Military Review

Cold and hunger. How Russia suffered the Little Ice Age

64
This famine began in Russia in 1601 year. Peasant farms were in a state of complete neglect: crop failure put millions of Russian people on the brink of survival. Someone who was younger and stronger, migrated in search of a better share to the south and east. It was at this time that the growth of the number of Cossacks on the borders of the Russian state continued. But most families survived in their villages somehow. Many could not stand. According to modern data, at least half a million people lost Russia in that terrible famine year.


The 1601 famine of the year was one of the links in the chain of terrible and not very consequences of the Little Ice Age. As is known, the so-called period of large-scale and very strong cooling in the XIV-XIX centuries. At this time, the climate of Europe changed for the worse, colder side, which could not but affect agriculture, the state of communications and, in general, the social life of European states. Russia was not an exception in the list of European countries affected by the global cooling.

Now researchers agree that the main reason for the onset of the Little Ice Age in Europe was the slowdown of the Gulf Stream, which occurred around the year 1300. After that, the climate in Western Europe began to seriously change for the worse. At first, it became seriously colder even in the summer, a large amount of precipitation began to fall, which led to the death of the crops in 1312-1315. Permanent rains and cold weather caused serious damage to European agriculture, especially in the northern regions of Western Europe. If before, even in Northern Germany and Scotland there were vineyards, then after cold years, viticulture in these regions ceased. After the cooling of those years, viticulture forever remained the prerogative of the inhabitants of only Southern Europe - Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, Greece. Snow fell in Italy, which used to be extremely rare, to which the Italian peasants, who were accustomed to heat, were not ready.

Cold and hunger. How Russia suffered the Little Ice Age


Cooling led to famine in Western Europe, which, in turn, caused a series of peasant uprisings against the feudal lords. The economic situation in European countries was rapidly deteriorating, which led to a number of negative consequences. Thus, the onset of glaciers in Greenland led to the practical disappearance of cattle breeding and agriculture on the island. The once flourishing Norwegian colony began to rapidly empty, which was promoted not only by the crisis of Greenland agriculture, but also by the difficulty of communication with the mainland. In 1378, the Greenland Bishopric in Gardar was abolished, and by the 16th century, European settlements in Greenland finally ceased to exist. Travelers who arrived on the island in the 18th century found only Eskimos here.

The offensive of the Little Ice Age affected Russia somewhat later than the European countries. The most difficult for the Russian land turned out to be the XVI century. Cooling struck the Russian agriculture no less than in Europe, which led to a general deterioration in the quality of life of the population. If before European travelers wrote about the relative prosperity of the Russian peasants, then because of the cold snap, the situation began to change. Within only one century, grain prices in Russia grew eight times. Crop failure and rising food prices led to a protracted economic crisis, followed by a demographic decline in the conditions of that time. In other words, many villages simply died of starvation. Sources indicate mass mortality in 1540-e - 1560-e. In search of a better life, people rushed from the starving and cold regions of Central Russia to the south and southeast. The most serious blow was dealt to the economy and demography of the north-western regions of Russia. Here, the cooling was manifested most clearly and created serious obstacles to agriculture. In the period between 1500-1550. The population of the North-Western Russian lands decreased by about 15%. The situation in Veliky Novgorod deteriorated very much, then in Moscow lands. The loss of population reached in the north-west and in the center of the Russian state of catastrophic proportions.



Simultaneously with the demographic decline in the north and in the center of Russia, there was a general increase in the number of Cossacks. It is the XVI - XVII centuries. became a period of maximum growth in the number of Cossacks - not only on the Don, but also on the Volga and Yaik. Many inhabitants of the central Russian lands fled to the Cossack lands and joined the Cossacks. After all, the climate in the southern regions was still more favorable, and the Cossack lifestyle itself provided more opportunities for food. In the Polish – Lithuanian Commonwealth, which also experienced the effects of the Little Ice Age, similar processes began. Many residents of more northern regions of the Commonwealth, above all - the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, were in a hurry to move to the south, in Zaporizhzhya lands, replenishing the ranks of Zaporizhzhya Cossacks.

At the same time, crime has increased in the vast expanses of Muscovy and in the Wild Steppe. Those who fled from hunger and cold to the south, many residents of the Russian lands, in the absence of any other means of obtaining livelihoods, became robbers. The incredible increase in the number of robbers during this period was reported by many European and Eastern travelers.

At the same time, during this period, the number of Slav slaves in the slave markets of the Crimean Khanate increased, reaching its historic maximum. This was due to two reasons. First, the Crimean Khans immediately took advantage of the desertion of many villages in Central Russia and began to raid hard, leading Russian peasants to the full, and secondly, many peasants who tried to move to the south themselves fell into the hands of slave traders. The same can be said about the immigrants from the Commonwealth. By the way, in the slave markets of the Crimea people from the Polish-Lithuanian lands were valued higher than the former subjects of the Moscow tsar because of the obstinate temper of the latter.
In 1571, the troops of the Crimean khan Devlet-Girei laid siege to Moscow. The campaign was undertaken by the Crimean Khan with a very specific task - to rob the Russian capital and capture as many people as possible for the subsequent sale into slavery in the slave markets of the Crimea. Crimean troops 3 June went to the outskirts of Moscow and ravaged settlements and villages, and then set them on fire. The Zemsky army, instead of fighting with the Crimean horde, began a disorderly retreat, while Prince Belsky, who commanded the voivode, was killed. A terrible fire began, which in three hours destroyed the whole wooden Moscow. On the siege of the Kremlin, Khan, however, did not go and retired from the capital towards the steppe, taking with him up to 150 thousands of prisoners - men, women, and children.



Hunger and the Crimean campaigns were only part of the terrible misfortunes that hit Russia after the cooling. After 1570 turned out to be a poor year, and people were ready to kill each other for food, the plague epidemic began in 1571. In Europe, the worst plague epidemic, nicknamed the “Black Death”, took place two centuries earlier - just when Europe faced a massive cooling. In 1346, a plague was brought from Central Asia to the Crimea and then penetrated into Europe. Already in 1348, the plague victims were 15 million people, which was at least a quarter of the then European population. By 1352, the number of plague victims in Europe reached 25 million people, which was then one third of the population.

The plague epidemic in the Moscow kingdom in 1571, of course, was not as ambitious as the "black death" that swept Europe in the XIV century. However, many people died from the disease. The corpses were buried even without coffins, in mass graves, so large was the number of people who died from this terrible disease. It was famine and plague, and not the “atrocities of the guardsmen”, that caused the devastation of the Russian lands in the 1570s.

Even more terrible famine was waiting for Russia in three decades. 19 February 1600 in far Peru, the existence of which the overwhelming majority of the inhabitants of Russia did not even know then, erupted on the volcano Uaynaputina. As a result of the eruption, which has become the most ambitious event of its kind in stories South America, killed about a thousand people. But in addition to human casualties among Peruvian Indians, the eruption of the volcano led to large-scale climate change in the direction of further cooling. Europe, and then Russia, was swept by torrential rains that lasted ten weeks. In fact, the Russian lands were left without a crop, which caused hunger among the population.

Hunger quickly took on the features of a national catastrophe. In Moscow alone, at least 127 thousands of people died of starvation within two years. Landowners quickly invented an effective way to fight hunger in their possessions — they simply let their serf peasants freely or simply drove them “to free bread” so as not to feed them. In turn, starving peasant families died out en masse. Young and strong men were looking for another way to soak themselves - huddled in robber gangs, engaging in robbery on major roads. Gangs could include dozens and even hundreds of robbers, which made fighting them a big problem for the Moscow authorities. Some travelers reported cases of cannibalism in villages where people literally went crazy with hunger.

On the other hand, the clergy and landowners, who owned huge stocks of bread, significantly increased their fortunes by engaging in speculative trade in bread. Tsar Boris Godunov was unable to control the situation and, at least, to achieve the sale of bread not at speculative prices. All this together led to a sharp surge of popular discontent, numerous uprisings, the largest of which was the Cotton uprising. Then an impressive army moved to Moscow, assembled by the False Dmitry I. The political situation in the country rapidly destabilized. 13 (23) April 1605, at the most inopportune moment, died king Boris Godunov. Began one of the most tragic pages in Russian history - Time of Troubles.

Great Famine 1601-1603 led to serious consequences for the political and social development of the Russian state. If politically, famine was followed by the Time of Troubles, the Polish invasion, the Russian-Swedish war, numerous peasant uprisings and the establishment of the Romanov dynasty, then socially the Great Famine contributed to the settlement of the formerly sparsely populated margins of the country - the lands on the Don, Volga and Yaik. The number of Cossacks in this period increased even more.

The Little Ice Age significantly changed the climatic conditions in the Russian state. The winters became longer, the summer shorter, the yield decreased, which could not but affect the general living conditions of the population. Half a century after the Great Famine of 1601-1603, during the next Russian-Polish war, Polish forces could hardly endure the harsh months of the winter of 1656. During the campaign only from frost killed before the 2000 Polish soldiers and about a thousand horses. At the same time, Polish troops suffered such losses only in the southern regions of the Russian state. So the cold became one of the main "allies" of Russia, to which help the country resorted then repeatedly.



Russia experienced a new cooling wave in the middle - second half of the 18th century. The consequences this time were less devastating than in the XVI-XVII centuries. Nevertheless, the next phase of the Little Ice Age contributed to a further cooling. Travelers who were at this time in Siberia, noted very severe frosts, a long duration of winter. So, Johann Falk, a Swedish traveler who visited Siberian lands in 1771, observed snow blizzards in May and September. By this time, Russia had long had the image of a very cold country, although before the onset of the Little Ice Age, travelers did not particularly focus on the peculiarities of Russian climatic conditions. The well-known "wintering" of the French troops of Napoleon in Russia also became a real test for European soldiers precisely because of the deterioration of the climate after the onset of the Little Ice Age.

Many researchers note, however, and the presence of positive effects of the small ice age. For example, Margaret Anderson associated with them a large-scale settlement of the New World. People traveled to South and North America in search of a better life, as it was becoming more and more difficult to live in Europe. Due to cooling there was a much greater need for heat sources, which led to the development of coal mining in European countries. For coal mining, industrial enterprises were created, a class of professional workers — coal miners — was formed. That is, the cooling has contributed to the scientific, technical and economic revolution in Europe at the junction of the late Middle Ages and the New Age.
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  1. Basil50
    Basil50 19 October 2017 06: 28
    19
    Thanks to the author. It was known about the cooling, hunger and, as a result, the raids on Russia of the Tatars and Poles. And about the fact that large landowners and the church were enriched, the author was not afraid to write. There are too many blessed discussions about the church and the lives of saints today. If the churchmen are not afraid and lie about the events of the twentieth century, can you imagine the scale of lies about the events preceding the turmoil and about the church pushing of the Romanovs to the throne? Moreover, under the Romanovs, state archives for all previous centuries were destroyed. For the ancient books found, both the owner and his family members were killed. And the search for ancient books was monitored by churchmen. By the way, under AM Romanov, musical instruments and everything that distracted people from prayers were banned in Russia. And the Greek Catholic Orthodox Church burned the fires of the Inquisition in every city, including for belonging to the ORTHODOX. It was only in 1943 that they self-called * Orthodox *.
    1. Captain Nemo
      Captain Nemo 19 October 2017 08: 58
      +7
      This ... Can I have a reference to the Old about the destruction of old books and the killing of their owners?
    2. Penzuck
      Penzuck 19 October 2017 09: 16
      +5
      Quote: Vasily50
      Thanks to the author.
      - For what? after all:
      Quote: Vasily50
      It was known about the cooling, hunger and, as a result, the raids on Russia of the Tatars and Poles.
      .
      Oh yes, your favorite topic is about the "villainy of the priests." And the rest of you ...
      Quote: Vasily50
      It was only in 1943 that they self-called * Orthodox *.

      Yes, you sho? And Wikipedia was not too lazy to read? There, in black letters on a white background it is written: 1917 Russian Orthodox Church.
      That is, your superficial knowledge once again betray a close-sighted nature in you. The same Stoglavy Sobor (Under Ivan the Terrible) tried to reconcile the Josephites and non-possessors.

      In documents of the All-Russian Church Council (1917 — 1918), the church in Russia, as a rule, is called the “Orthodox Russian Church”.

      "The main task of the monasteries was missionary activity and providing the population with food during a crop failure."
      So the author here is perhaps cunning, because he took too broad a topic.
      The same Crimeans, due to climate change, were also starving. Therefore, too, they got stuck in gangs from 50 to 3000 people and unauthorizedly went for barren (full).
      The first written mention of the balalaika is contained in the document of June 13 of 1688 of the year “Memory from the Streletsky Order to the Little Russian Order”
      That is, under A.M. Romanova banned?
      In the last years of his life, the king became interested in European music. (21 (31) on October 1674, Aleksey Mikhailovich arranged a feast for himself and those close to him, which was accompanied by a very unusual fun: “He played argans for Germans, and sourne, and trumpeted pipes, and played mahogany, and on the heels, and they beat me on the timpani
      1. Nicholas C.
        Nicholas C. 19 October 2017 12: 05
        +2
        An article is a collection of nonsense. Russophobic.
        1. Well, what is the "ice age"? See the schedule of the doctor of technical sciences, professor (Oxford, Helsinki, Westphalian, Rhine, Milan universities), head of the laboratory of global energy problems of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute Vladimir Klimenko:
        2. What else: ran from hunger to the Cossacks? The territory of Russia was rapidly expanding, especially under Ivan III, under Ivan IV. The black estate was free. So they went to new lands (not to the Cossacks), but not from hunger, but because there it was not necessary to pay the land owner - a nobleman for rent, but only a tax to the treasury.
        Oh yes, the author rubs about serfdom at that time.
        3.
        Quote: article author
        Nevertheless, the khan did not go to the siege of the Kremlin and retired from the capital towards the steppe, taking with him up to 150 thousand prisoners - men, women, children.
        So what? Now Russophobes, for example, a certain “journalist” Andrei Sidorchik in “AiF” are already reaching the figures of 150 thousand prisoners and 80 thousand killed.
        Have you tried to think? What is the population of Moscow at that time? And after all they stole only those whom it made sense to steal. How is it that with such losses the very next year, in the battle of Molodi, they piled on Crimea so that its adult male population was almost completely destroyed (they called on all eligible, 15 thousand returned).
        The figure of 150 thousand (60 thousand) appears in the bragging of the Turkish ambassador to Lithuania, and even then about the general damage to Russia: captured, killed, burned out in a fire. In Russian sources there are no figures of this order. Specialist at that time Doctor of History prof. Skrynnikov R.G. estimates the number taken to full by the Crimean Tatars in 1571 at 10 thousand people.
        4.
        Quote: article author
        First of all, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, they hastened to move south to the Zaporizhzhya lands, replenishing the ranks of the Zaporozhye Cossacks.

        Surprisingly, the author does not seem to even suspect that the Zaporizhzhya lands and the lands of the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks are completely different concepts. Moreover, for a long period these lands were in different states. I hope that all this is not confused with Sich. By the way, Sich was created just in those years, and not at all because of hunger.
        5. Yes, in the article the whole presentation is like that.
    3. Basil50
      Basil50 19 October 2017 10: 08
      +4
      him and penzyuk
      For the lazy and stupid * Wikipedia *, why wasn’t that mentioned there and wasn’t?
      And M Romanov allowed and did a lot of things for himself. But for the people a lot of things were banned. Old Believers were sought out and destroyed by entire villages, and then declared it * self-arson *. Even witnesses were announced among the lords and archers. Just like in today's Odessa. Under Tsar Fedor, officially burned the archives where the records of the sale and purchase, appointment, and much more, as well as the library of Ivan the Terrible, and even metric records.
      Especially dumb and penzyuk: the lordly guys are armed gangs of monks who did not go out onto the battlefield. They were * church OMON *.
      1. Monarchist
        Monarchist 19 October 2017 17: 29
        +1
        Vasily, do you have evidence that they then burnt the library of Ivan the Terrible? You are probably confused
      2. Monarchist
        Monarchist 19 October 2017 17: 47
        +1
        "and then declared it" self-arson "," I doubt it for something: who was ashamed of the "lordly guys," because they had the command of the patriarch and Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. On the contrary, it is more profitable for them to attribute this to themselves: this is how we zealously carry out the command of the patriarch and the king.
        About "self-arson", or rather, "baptism in a font of fire" is known from the Old Believers Kokh stories, and there were so-called "bums" when the enlightener, or I don’t remember the proper name (I read it for a long time), set fire to believers, but he ticked. Remember: Tolstoy "Peter 1"?
      3. Basil50
        Basil50 20 October 2017 07: 04
        +1
        The library of Ivan the Terrible was in the Moscow Kremlin, along with the archives. Of course, it was robbed by both impostors and Poles, but all the RUSI archives were completely burned during the reign of Fedor.
        And about the shyness of the lordly guys. It was much later they * were shy *. And so they completely reported to themselves in the capture and murder of dissenters and other Gentiles. It was then that the church began to advertise itself as * something good and bright *, and so they transferred the killings to the dead and burned themselves. Moreover, there were those who confirmed the self-immolation by literature. By the way, the last church prisons were closed, and the * prisoners * were released only after 1917.
      4. Weyland
        Weyland 25 October 2017 00: 25
        0
        Quote: Vasily50
        Under Tsar Fedor, officially burned the archives where the records of the sale and purchase, appointment, and much more, as well as the library of Ivan the Terrible, and even metric records.

        In fact, the library of Ivan the Terrible died 70 years earlier - the books were parchment (made from leather), and the Poles besieged by Minin and Pozharsky simply cooked and ate them, for lack of other food!
  2. midshipman
    midshipman 19 October 2017 06: 41
    +3
    It is surprising that there was no famine in Karelia, although the climate is harsh .. I have the honor.
    1. Penzuck
      Penzuck 19 October 2017 09: 43
      +4
      Quote: midshipman
      It is surprising that there was no famine in Karelia, although the climate is harsh .. I have the honor.

      Probably the author took up the matter too zealously and missed important points. As for Karelia. You need to understand the whole system of agriculture in this region. Some believe that in central Russia, slash-and-burn agriculture just wiped out deciduous forests suitable for this (so much so that the tsar could not open an apiary near Moscow), which ultimately led to a revision of agricultural technology. In addition, land depletion due to insufficient cattle for fertilizer. And in Karelia there are many less people and there is a lot of other business.
      1. ukoft
        ukoft 19 October 2017 21: 45
        0
        In addition to hooking, there was also a fallow. Then they went on trepolye. Since the whole virgin land was heaped up (here virgin land is an old forest without undergrowth). In Karelia, finougres have traditionally grown barley. He is less whimsical. The plow was not used, the population density was low, which allowed the land to recover
    2. Monster_Fat
      Monster_Fat 19 October 2017 10: 50
      +2
      And it all depends on the number of mouths. In a certain area, it can feed — survive under certain conditions — a limited number of mouths. In the "fat" years, the population grows, in the hungry, dies. Many people never lived in Karelia and they fed not from the field (subject to fluctuations in productivity), but from the forest and river-lakes ..
  3. Lganhi
    Lganhi 19 October 2017 06: 50
    11
    How furious are these Russian hamsters broadcasting about the dangers of global warming. Russia is the country with the coldest climate in the world, and climate warming for the Russian economy will affect only the most positive way. There are very good books on this subject: “Why Russia is not America” by Andrei Parshev, “The Story of a Frozen” by Alexander Nikonov and “The Siberian Burden: Miscalculations of Soviet Planning and the Future of Russia” by Fiona Hill.
    1. Catherine II
      Catherine II 19 October 2017 10: 15
      +1
      Quote: Lgankhi
      and climate warming for the Russian economy will only have a positive effect.

      already affected. Such a boon for Russia rarely happens in world history. And for humanity, the fact that we did not slip into the Ice Age, but extended the interglacial. But we will fight hard with the good. smile
      1. Lganhi
        Lganhi 19 October 2017 10: 17
        +2
        Judging by the weather of the last years, we are again slipping back into the ice age.
        1. Catherine II
          Catherine II 19 October 2017 22: 01
          +1
          Quote: Lgankhi
          Judging by the weather of the last years, we are again slipping back into the ice age.

          Well, we’ve reduced emissions (the countries of the former USSR and Z. Europe), while China’s gas is not sufficiently gassed either
          The rest of the Kyoto Protocol is observed.
          In general, we are fighting a blessing.
          What about the weather, if you do not take 2010, then there is almost a snowless winter for a long time. And in January it can be often up to + 10. On my memory, in childhood snow was in bulk. Now a maximum of a week. And even a couple of days. But this year stands out. But it is too small intervals.
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 19 October 2017 06: 53
    +6
    The widely known "wintering" French troops of Napoleon in Russia also became a real test for European soldiers

    It is not widely known, it is generally unknown to anyone, for it was NOT there.
    1. antivirus
      antivirus 19 October 2017 12: 14
      0
      yes, quickly gone to the beginning of winter
      1. polpot
        polpot 19 October 2017 18: 00
        0
        I would say in mid-autumn Vilno released in December
  5. ukoft
    ukoft 19 October 2017 07: 10
    +4
    very interesting, because often historians do not take into account the impact of climate change on history.
    so many Germanic tribes moved to the Roman Empire in search of new lands, not least because of climate change in the 4th-5th centuries CE. these climatic changes are determined by old trees (rings at a cross section) and glaciers. Each time the ice melts, they leave a line of different thicknesses.

    also the Bronze Age catastrophe coincides with another cold optimum
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 19 October 2017 07: 48
      +2
      Why not take into account? Lev Gumilyov immediately comes to mind.
  6. parusnik
    parusnik 19 October 2017 07: 34
    +6
    There are other sides to climate change, as warming in the XNUMXth century allowed the Vikings to discover America and populate Greenland ..
  7. Korsar4
    Korsar4 19 October 2017 07: 51
    +2
    I wonder what will happen now. We look carefully.

    However, one classic had this phrase - "In Madrid - three months of winter. And nine months of hell."
    1. Lganhi
      Lganhi 19 October 2017 08: 08
      +1
      And we have 12 months of winter, and the rest is summer. The average annual temperature in Madrid is +15, in Moscow +5. Even in the most optimistic forecasts, Moscow’s climate will not rise by 10 degrees.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 19 October 2017 08: 12
        +3
        Not everywhere. And the city itself also affects the air temperature in Moscow. And according to some estimates, the modern climate of Moscow resembles the climate of Kiev in the 50s of the XX century.
        1. Lganhi
          Lganhi 19 October 2017 08: 25
          +4
          Judging by the weather station at the All-Russian Exhibition Center, for the period 1879-1908, the average annual temperature in Moscow was +3,4. According to the norm 1961-1990 +5,0, according to the norm 1971-2000 +5,4, according to the norm 1981-2010 +5,8, according to the norm 2006-2016 +6,8. But I am skeptical of these data, since the All-Russian Exhibition Center is located within the city inside the Moscow Ring Road and is very susceptible to the so-called "urban heat effect". In weather stations located in rural areas in the Moscow region, there is no such increase in average annual temperature as much as 3,4 degrees, the increase ranges from 0,5 ... 1,0 degrees.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 19 October 2017 08: 41
            +3
            Here it’s interesting - how droughts will be repeated. How will the fir-trees with the retinue feel, and who will replace them.

            After 2010 I rejoice with every drop of rain.
            1. Lganhi
              Lganhi 19 October 2017 08: 46
              +1
              Such a drought as in 2010 happens once a thousand years, as claimed by Villefand. This summer, for example, was very cold and rainy. Such a summer was in 1994, 1965, 1955. In the first half of the 20th century and in the 19th century, such a summer was close to normal.
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 19 October 2017 08: 49
                +1
                Prior to this, 1972 was drought, and forest fires. And according to the annals - about 4-5 times in a century of drought, as far as I remember.
      2. polpot
        polpot 19 October 2017 18: 02
        0
        Here is the Madrid weather, we definitely do not need Madrid, because of the weather the Spaniards absolutely hate the place, the Spaniards hate it
    2. ukoft
      ukoft 19 October 2017 08: 25
      +1
      in warm countries, people are happier than in cold ones.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 19 October 2017 09: 25
        +4
        Quote: ukoft
        in warm countries, people are happier than in cold ones.

        Yeah: Africa and Scandinavia are "clear" example .....
        1. ukoft
          ukoft 19 October 2017 09: 30
          +3
          in a cube, people are happier than ours. albeit poorer. Climate and good weather are so influential. many old Americans and Canadians go to live in the southern states and Mexico. the British to Spain and so on.
          if humanity has a good future, people will begin to live in warm lands
        2. Lganhi
          Lganhi 19 October 2017 10: 13
          +2
          The largest percentage of suicides per 100 thousand people in Europe among Finns. Even in Russia, this figure is lower.
      2. Catherine II
        Catherine II 19 October 2017 10: 20
        +1
        Quote: ukoft
        in warm countries, people are happier than in cold ones.

        insolation affects the psycho-emotional state of all animals, and primates too.
        Number of suicides too.
        Travelers who arrived on the island in the 18th century found only Eskimos here.
        Yes, the cold forced them to simply “eat” the cruel Vikings. Those resisted, but according to the law of nature, who in more severe conditions, he wins. The remains of the Vikings were killed.
        We all depend on the climate. From the difference of average annual weather to 1 degrees, the whole of our human world changes (even by half a degree)
        All of our stability and all of humanity is CLIMATE DEPENDENCE.
        We are too vulnerable to the slightest change.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 19 October 2017 11: 51
          +2
          "All our stability and all mankind is CLIMATE DEPENDENCE.
          We are too vulnerable to the slightest change. "////

          I absolutely agree with this

          This, incidentally, is the EVOLUTIONARY meaning of intensive technological
          human development. To finally overcome the catastrophic addiction
          from climate change.
          Unfortunately, so far we have not been able to understand this. All brain effort - on the weapon.
          1. antivirus
            antivirus 19 October 2017 12: 19
            0
            Was Stalin right? -conquest of nature
            1. voyaka uh
              voyaka uh 19 October 2017 13: 23
              0
              In a way, yes. But you can do it
              and without any gulags.
              1. antivirus
                antivirus 19 October 2017 17: 52
                0
                the gulag was part of the worldview of the peasants (not the most progressive) - to work as needed by society, and not as you want.
                The answer to imperial penal servitude (and its development). only climbed further north and into the wilderness.
                did not spare "alien elements."
                at the same time, no one has canceled (apparently) the camps within the settlement line throughout the country.
                Worked on hard work - to "fix the brain"
                and at the same time, it doesn’t mean that all the construction projects of socialism have been accomplished only with a shovel and pickax
          2. Catherine II
            Catherine II 19 October 2017 22: 10
            +2
            Quote: voyaka uh
            Unfortunately, so far we have not been able to understand this. All brain effort - on the weapon.

            and how to get consumers to fork out and work on such ideas *? There is money, he “bought” himself climate change - he moved to a warm country.
            And the idea is expensive. Only when evolution reaches the separation of the mind from the biological shell with its emotions and low endurance to climate change.
            The article lacks data — how much the RF costs space and climate. And the numbers there are very large. A change in current conditions (and they are very favorable against the background of historical) will result in such an estimate ... Mama Do not Cry ..
            The fight against climate change also contributed to the progress of humanity, as did the war. After all, we are at war with the climate every second. Putting on clothes, returning home, including a heater or air conditioner, looking in the fridge ...
            But the climate won us more than once ... it was not easy to survive, at the cost of the lives of many.
      3. Rey_ka
        Rey_ka 19 October 2017 12: 32
        +1
        but in cold healthier
      4. polpot
        polpot 19 October 2017 18: 03
        +1
        Especially Burundi or Somalia
  8. Mestny
    Mestny 19 October 2017 09: 52
    +3
    ... then the majority of the inhabitants of Russia did not suspect that an eruption of the Vainaputin volcano occurred.

    Wineaputin?
    I knew it...
    1. Lganhi
      Lganhi 19 October 2017 10: 14
      +3
      laughing . Cursed Putin Reached wassat .
  9. Curious
    Curious 19 October 2017 11: 32
    0
    The influence of the Vainaputin volcanic eruption on hunger in Russia is, let’s say, a working hypothesis. It was expressed in 2008 by the University of California geologist Kenneth Verosub. The article was published in the Bulletin of the American Geophysical Union (EOS). The author himself says that this is only a hypothesis that requires further study.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 19 October 2017 11: 39
      0
      Not because of the Gulf Stream, after all, but rather because of the volcano.
      The Gulf Stream only affects Western Europe, and Russia is deeply
      in the continent.
      1. ukoft
        ukoft 19 October 2017 12: 44
        0
        the European part of Russia is also strongly affected. without the Gulf Stream, there would have been Siberia. in bast shoes the people would not survive.
      2. Wolf 1
        Wolf 1 19 October 2017 15: 37
        +2
        A geography textbook needs to be periodically opened.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 19 October 2017 15: 56
          0
          Here is the Gulf Stream. He’s spitting right across Russia. smile
          1. Wolf 1
            Wolf 1 19 October 2017 16: 35
            +5
            Right. Only his echoes reach us (see the pictures below), but they are enough to prevent the polar Murmansk from freezing, so that the isotherms (previous) picture in European Russia do not go from north to south, but more from west to east. Warm streams come to us from the south and from the west, cold flows from the north and east. Therefore, the most favorable climatic zones for living with us are southwestern Russia. And all this is the influence of the Gulf Stream (and its North Atlantic continuation). Still, a geography textbook doesn’t hurt.

            1. voyaka uh
              voyaka uh 19 October 2017 21: 43
              +1
              "Warm streams come to us from the south and from the west, cold flows from the north and" ///

              Warm streams from the south - from Africa, the Sahara desert. It warms the Mediterranean and higher - Ukraine and the south-west of Russia. And not the Gulf Stream, which affects Murmansk, Petersburg no further.
              1. Wolf 1
                Wolf 1 20 October 2017 05: 46
                0
                Here are maps of the prevailing winds in January and July. Basically, air masses with heat and precipitation come to us from the west, from the Atlantic through Europe


                This is easy to verify even without maps, it is enough to look at weather forecasts, they show in detail the movement of air masses. Thanks to the Gulf Stream, our winters are relatively milder and shorter than Siberian ones.
        2. Catherine II
          Catherine II 19 October 2017 22: 25
          +1
          Quote: Wolf-1
          The geography textbook needs to be periodically opened

          The fridge of the Hemisphere is Greenland. But in the Russian Federation located pole of the cold of the Northern Hemisphere.
          Since Climate is a combination of many factors (a self-sustaining system), it is impossible to explain the climate throughout the territory of the Russian Federation by the influence of the Gulf Stream or Z Transfer. Too long territory.
          The Gulf Stream is in a narrow sense a current (current system)
          The Gulf Stream is the front of the interaction of warm tropical and cold arctic waters, let's say. The climate is a complex enough system to live its own life and without any external disturbances. Systems of similar complexity themselves generate accidents and work them out themselves.
          The average annual temperature in Russia is minus 5,5 ° С; Finland plus 1,5 ° C; Germany plus 10 ° C; Spain plus 15 ° C. For the whole of Canada, the average annual temperature is minus 4,4 °, but Canadians are settled so that the vast majority of the population lives at an average annual temperature plus 5,8 ° С. Russia is the coldest country. The province of Greenland, Denmark is even colder, but sparsely populated province
          In Russia to the Urals, the difference in maximums is over 70 °, in Siberia from 80 to 90 ° С, in Verkhoyansk more than 100 ° С. In the summer in Rossi, it is hot, then there is not enough moisture, if there is a lot of rain, then there is no heat. Of the two hundred countries of the world, only Mongolia can compare with us in terms of the severity of climate: in Ulaanbaatar, it is colder in winter than at coastal research stations in Antarctica.
          In Russia, compared to any country in the world, due to low temperatures, the most expensive capital construction.
          If in countries with an almost ideal climate (these include Jordan, Cyprus, Thailand, Malaysia, Zimbabwe) one “energy unit” is spent on creating a “comfort unit”, in Mexico it is higher in 1,6 times, in South Korea, Japan, Australia , in Western European countries, from 2 to 2,5 times, in the USA in 5 times, in Russia (in its inhabited part) - in 8 times. On average in Russia, the yield of plant biomass from 1 per hectare in 2 is more than times lower than in Western Europe and almost 5 times lower than in the USA. Today, only 5% of agricultural land in Russia has biological productivity at the average level in the USA. If in Ireland and England cattle graze almost all year round, in Russia the period of stall maintenance is 180 — 212 days.
          That is why the expansion of Russia was directed to the south. Banal survival.
          1. ukoft
            ukoft 20 October 2017 05: 55
            0
            Well, the Gulf Stream still affects this obviously and for a long time. It is the vapors from the Atlantic Ocean that carry winds in the inlet. Moisture holds heat well. Therefore, there is no such temperature difference as in Siberia. Thank you for country and climate data.
          2. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 20 October 2017 09: 31
            +1
            In Israel, half of the country's electricity goes to air conditioning. For cooling. In Jordan (the country that is called "ideal") is even hotter than in Israel. They just do not have electricity for air conditioners. So the heat is exactly the same energy problem as the cold.
            1. Catherine II
              Catherine II 20 October 2017 22: 53
              +1
              Quote: voyaka uh
              Jordan (a country called "ideal") is even hotter than Israel

              The average annual rainfall ranges from 25 -50 to 200 mm throughout the year,
              and the average temperature is within + 23С ... + 25С.
              Dry and warm on average.
              The scale is "ideal climate" but energy costs are still present. Small countries have the benefits of energy logistics.
              In general, almost 8,7 billion kilowatts of electricity are consumed in the country, while producing just over 7,5 billion kWh of electricity. electricity availability-99%
              So the heat is exactly the same energy problem as the cold

              I agree, but there the water supply already comes to the fore. Still, heat is preferable to cold. In the desert with water you can do something, in the tundra with water ... maximum berries a short period.
              As a rule, vegans in the ice age will die first. To survive in the northern conditions, primates learned to eat meat.
  10. Rey_ka
    Rey_ka 19 October 2017 12: 15
    +1
    WinePutin Volcano
    Well, how would it be without him?
  11. Bosch
    Bosch 19 October 2017 18: 36
    +3
    Banderlogov famine mowed down in the 30s, and now there are millions of them. Tenacious rats turned out to be.
  12. Just a man
    Just a man 20 October 2017 02: 36
    0
    I read it carefully, but did not understand, so when did the earth hit the celestial axis?
  13. pafegosoff
    pafegosoff 20 October 2017 14: 23
    0
    Vladimir Vladimirovich - !
    1. pafegosoff
      pafegosoff 21 October 2017 07: 55
      +1
      By the way, the stupidity of reducing industrial carbon dioxide, as the root cause of the greenhouse effect, is as obvious as it is frighteningly contrived. The same methane is many times more effective than carbon dioxide ... And the main producers of anthropogenic methane are agricultural producers and ocean pollutants. But there are no questions to developed agricultural countries ... In addition, Methane is intensively allocated by the Earth itself. In addition - the allocation of hydrogen from the bowels of the Earth ... And then: "factories, power plants" ... Stupidity! And in this, Trump was right, and the GDP and his friends - globalists - are deceiving the people. What is the purpose?
  14. Yuri Simonov
    Yuri Simonov 21 October 2017 19: 37
    0
    For more information on this issue, please read in my article “The Small Ice Age” at http://quovadis.ucoz.com/publ/2-1-0-121 and further on the links in the article and under the article. Additions about the Kola superdeep well.
  15. ando_bor
    ando_bor 22 October 2017 16: 51
    0
    Everything is so, but you can take it wider. -Humanity as a species and as a civilization is a product of adaptation to climate change, up to a certain stage in the development of productive forces, climate change has been the only cause of historical movers.
    - On this change (17th century) in a separate place I realized how it works.