Military Review

Crusader Swan Song

56



10 November 1444 was the last battle of the last crusade declared by Pope Eugenius-IV to stop the Turkish expansion, near the Bulgarian city of Varna. The warriors of many countries, mainly from Central and Eastern Europe, who felt the threat of the Ottoman Sultanate gaining strength in the Balkans, took part in it.

The knights of Poland, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, the Holy Roman Empire, the Papal State, the Republic of Venice and even the Teutonic Order went to battle with the "wicked Mohammedans", every now and then fighting against the Poles, but this time speaking with them in a united front. Moldovan, Wallachian and Bulgarian volunteers soon joined the army, which entered the land occupied by the Turks.

However, the event was supported not by all Christian countries. It was not attended by the hundred-year-old dismantling of England and France, absorbed by the reconquest of Spain, and also - the majority of small Italian and German states. And for a long time, Genoa, which had been at enmity with Venice, spat at all on Christian solidarity, sided with the Turks and left at its disposal its fleet. Due to this, Sultan Murad-II promptly transferred a large army from Anatolia in addition to the contingents already in Europe.

Serbian ruler Georgy Brankovich - a vassal of the Ottoman Sultanate also refused to fight. He was probably afraid that in the event of the defeat of the Crusaders, the Turks would again devastate Serbia in retaliation for apostasy. Even Byzantium, with which the Ottomans had long been threatened with extermination (and nine years later they realized this threat), did not dare to send soldiers to the aid of the “Christ army”. Perhaps there they also remembered the crusading of the crusaders of Constantinople in 1204, after which the Eastern Roman Empire fell for a long time under the rule of the Western invaders.

Nevertheless, under the command of the Polish King Vladislav-III, who headed the campaign, gathered according to various data, from 20 to 24 thousands of soldiers of different languages, including 15 thousands of Poles, Hungarians and Czechs. The number of Murad's army in various sources "walks" in a much wider range. Some write that it was about equal to the army of the Crusaders, others - that the Turks had accumulated 30 and even 60 thousands.

Whatever it was, and the battle ended in a disastrous defeat of European chivalry. The crusader army was almost completely destroyed, about 15 thousands of people died (the Turks finished off the wounded), about five thousand Ottomans were taken prisoner and sold into slavery. Only a few managed to escape to the swamps to the south of Varna and get out of these swamps alive. The losses of the Turks remained unknown, European historians speculatively estimate them in 10-15 thousands.

The young king Vladislav (during the battle he was only 20 years old), at the height of the battle, broke into the head of an elite squad of mounted cavalry soldiers at the headquarters of the sultan and wanted to fight him personally, but the old wise Murad chose to retire, and the royal squad surrounded the Janissaries and killed all. Vladislav was beheaded and solemnly handed over to the Sultan as the main trophy. Killed and commanded the papal army, Cardinal Giuliano Cesarini. According to one of the chronicles, he drowned in a swamp, trying to escape from the Turkish cavalry pursuing him.

On this minor note, the 350 era of the Crusades ended. When, in 1453, the next pope tried again to raise the knights to repel Constantinople, which had just been captured by the Turks, and once again make the Aya Sophia mosque a Christian church, no one responded to his call.

On the screen saver - Sultan Murad-II with a retinue near the body of the murdered King Wladyslaw, a picture of the 19th century Polish artist Stanislav Khlebovsky. The heroic reckless death of this young monarch is one of the common themes of Polish battle painting. Below is another painting by the famous painter Jan Mateiko, in which the king in a flowing ermine mantle and without a helmet (nonsense, of course, but beautifully) breaks through to the sultan.





The map of the Battle of Varna and the monument to the crusaders, installed on the battlefield in the twentieth century. Now it is located within the city, which has greatly expanded over the past centuries.



Janissaries of the first half of the 15th century (center with a commander and a bunchuk and his entourage) and a Turkish crossbowman of the same period.
Author:
Originator:
https://vikond65.livejournal.com/686917.html
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  1. Settlement Oparyshev
    Settlement Oparyshev 18 November 2017 07: 13
    +2
    Descendants of the Crusader horses
    Mustangs have not yet been delivered.
    1. Boris55
      Boris55 18 November 2017 08: 48
      0
      Quote: p-k Oparyshev
      The descendants of the horses of the Crusaders, Mustangs have not yet been delivered.

      You might think before the crusaders we had no horses wassat
  2. andrewkor
    andrewkor 18 November 2017 07: 26
    +3
    They didn’t call the Russian soldiers and got the first number. And in the battle of Grunwald with the Teutons, Smolensk regiments made the main contribution to the victory!
    1. Settlement Oparyshev
      Settlement Oparyshev 18 November 2017 07: 36
      +3
      You had in mind the “Moscow” soldiers, not the Russians. Smolensk was part of Muscovy.
      1. andrewkor
        andrewkor 18 November 2017 08: 10
        +4
        In those days (1410), the border between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Russian principalities (!) Passed along the headwaters of the Volga, Moscow, Oka, along the Oskol, with the Crimean Khanate along the Dnieper to the Black Sea and to the Dniester! Really "from Sea to Sea" , as Logs are now dreaming!
      2. creak
        creak 18 November 2017 09: 58
        +5
        Quote: p-k Oparyshev
        You had in mind the “Moscow” soldiers, not the Russians. Smolensk was part of Muscovy.

        In the period described, Smolensk was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, not Muscovy ... Therefore, we can talk about Russian soldiers ... And the Moscow principality was not up to the Crusades .. After the victory on the Kulikovo field, Moscow in 1382, after the invasion of Tokhtamysh, she renewed the payment of tribute and was finally freed from dependence only in 1480 after the so-called. standing on the river. Ugra .. Something like that ...
        1. Settlement Oparyshev
          Settlement Oparyshev 18 November 2017 11: 51
          0
          Did you yourself understand what you are writing? Smolensk was part of the Lithuanian principality, so there are Russian soldiers there? Were you not confused?
          1. andrewkor
            andrewkor 18 November 2017 12: 44
            10
            Dear Mr. Oparyshev, since you are not too lazy on the Internet, take a look at Google or Yandex on this issue. You feel like a victim of the USE, do not give in, fight this ailment, not everything is lost for you!
            1. Settlement Oparyshev
              Settlement Oparyshev 18 November 2017 13: 18
              0
              It immediately became clear to you that Google is replacing the gyrus of the brain for you. Continue in the same spirit. What does the Unified State Exam have to do with it? They already scribbled an overcoat at me, when they raised it at you, and ...
              1. Hantengri
                Hantengri 18 November 2017 21: 07
                +2
                Quote: p-k Oparyshev
                What does the Unified State Examination have to do with it? They already scribbled an overcoat at me when they lifted you and ..

                One gyrus rubbed with a cap? Sadly ... But it happens.
        2. andrewkor
          andrewkor 18 November 2017 12: 48
          0
          Here I agree with you, the author of all the “non-participants” from Europe mentioned, and missed the Russians, it wasn’t before our ancestors, they barely fought off the Horde. Maybe Russia is not Europe for him? Like for some contemporaries!
          1. Settlement Oparyshev
            Settlement Oparyshev 18 November 2017 13: 18
            0
            You can cool down. There was no horde and could not be.
            1. andrewkor
              andrewkor 18 November 2017 17: 03
              +4
              Your intelligence is at the level of that individual whose name is in your nickname, well, and the flag according to Zadornov: "Well ... that .. oh!
            2. Hantengri
              Hantengri 18 November 2017 21: 04
              +2
              Quote: p-k Oparyshev
              You can cool down. There was no horde and could not be.

              What the hell! You tell the Chinese, Japanese and Persians and Arabs more lol The internet is big. Search and find!
      3. Aleksandr1981
        Aleksandr1981 18 November 2017 12: 10
        +5
        What kind of Muscovy ????? There has never been such a state !! You are two in history !!
        1. Settlement Oparyshev
          Settlement Oparyshev 18 November 2017 13: 19
          0
          Well, your grades don't bother me at all.
        2. Rey_ka
          Rey_ka 20 November 2017 10: 49
          +2
          Do not pay attention to a comrade in his own world, he is comfortable there again, the head doctor forgot the tablet in the ward
      4. Azazel
        Azazel 18 November 2017 15: 47
        +1
        why do you get this ?? and most importantly where ??

        The base of the troops of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was 40 banners. Some of the banners of the Lithuanian army that fought at Grunwald were named after the lands from which they were exhibited. The banners of Vilna, Troka, Grodno and Kovenskaya, as well as the seven banners from Zhemaitia, including the Mednitsa banner mentioned by Dlugosh, were commanded by the governor of Vilnius Pyotr Gastold and the boyar Monivid. The names of the lands were carried by 13 banners: Smolenskaya, Mstislavskaya, Orshanskaya, Lida, Polotsk, Vitebsk, Pinsk, Novogrudok, Brest, Volkovyskaya, Kiev, Kremenets and Starodubov. Two more banners - Drogichinskaya and Melnitskaya - were mixed. As for the remaining 14 banners, the sources are silent about their names and ethnic composition. Three banners - Smolensk, Mstislavl and Orshanskaya were commanded by brother Jagiello Lugveny Mstislavsky [33]. The army of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania also included a certain number of Tatars settled in Lithuania (about 3 thousand people) under the command of Jalal ad-Din.

        where is Muscovy ??
        1. Settlement Oparyshev
          Settlement Oparyshev 18 November 2017 17: 45
          +1
          They wrote a little. All your troops multiply by 2-3. Instead of insane numbers, immediately give how much and in what equivalent, all these troops are worth. Salary, supply. Have there been long campaigns, how was the supply carried out in long-term companies. I must say that long transitions became possible after the invention of canned food and the invention of margarine. To suggest who they invented? Real armies were 20-50 soldiers. The population was small, there were a dozen houses in the village.
          1. andrewkor
            andrewkor 18 November 2017 20: 36
            +3
            Your address: Chamber N6 !!!
          2. Hantengri
            Hantengri 18 November 2017 20: 55
            +1
            Quote: p-k Oparyshev
            I must say right away that lengthy transitions became possible after the invention of canned food and the invention of margarine.

            laughing laughing wassat Ek flatters you! You haven’t delivered haloperidol today?
            1. Hantengri
              Hantengri 18 November 2017 21: 41
              +3
              Threat! Dried fish, jerky, corned beef and, if we talk about the Mongols, then - kurt (google to help you!) laughing
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 18 November 2017 23: 32
                +2
                Yes, and the pemmican is probably not the invention of exclusively North American Indians, and the Spaniards did not come up with jamon.
              2. Settlement Oparyshev
                Settlement Oparyshev 19 November 2017 19: 02
                0
                Live on the corned beef and soon start spitting out your teeth.
          3. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 18 November 2017 21: 35
            +1
            And what? For you, the "banner" is the number ?! The number is "parsec", "liter", "joule" .... And the "banner" is, like, a bulb, well, describe the shape of the bulb ?! You still have tank regiments equal to the units of armored vehicles, ours and German !!!
          4. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 19 November 2017 18: 05
            +5
            "I’ll say right away that long transitions became possible after
            inventions of canned food and inventions of margarine "////

            Here such a warehouse was in Smolensk. He was guarded by 20 mustangs.
            They ate mushrooms. They (mustangs) and scribbled (hooves) a chronicle about
            Muscovy.
            But you write still, for a long time I did not read such psychedelic posts.
      5. Hantengri
        Hantengri 18 November 2017 20: 50
        +2
        Quote: p-k Oparyshev
        You had in mind the “Moscow” soldiers, not the Russians. Smolensk was part of Muscovy.

        Do you personally have evidence? In the sense: appearances, passwords (crossed out) annals, rhymed chronicles (Livonian, for example), discharge books, government treaties, regulations in which the state of Muscovy is mentioned. Links to the studio, if cho! And then, in fact, to wave the genitals - not toss the bags.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 18 November 2017 21: 47
          +1
          Hamovato, but to the point !!!!
          To linguistic features: in our country, these organs are usually knocked down and put on the wall, or pears are knocked around them. About bags is another organ, female, in verb form.
          1. Hantengri
            Hantengri 18 November 2017 22: 45
            +2
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Hamovato, but to the point !!!!

            On this resource, intended (IMHO), according to moderators, contrary to the name, exclusively for communication of minor girls-gymnasium students. In which literary Russian words with the letters "D" and "I", indicating a stupid person, are extorted even from quotations of classics of Russian literature ... Consider this rudeness a form of protest!
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            To linguistic features: in our country, these organs are usually knocked down and put on the wall, or pears are knocked around them.

            This is a reference to:
            We do not sow, we do not plow,
            We fool around.
            From the belfry “waving”
            Accelerate the clouds! laughing
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 18 November 2017 23: 40
              +2
              There are wonderful words, diplodocus and imbecile!
              1. Golovan Jack
                Golovan Jack 18 November 2017 23: 44
                11
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                There are wonderful words, diplodocus and imbecile!

                ... as well as oligophrenic and stegosaurus laughing
                Quote: HanTengri
                literary Russian words with the letters "D" and "I", denoting a stupid person, are extorted even from quotations of the classics of Russian literature

                This is such a robot. He, like any robot, stupid to horror. One Latin letter in the word - "Pe" is angelic instead of the Russian "Re" - and the robot will no longer recognize the word ... I give yes
                1. Mordvin 3
                  Mordvin 3 18 November 2017 23: 55
                  +6
                  Quote: Golovan Jack
                  ..and also oligophrenic and stegosaurus

                  No, I like it in an original way. Infuboria shoe let it be. laughing
                  1. Golovan Jack
                    Golovan Jack 19 November 2017 00: 13
                    +9
                    Quote: Mordvin 3
                    Infuboria slipper

                    belay WHO'S THAT?? belay
                    I’m familiar with this from school:

                    Infusoria slipper, panimaish ...
                    1. Mordvin 3
                      Mordvin 3 19 November 2017 00: 23
                      +5
                      Well, I forgot ... I lie, I misinterpreted. We had a biology teacher, very good, a candidate of science, nicknamed Stepashka, so there are no such teachers this afternoon with fire. I still remember why a cat needs a tail. laughing
        2. Settlement Oparyshev
          Settlement Oparyshev 19 November 2017 08: 30
          0
          Harosh laugh, I already laughed at you. How do you prove that it was the Russians in Smolensk at that time? Prove that at that time there were Russians or the like. Begin.
  3. Karen
    Karen 18 November 2017 07: 50
    +2
    Thanks to the author!
    Eternal glory to the dead crusaders!
    It remains to be supplemented ... the Jewish banking houses of Genoa, which hails from the robbery of Constantinople, were noted half a century after this battle ... Seeing the growing belligerence of the Spaniards and wanting to take their eyes off Turkey, they sent their "Cossack" to them. for the discovery of America.
    1. Boris55
      Boris55 18 November 2017 08: 44
      +4
      Quote: Karen
      Eternal glory to the dead crusaders!

      Get involved! Since when have conquerors been praised?
      1. Karen
        Karen 18 November 2017 09: 14
        +3
        Quote: Boris55
        Quote: Karen
        Eternal glory to the dead crusaders!

        Get involved! Since when have conquerors been praised?

        Boris, do you apparently prefer the Turkish conquerors?
        1. Boris55
          Boris55 18 November 2017 09: 48
          +5
          Quote: Karen
          Boris, do you apparently prefer the Turkish conquerors?

          I do not like any conquerors. If one thief soaked another thief, this does not mean that the surviving thief will wait for me to be lenient.
          1. sivuch
            sivuch 18 November 2017 11: 54
            +8
            In 1444, the crusaders were not conquerors at all - they would have saved their own. Here are the oath-criminals, yes, they were. The papal legate, the same Cesarini, assured that the word given to the Basurmans could and should be broken. Well, the very same ogreb for this.
            And, as I understand it, the Allies did not have a single command - and, as always, with consequences. It would be better for them if the whole army was commanded by Hunyadi Janos. But for the Polish knights with their ambition to agree to this - in principle, it is impossible to imagine.
          2. Hantengri
            Hantengri 18 November 2017 21: 11
            +3
            If one thief soaked another thief, this does not mean that the surviving thief will wait for me to be lenient.
            Gold words! 100 ++!
    2. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 19 November 2017 20: 36
      0
      Quote: Karen
      Thanks to the author!
      Eternal glory to the dead crusaders!
      It remains to be supplemented ... the Jewish banking houses of Genoa, which hails from the robbery of Constantinople, were noted half a century after this battle ... Seeing the growing belligerence of the Spaniards and wanting to take their eyes off Turkey, they sent their "Cossack" to them. for the discovery of America.

      And Gagarin was allowed through spies to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, then to cut money from the Hollywood production of "Landing of the Americans on the Moon"
      Thoughtful real life!
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 18 November 2017 08: 05
    +5
    Vladislav was cut off his head and solemnly handed it to the Sultan as the main trophy.
    .... The Ottomans immediately planted the king’s head on a spear and raised it high above the battlefield. Encouraged Muslims began to oppress the enemy. Only thanks to the feat of 400 Czech Hussites, who kept the Turks on hold for an hour and died to the last, thanks to this feat, it was possible to save part of the army. After victory near Varna, Sultan Murad II kept Vladislav’s head in a glass vessel with honey for several years as a military trophy. This was a kind of recognition of the courage and courage of a worthy adversary. Meanwhile, King Vladislav III, who died "for the faith of Christ," is still not Catholicized. Some researchers see the reason for this is that the unmarried monarch was homosexual. The Polish chronicler and contemporary of the king, Jan Dlugosch, alluding to Vladislav's unconventional orientation, wrote that "he submits to his bodily desires too much and does not even try to get rid of his shameful and vile dependence."
  5. Curious
    Curious 18 November 2017 12: 02
    +6
    In this battle, the Wallachian army was led by the Wallachian ruler Vlad II Dracul, father of Vlad Tepes, known as Count Dracula.
  6. polpot
    polpot 18 November 2017 13: 03
    +1
    In terms of their attitude to the Orthodox population at that stage, the Turks were more liberal than the Catholic rulers, even in Catholic Hungary, many Catholics moved to the Turkish part of the country due to low taxes and a more humane attitude to the population.
    1. Karen
      Karen 18 November 2017 13: 34
      0
      Maybe they were not really Catholics, but the descendants of the Khazars ... Moreover, the Turks paid them better. You can recall the name Orban ... that gunsmith was sold to the Turks ... the cannons of his construction later broke through the walls of Constantinople ...
    2. Jmbg
      Jmbg 19 November 2017 02: 51
      +2
      Humane attitude to the population ??? I ask you, the Bulgarians also read here.
      1. Michael_Zverev
        Michael_Zverev 19 November 2017 19: 53
        +1
        Probably, I mean, not that the Turks are so good, but that the Catholics are so terrible.
        1. Maksim
          Maksim 20 November 2017 00: 21
          +1
          Ask any Bulgarian about the humanity of the Ottoman Empire and he will tell you a lot of interesting things. Although right now, it’s not fashionable to recall why Bulgaria restored the population of its 14th century only in the 17th.
        2. Seal
          Seal 21 November 2017 13: 51
          0
          The Turks, of course, destroyed part of the Orthodox churches, and part turned into mosques. But on the whole, tolerance towards both Christians and Jews took place in the empire. “In the European communities of the 1512th – 1517th centuries. there was a real attack of Osmanophilic euphoria. The Jews of Europe regarded the Ottoman Empire almost as a paradise on earth. After the fifth Lateran Council (XNUMX–XNUMX), the Ottoman Turks acted as active patrons of the Reformation. They fully "supported the Protestant cause and leadership, wherever it was possible." In their messages (name-i humayun) to the “Lutheran beys of Flanders and other Spanish possessions," the Ottoman sultans condemned Catholicism, "rejected by both Islam and Lutheranism," and urged the leaders of the Dutch gezes to coordinate their actions with the Mariins of Spain and with all those who are fighting against the "pope and his madhhab."
          Even Martin Luther (1483–1546) argued: “Many require the arrival of the Turks and their administration. "I hear that there are people in German lands who want the parish and dominion of the Turks, who want to be better under the Turk than under the emperor and the princes."

          The sea gezas, who fought with the Spaniards for the freedom of the Netherlands, wore hats with a silver crescent and an embroidered inscription: “Turks are better than dad”. The Greeks on the islands of the Aegean Sea hated the Crusaders for persecuting the Orthodox Church and the terrible exactions and saw the Ottomans of their liberators.
          The first Utopian socialist Tommaso Campanella (1568–1639) advised in everything to imitate Muslims and “introduce a number of reforms in the Turkish manner”.
          Fantastic rumors circulated throughout Europe about the Ottoman kingdom of justice. Even Turkophile publications appeared, to which, I note, neither the Sultans nor the "black oil shores" had anything to do. So, the chivalrous “Turk” from the homonymous drama of the XNUMXth century poet Hans Rosenplut protects tortured merchants and peasants. He is always on the side of the poor, who fed their masters with their labor, “receiving in return only new burdens for this”. The Turk promises to "reform and punish the aristocratic world."

          We had the same thing somewhere. For example, Ivan Peresvetov, who wrote about Sultan Mehmed II, “is lovingly depicted as a type of king who brutally cracked down on unrighteous nobles, but through his cruelty to them introduces universal justice into his land”. Peresvetov admires Mehmed II, who ordered the skinless judges to rip off their skin alive, on which they write: “Without such thunderstorms, it’s impossible to enter into the realm of truth.”
    3. alatanas
      alatanas 20 November 2017 15: 58
      0
      Because of the "humane-liberal" relationship, uprising does not. Prince Fruzhin Shishman, the son of the last Bulgarian Tsar Ivan Shishman, was also known for the rebellion of Konstantin (the son of Ivan Sratsimir) and Fruzhin (1408) in the Vidin Region.
  7. alatanas
    alatanas 20 November 2017 16: 35
    0
    It is necessary to clarify that the article deals with the 2 crusade of Vladislav III Yagelo. Here is a map of both trips:
  8. Seal
    Seal 21 November 2017 13: 35
    +2
    Quote: Karen
    Boris, do you apparently prefer the Turkish conquerors?

    Do you really dislike it? No ? How so ?
    Let me remind you that the Greeks, having regained Constantinople in 1261, expelled all Armenians from it, as traitors and accomplices of the Latin crusaders. Under the Paleologists, the Armenians were forbidden not only to reside in the City, but even to enter it.
    What are the Turks doing after taking the City? And the Turks, having taken the City, first of all (one of the first things) cancel the ban on living in it Armenians. Moreover, they do not just cancel, but respectfully invite Armenians to live in Constantinople. And to make Armenians comfortable, the Turks pass several Greek Orthodox churches to the Armenian Gregorian Church. And then the hitherto unthinkable happens. When the number of Armenians who again began to live in Constantinople reached a decent level, as the Armenians themselves write, “at the numerous request of the working Armenians,” Sultan Mohammed Fatih in 1461, that is, only 7 years after the Turks took the City, allowed the Armenians to create their Armenian Gregorian Patriarchate of Constantinople. What throughout the history of the City neither Greeks nor even Latins allowed during the Latin period of the City from 1204 to 1261. That is, from the fact that the Ottoman Turks took the CITY, the Armenians received the greatest benefit. They were again allowed to reside in the CITY and, moreover, for the first time in the history of the CITY they were allowed to establish their Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople !! What neither the Greeks nor the Latins had ever allowed, and the Greeks would not have allowed further, having managed to defend the City in 1453. Moreover, the first Armenian patriarch of Constantinople was elected the Armenian metropolitan of Bursa - the former Turkish capital. In the former Ottoman capital Bursa, it turns out that the Armenian Metropolis was quietly existing and flourishing. By the way, in the past, 2016 marked the 555th anniversary of the establishment of the Armenian Constantinople Patriarchate at the request of the Armenian workers, Sultan Mohamed Fatih.
    I wonder if there was a salute on this occasion?
    1. alatanas
      alatanas 21 November 2017 17: 43
      0
      Ask the Armenians about the humanity of the Turks.
    2. Karen
      Karen 22 November 2017 18: 45
      +1
      Sergey Petrovich, it is not surprising that we had such irreconcilable relations with the Greeks ... It was their position on the resettlement of Armenians in Byzantium, our clashes with them, and when we took away Cilicia and further wars from them, we were able to gain a foothold in the Turks ...
  9. DimanC
    DimanC 23 November 2017 12: 27
    +2
    It's funny that modern Hollywood "movie makers" prefer that the main characters be without helmets. Apparently, the hairstyle should be visible :-)))