end of the decade.
    And all this means that Russia is ready to assign the Arctic. The “checkmate” on this “chessboard” for Americans is already thought out. "In fact, the United States is not even in the game," Admiral Zukunft, commander of the US Coast Guard, said earlier. He is right, the author believes. While the US Army plans to reduce the number of troops at Elmendorf-Richardson and at Fort Wainwright, Russia "sends troops by the thousands." “In other words, mate,” writes a retired colonel of the US Army and former FBI security adviser David Hunt.
    с
    http://rusila.su/2015/09/03/o-tom-kak-russkie-zam
    orozili-natsionalnuyu-bezopasnost-ssha /
  4. Nemesis
    Nemesis 22 November 2017 08: 17
    +4
    The names of Yeltsin, Chernomyrdin and the company can only be called detoxifiers and establishments selling alcohol for bottling, but not ships ...
    1. leonid-zherebtcov
      leonid-zherebtcov 22 November 2017 13: 45
      +2
      A very wise suggestion ... And about the NSR ..., I happened to take part in the development of the NSR back in 1978 as a sailor - a trainee from the VMF of the MMF from the Bering Strait ... And now, I consider the policy of developing the north to THE RIGHT WAY. in the photo: m / v "Lara Mikheenko" at the Cape Schmidt roadstead (delivery of fuel and lubricants in barrels ...), May 1978
      1. Seaflame
        Seaflame 24 November 2017 05: 35
        +2
        Handsome ship!
  5. aszzz888
    aszzz888 22 November 2017 08: 23
    +3
    I liked the article very much, thanks to the author good I put everything on the shelves - read and analyze.
    And without the Arctic we cannot, just lag behind - sooner or later the foreigners will climb, then pick them out.
  6. Uncle lee
    Uncle lee 22 November 2017 08: 32
    +7
    All this is very beautiful and impressive! Only work will be in whose pocket? Sovcomflot privatize little by little ... And all the work is aimed at the export of raw materials!
  7. Stegosaurus Brontosaurus
    Stegosaurus Brontosaurus 22 November 2017 09: 22
    +5
    Quote: AllXVahhaB
    38.000 military ... 6.000 soldiers


    Besides the military, are there also soldiers? Seriously.
  8. vlad007
    vlad007 22 November 2017 09: 39
    +1
    The article is good, thanks. It should be added - with constant regular frequent movement along the NSR trajectory, the ice does not have time to grow to its maximum thickness, and thus another factor appears that improves the situation with cargo transportation. If the cargo flow increases by 10 times, this means that the postings will be several times larger and the ice several times (conditionally) thinner.
  9. DM51
    DM51 22 November 2017 10: 01
    +3
    Project 22220 icebreakers are needed right now, since RosAtomFlot has only 4 nuclear icebreakers left in service - 50 years of Victory, Yamal for wiring caravans along the NSR and they are already very worn out, as well as Taimyr and Vaigach to work at the mouth of the Yenisei. There is also an atomic lighter carrier of the ice class of the Northern Sea Route - that's all
    1. leonid-zherebtcov
      leonid-zherebtcov 22 November 2017 14: 55
      +1
      By the way, I happened to visit this atomic lighter carrier Sevmorput in Vladivostok, on a raid ...
  10. IS-80_RVGK2
    IS-80_RVGK2 22 November 2017 10: 54
    +1
    The author discovered the Northern Sea Route. smile And again, he stubbornly throws his opuses into the section of the analyst where they do not belong.
  11. Vadim Sh.
    Vadim Sh. 22 November 2017 23: 14
    0
    ARCTIC is a priority, and mattresses are to the peak.
  12. Boris Chernikov
    Boris Chernikov 23 November 2017 01: 59
    0
    The NSR is profitable, since the same Chinese will not overpay, and ours have long grown from the principle “the end justifies the means”, nobody forgets about profit. And since the volume of goods sold increases, it is profitable, if it is profitable, then you are ready to pay. .so let them pay ... us
  13. cedar
    cedar 25 November 2017 11: 29
    +3
    Quote: vlad007
    The article is good, thanks. It should be added - with constant regular frequent movement along the NSR trajectory, the ice does not have time to grow to its maximum thickness, and thus another factor appears that improves the situation with cargo transportation. If the cargo flow increases by 10 times, this means that the postings will be several times larger and the ice several times (conditionally) thinner.


    You are mistaken. Ice fields are constantly moving. Those. on the same field and ice caravans will go only in your dreams. Constantly there is their compression and hummocking. Where only that an icebreaker has passed, the canal can immediately BE VISITED by the EYES in front of the ship going in the wiring. Close and clamp. Well and so on ...
    The main thing is that all these difficulties are not constant, they depend on the season, winds and currents, but for modern science and technology they are quite surmountable, with the proper level of organization of management of the NSR.
  14. Mikhail Anokhin
    Mikhail Anokhin 28 November 2017 20: 29
    0
    This is all fine!
    However, how will all this affect the pensions and salaries of teachers?
    1. leonid-zherebtcov
      leonid-zherebtcov 30 November 2017 15: 39
      0
      Good question ... wink