Military Review

Not an inch of Ukrainian land. How Stalin defined the borders of Poland

18
Autumn 1942 of the year. In the bloody battles of the Battle of Stalingrad, the Soviet forces managed to halt the advance of Hitler's armies deep into the Soviet state. The outlined change during the war could not go unnoticed. There were fights at Stalingrad, and European politicians have already begun to discuss the possible political structure of post-war Europe in the event of the defeat of Nazi Germany.


Surprisingly, not the leaders of the Soviet Union, not the British with the Americans, or even the French, but the Poles - representatives of the Polish government in exile, who settled in London after the complete defeat of Poland and ceased to exist as an independent state, were the first to speak about the post-war division of European borders. Although Poland suffered a swift and shameful defeat from Hitler Germany, Polish politicians had the audacity not only to talk about the future of post-war Europe, but also to claim a crucial role in the division of borders. The Poles even formed a special commission for post-war reconstruction, which was headed by Marian Seyda.

In the autumn of 1942, the Polish commission drafted a special document - a report on the political structure of Europe after the defeat of Nazi Germany. However, he fell into the hands of Edward Benes (pictured) - the president of Czechoslovakia, who led the Czechoslovak exile government, also in London. As a matter of fact, the Poles themselves handed Benesh the document, having made a fatal mistake. After all, Benesh had his own accounts for Poland - it was Warsaw, together with Berlin and Budapest, who participated in the criminal conspiracy to destroy the Czechoslovak statehood and the division of Czechoslovakia between Germany, Poland and Hungary. Edward Benesh summoned Ivan Andreevich Chichayev to his office - a representative of Soviet intelligence in London, who was officially the adviser of the authorized representative of the USSR.

The Czechoslovak president gave Chichaev (pictured) a report of the Polish commission and warned that this document reflects the point of view of Polish political circles in London and connected with the British leadership on the possible division of post-war Europe and on the role of Poland in this section. Of course, the document was passed in strict secrecy. 28 December 1942 of the USSR State Security Committee Commissar Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria reported to Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin about the report of the Polish commission, which fell into the hands of Soviet resident Ivan Chichayev through Benesh. So began история Soviet opposition to Poland’s plans for postwar Europe.

Analysis of the Polish document showed that Poland did not abandon the revanchist plans and was not going to admit even the slightest part of its guilt in its own defeat. Naturally, the Polish government in exile tried to find the guilty wherever possible, except for the Polish elite itself. First of all, the blame for the defeat of Poland in World War II was laid on ... the countries that won the First World War. Meanwhile, it was thanks to their victory that Poland became an independent state. However, as is well known, almost immediately after Poland “fled” a little, it began to make territorial claims against other, neighboring states. Poland claimed the lands of Czechoslovakia, Germany, Lithuania and, of course, Ukraine and Belarus.

Getting acquainted with the document, the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin was amazed by the content of that section, which spoke about the future of post-war Germany. Here the Russophobia of the Polish government in exile, along with chauvinism, manifested itself most clearly. After the war, it was stated in the document, the territory of Germany should be occupied in the west by the countries participating in the anti-Hitler coalition (USA and Great Britain), in the east by countries bordering Germany, i.e. - Czechoslovakia and Poland. Joseph Stalin left on the margins of a strange report a brief but capacious note - “And the USSR?”. But the Polish government in exile did not want to let the Soviet Union into Germany. This war could have been won in the lives of Soviet soldiers and officers, ordinary Soviet citizens, but to allow the Soviet Union to post-war Europe was not, by any means.

The members of the Polish commission emphasized that Poland, as the country first attacked by Hitler's Germany, should be granted special privileges in the post-war settlement. Firstly, the Polish commission introduced into the report the demands of impressive reparations against Germany. The defeated country had to completely abandon its own land, naval and air forces, and eliminate all armament or transfer to the victor countries. Significant areas of East Germany were to be transferred to Poland.

After the war, the German side had to not only restore all the destroyed and damaged Polish infrastructure, but also provide Poland with all (!) German industrial enterprises, most of the railway, sea and air equipment, a large amount of building materials. Of course, the Polish side was counting on the return of all cultural and material values ​​that were exported to Germany from the territory of Poland.

The commission gathered to expand Poland’s borders not only at the expense of Germany, but also at the expense of (attention!) The Soviet Union. Yes, it was the country that made the most significant contribution to the war with Hitler Germany, who had to give Poland their lands. The document provided for the restoration of the Polish borders in the east in accordance with the state before 1939. In fact, this meant the requirement of transferring lands of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus to Poland after the war, as well as parts of the territory of Lithuania, which in 1939-1940. became part of the Soviet Union.

Not an inch of Ukrainian land. How Stalin defined the borders of Poland


Of course, at the end of 1942, the Polish government, who was hiding in London, did not dare to openly complain to the Soviet Union, and even in an ultimatum. But in the report it did not fail to emphasize that the basis of "friendly cooperation" between Poland and the Soviet Union in the future should be "complete equality", mutual recognition of each other as "great nations with their own spheres of influence." What does this mean? Of course, it was meant that Western Ukraine and Western Belarus, as well as Lithuania, are natural and legal spheres of influence of the Polish state, "occupied" by the Soviet Union in September 1939.

The report directly argued that these lands never belonged to Russia, except for a short time when they were conquered by the Russians, and then by the Soviet troops. Attention was drawn to the fact that Poland for centuries sought to develop these lands, planting Christianity on them (in the Catholic version), Polish knights died here. Therefore, the Polish government in exile believed that the division of land between Poland and the Soviet Union should be made by returning to the Riga Treaty of March 25 of 1921. Only a return to the Treaty of Riga can become the basis for future friendly relations between Poland and the Soviet Union, the document emphasized.

Naturally, Stalin would not have been Stalin if he had agreed to territorial concessions to Poland. However, he didn’t use so much the “victor’s right” as a brilliant move - the Soviet Union agreed with Poland’s territorial claims on Germany in exchange for Poland’s refusal of claims to the USSR regarding the territories included in the Soviet Union in 1939-1940.



November 28 - December 1 The 1943 of Tehran met with the leaders of the states that play a crucial role in the anti-Hitler coalition - Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt. Among the issues discussed by the leaders of the world powers, of course, was the post-war structure of Europe, including the borders of Poland. Both the American President and the British Prime Minister were forced to accept Stalin’s proposals on how he sees the borders of Poland after the victory over Germany.

Shortly after the conference ended, in January 1944, Winston Churchill announced the decision of the leaders of the three great powers to the head of the Polish government in exile, Stanislav Mikolajczyk. According to the Soviet position, the eastern border of Poland after the war was to be held along the Curzon line. At the same time, the British Prime Minister drew the attention of the Polish representative to the fact that the Polish government has virtually no other option than to agree with the position of the Soviet side. However, the Polish government in exile continued to intrigue, trying to bargain for more favorable conditions for themselves. This only led to the fact that on July 26 of the year, the Soviet Union officially recognized the Polish National Committee for National Liberation, which was headed by the representative of the Polish Socialist Party, Edward Osubka-Moravsky, as the legal authority in the liberated regions of Poland. Now the Soviet Union received an alternative Polish political institute to the London government of Poland in exile, with which it was possible to conduct further discussions on Poland’s postwar borders.

However, Stanislav Mikolajczyk didn’t want to agree on Churchill’s convictions for a very long time. He still refused to yield to the Soviet side, including in exchange for the German port of Stettin. But Stalin spoke categorically. When it came to the city of Lviv, Stalin cut off: "We do not trade in Ukrainian land." This meant that the Soviet government was not going to make any concessions to the Polish government in exile regarding Lviv, like other territories of Western Ukraine. 27 July 1944 in Moscow, represented by the Polish Committee for National Liberation, Edward Osubka-Moravsky (pictured) and Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov signed an agreement on the Soviet-Polish border, which emphasized that it would pass along the Curzon line.

21 April 1945 of the year the Soviet Union signed an agreement with the interim government of Poland, according to which the vast territories in Pomerania and Silesia that belonged to Germany were transferred to Poland - 100 thousand square kilometers. It was a real gift to the Polish government, as the territory of Poland increased by a third. Moreover, Poland received highly developed industrially and rich in natural resources Germanic lands. Thanks to the “gift of Stalin”, Poland received an extensive access to the Baltic Sea, and not the narrow corridor that existed before the 1939 year. In fact, this decision of the Soviet side turned Poland into a state with access to the sea. This radically changed the prospects for the economic development of the country in the very near future.

As for the numerous German population living in the territories annexed to Poland, it was fairly quickly relocated to Germany itself. So the Polish government solved the issue of mono-ethnicity of their country. By the way, so far Poland is one of the few practically mono-ethnic states in Europe. The Germans were evicted to Germany immediately after the annexation of Pomerania and Silesia, part of the Jewish population was destroyed during the occupation of Poland by the Nazis, and the surviving part left Poland after the war, moving to Israel or North America.

At the Yalta Conference, Joseph Stalin again raised the issue of Polish borders, gaining support from Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill. Both leaders of the great powers agreed with Stalin that the lands of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus, inhabited by the Ukrainian and Belarusian population, were to be transferred to the Soviet Union, as they have ethnic and cultural similarities with the Ukrainian SSR and the Belarusian SSR.

The Potsdam Conference of 1945 confirmed the decision of the Tehran Conference and recognized the new borders of Poland. By this time, the government in liberated Poland was already a government in which pro-Soviet politicians played the “main violin”. Edward Osubka-Moravsky, who headed the interim government of Poland, easily made concessions to the Soviet leadership. Nevertheless, some tension remained after the conference. In Poland itself, even after the establishment of communists in power in the country, there still remained revanchist sentiments among many Poles - both ordinary citizens and politicians. Particularly painful they perceived that Lviv, which played a large role in Polish history, was never returned to Poland, but remained in the Ukrainian SSR. After all, until now Poland deduces its continuity from the medieval Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and, accordingly, does not give up its claims to Western Ukraine and Western Belarus. Only Stalin, who will say “we are not selling Ukrainian land,” no longer exists, and who knows how the future of these lands will be, especially given the specifics of the modern Ukrainian state.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 17 October 2017 15: 43 New
    +8
    It was a real gift to the Polish government.
    ..How many poles do not feed, he however does not look there ...
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 18 October 2017 05: 08 New
      +6
      Thank you very much for the article, Ilya. I learned a lot of new things! The arrogance of the Poles is unprecedented, the words from London about "" complete equality "" in relations with the Soviet Union.
  2. Basil50
    Basil50 17 October 2017 15: 50 New
    +6
    Well, it’s not for nothing that the Poles and the Jews have lived together for so long. That Israel, that Poland they have a lot in common. Not without reason, after the Jews, the Poles changed their owners to one owner - the USA. Apparently this inspires them to impudence and at the same time to a passive stance.
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 17 October 2017 16: 20 New
      10
      Quote: Vasily50
      Apparently this inspires them to impudence and at the same time to a passive stance.

      Shiza is complete. Poles sit in London, and begin to divide the land. In the 42nd year. belay Yes, and give them privileges. Thank you for the article, I did not know about such a document.
      1. Luga
        Luga 17 October 2017 23: 32 New
        +4
        Quote: Mordvin 3
        Thank you for the article, I did not know about such a document.

        So do I. He took an interest, found an article. http://allpravda.info/content/652.html If the link fails, you can search for "Special message L.P. Beria - I.V. Stalin with the application of intelligence on the post-war structure of Europe and the role of Poland
        23.12.1942
        2114 No. / b
        ",
        The publication "The whole truth" 11 May 2011, publication "Polish report on the post-war structure of Europe and the role of Poland"
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 17 October 2017 23: 41 New
          +5
          Yes, I did. The lip is not stupid among the Poles. All to them first. And give back the values, and restore the destruction .... So would have fought, as Filkin wrote letters.
  3. captain
    captain 17 October 2017 16: 28 New
    +5
    Well, we will return people to them. "In September 1944, the Polish Committee for National Liberation concluded agreements on exchanges (options) of population with the governments of the Ukrainian SSR and BSSR (September 9), as well as the Lithuanian SSR (September 22).
    In the same autumn, that is, long before the end of the war, about 600 of Polish families were resettled from the borders of Belarus to Poland. They also discussed the repatriation of Poles from Lithuania, where at least 200 thousand former Polish citizens lived, of which 80 thousand were in Vilnius. In the 1946 year, the areas of Sanok and Przemysl were returned to Poland, annexed to the USSR in the 1939 year.
    After the war ended, these processes quickly gained momentum. A very powerful factor was the revival of Polish statehood in its new territorial framework. 6 July 1945 between the Provisional Government of National Unity of the Polish Republic and the Government of the USSR, an Agreement was concluded on the right to exit from Soviet citizenship of persons of Polish and Jewish nationality living in the USSR, and on their exit to Poland, as well as on the right to leave Polish citizenship persons of Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Ruthenian and Lithuanian nationalities living in Poland, and their evacuation to the USSR.
    So, as of October 31 of 1946, about 518 thousand people moved from Poland to the USSR. (including to Ukraine - 482109, to Belarus - 35961 and to Lithuania - 14 people). At the same time, the return flow was almost twice as large - about 1090 thousand people. (including from Ukraine - 789982, from Belarus - 231152 and from Lithuania - 69724 people). S. Maksudov and V. Kabuzan give an even more significant figure of the migration of the Polish population to Poland in 1945-1946: 1526 thousand people. It was composed of immigrants from Western Ukraine (810,5 thousand people.), Zap. Byelorussia (274,2 thousand people), Lithuania (178,0 thousand people) and other western regions of the USSR (263,4 thousand people). 16 It was during this relocation that the vast majority of the Poles who lived in it left Ukraine (primarily from Galicia , where before that they were the largest nationality). The Polish population of Belarus and Lithuania, basically, did not leave the USSR. "
  4. ilimnoz
    ilimnoz 17 October 2017 16: 57 New
    +4
    you need to act like the United States to split into the smallest particles without a chance to create a strong state.
  5. A.V.S.
    A.V.S. 17 October 2017 17: 32 New
    +6
    Stalin snapped: “We do not trade Ukrainian land” Dzhugashvili was a great Ukrainian patriot. It is not clear why modern Ukrainians don’t erect monuments to him, he did so much for Ukraine. But the question is: Dzhugashvili tore up the Riga Agreement of 1921 with Poland, signed by Lenin. It turns out that Stalin went against the direct and clearly expressed will of Lenin!
    1. badens1111
      badens1111 17 October 2017 17: 54 New
      +5
      Quote: A.W.S.
      It turns out that Stalin went against the direct and clearly expressed will of Lenin!

      If you don’t understand what you are writing about, it’s better not to write.
      On September 21, the USSR published its responses to a request from France on September 2 and Czechoslovakia on September 19. September 21 and 23, the Soviet People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs M.M. Litvinov during the assembly of the League of Nations declared his readiness to assist Czechoslovakia {374}. When Prague turned to Moscow with a request to influence Poland, the USSR announced to Poland on September 23 that its actions against Czechoslovakia would lead to the denunciation of the Soviet-Polish non-aggression treaty.
      http://militera.lib.ru/research/meltyukhov2/02.ht
      ml
      It is clear what this is about and why the Riga Treaty has been denounced?
    2. Olgovich
      Olgovich 18 October 2017 12: 05 New
      +1
      Quote: A.W.S.
      Stalin snapped: “We do not sell Ukrainian land” Dzhugashvili was a great Ukrainian patriot

      as well as Polish, Belarusian, etc.
      Yalta conference Stalin: “I must say that for Russians the question of Poland is not only a matter of honor, but also a matter of security. A question of honor because Russians in the past had many sins before Poland. Soviet government seeks make amends for these sins. "
    3. Whispering in the night
      Whispering in the night 18 October 2017 13: 48 New
      +3
      Quote: A.W.S.
      Stalin snapped: “We do not trade Ukrainian land” Dzhugashvili was a great Ukrainian patriot. It is not clear why modern Ukrainians do not erect monuments to him; he did so much for Ukraine.


      From a speech by Stalin at the XNUMXth Congress of the RCP (B.): “The Ukrainian nation exists, and the development of its culture is the responsibility of the Communists. It’s impossible to go against history. It is clear that if Russian elements still prevail in Ukrainian cities, then over time these cities will inevitably be Ukrainianized. "

      So the Bolsheviks were understated, the curtain, as they say ..
      1. not main
        not main 18 October 2017 23: 16 New
        +1
        Source please!
        Quote: Whispering in the night
        Quote: A.W.S.
        Stalin snapped: “We do not trade Ukrainian land” Dzhugashvili was a great Ukrainian patriot. It is not clear why modern Ukrainians do not erect monuments to him; he did so much for Ukraine.


        From a speech by Stalin at the XNUMXth Congress of the RCP (B.): “The Ukrainian nation exists, and the development of its culture is the responsibility of the Communists. It’s impossible to go against history. It is clear that if Russian elements still prevail in Ukrainian cities, then over time these cities will inevitably be Ukrainianized. "

        So the Bolsheviks were understated, the curtain, as they say ..
        1. Whispering in the night
          Whispering in the night 19 October 2017 08: 41 New
          0
          Quote: non-primary
          Source please!

          Do not believe the word, and religion itself does not allow you to check?))

          Stalin, collected works, vol. 5, ss. 48–49
          Well, or here ... http://www.hrono.ru/libris/stalin/5-1.html
  6. moskowit
    moskowit 17 October 2017 18: 30 New
    +3
    December 28 1942 of the People's Commissar of State Security of the USSR Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria

    Lavrenty Pavlovich was never the People’s Commissar of State Security ... At the described time, this post was held by Merkulov ...
  7. brn521
    brn521 18 October 2017 10: 12 New
    +3
    So the Polish government decided the issue of mono-ethnicity of their country. By the way, Poland is still one of the few practically mono-ethnic states in Europe.

    Rather, they support mono-ethnicity at the state level. I don’t know how in western Ukraine, but in western Belarus under the Poles, only Polish was the official language. And to rise above the farmer, it was necessary to get a full-fledged Polish education. By the way, teachers were respected and well-paid people. Another fifty years in such conditions, and there would be no Ukrainians, Belarusians and other minor peoples. Just something, two or three generations to change. And I note, no one is trying to call Poland a prison of nations. No one. And it’s right, because The USSR, invested in its peoples at the expense of everything else, deserved only a spit in response.
    1. The comment was deleted.
  8. Lganhi
    Lganhi 18 October 2017 12: 34 New
    +3
    Sorry. Stalin should have presented Poland with Galicia and Volhynia, while making the condition that the Ukrainians of Galicia and Volyn should not be deported to the Ukrainian SSR. Now Ukraine would not be infected with Svidomo and Benderism, but would be an analogue of Belarus.
    1. Whispering in the night
      Whispering in the night 18 October 2017 13: 43 New
      +1
      Quote: Lgankhi
      Sorry. Stalin should have presented Poland with Galicia and Volhynia, while making the condition that the Ukrainians of Galicia and Volyn should not be deported to the Ukrainian SSR. Now Ukraine would not be infected with Svidomo and Benderism, but would be an analogue of Belarus.


      With tongue removed! I also have no doubt that dragging Galicia into the USSR was a serious mistake of Stalin. In fact, with his own hands he dragged a Trojan horse into the country, we still feel the consequences of this obviously ill-considered step. And the inhabitants of Donbass do not just feel, but have been washing their blood with blood for three and a half years!
  9. tiaman.76
    tiaman.76 21 October 2017 21: 17 New
    0
    I had to give lions ..