Military Review

At the invitation of 34 States

The League of Nations was founded after the end of the First World War. For 15 years, the Soviet Union was beyond the threshold of this international organization. By 1934, even the most notorious Western Russophobes and anti-Soviets, it became clear that the isolation policy of the Land of the Soviets failed miserably. The USSR recognized many states, and the Soviet people, having overcome the difficulties that had fallen to its lot, restored the ruined economy and successfully built socialism.

Meanwhile, the situation in the world was rapidly deteriorating. In September 1931, militarist Japan invaded China.

To prevent this, the League of Nations was incapable. In 1933, Japan and Germany, where Adolf Hitler came to power, left the League of Nations. Their departure made possible the entry of the Soviet Union into it.

In December 1933, Joseph Stalin, in an interview with the New York Times correspondent Walter Duranty, voiced for the Western reader the official position of Moscow in relation to the League: “Despite the withdrawal of Germany and Japan from the League of Nations - or, perhaps, this is why - The league can become some factor in order to slow down the outbreak of hostilities or prevent them. If this is so, if the League can turn out to be a kind of hillock on the road to at least somewhat complicate the cause of war and facilitate the cause of peace, then we are not against the League. Yes, if that's the move historical events, it is possible that we will support the League of Nations, despite its colossal shortcomings. "

The signal from the Kremlin was heard by those Western politicians who wanted to improve relations with the USSR. Great activity in building bridges between Geneva (where the main organs of the League were located) and Moscow was shown by the foreign ministers of Czechoslovakia and France, Edward Beneš and Louis Bart.

About Bart should be made special. The Soviet ambassador to Britain, Ivan Maisky, wrote: “In the first years after the October Revolution, he was one of the most ardent enemies of Soviet Russia ... However, later Bart realized that with the advent of Hitlerism to power in Germany, France’s security was highly dependent on cooperation with the USSR. He passionately devoted himself to the implementation of this task and, in particular, advocated the idea of ​​bringing a Soviet country into the League of Nations. ”

Bart’s interest in the USSR was explained by the fact that from the beginning. 1934, he began to actively promote the idea of ​​the "Eastern Pact" - a draft mutual assistance agreement, which would include the USSR, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia. Bartu understood that it was impossible to create a collective security system without the participation of the Soviet Union. In this matter, he found a like-minded person in the person of the USSR Commissar for Foreign Affairs Maxim Litvinov.

In order to probe the position of Poland, which had previously been irreconcilably adjusted to the USSR, Bart went to Warsaw, where on April 23 1934 met with Jozef Pilsudski. During the conversation, Pilsudski spoke out against accepting the USSR to the League of Nations and made it clear that he attaches great importance to relations with Germany, with which Poland signed a non-aggression declaration in January. Bart talked with the Polish Foreign Minister Jozef Beck. “As for Russia, I don’t find enough epithets to characterize the hatred that we have in relation to it!” Beck exclaimed in conversation.

However, while the Polish "dog" angrily barked, the "caravan" led by Bart continued on his way. According to the Charter of the League of Nations, at least two thirds of the members of an international organization had to vote for the country joining it. At that time, the 51 state was in the League, and at least 34 should have supported the entry of the USSR. Litvinov, discussing the terms of entry with his foreign colleagues, insisted that the USSR be admitted to the League at the invitation of its members. “We will not ask the League of Nations to accept us. If you think that it is necessary to strengthen the League, do all the necessary work. Let the Soviet Union be asked to join. And we will meet, ”he said.

The conditions of Moscow accepted, and soon 34 states turned to the USSR with such a proposal. Thus, it was possible to avoid provocations by opponents of the USSR joining the League of Nations, which included Switzerland, the Netherlands, Portugal, Argentina, Belgium and, of course, Poland. Describing its position, the Soviet historian Vilnis Sipols noted: “In Warsaw, they were extremely sensitive to the fact that, joining the League of Nations, the USSR would also become a permanent member of the Council of this organization. The leaders of bourgeois-landlord Poland for many years strenuously sought recognition of Poland as a great power and dominant force in Eastern Europe. To this end, they sought to obtain for themselves, in particular, a permanent seat on the Council of the League of Nations. The entry of the USSR into this organization, the granting of a permanent seat in the Council, that is, recognition of its huge role in international affairs — all this led to the undermining of the great-power ambitions of the Polish government. On July 4, the USSR Commissar for Foreign Affairs reported from Geneva that the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Poland, Jozef Beck, was conducting "mad fights against our entry into the League" behind the scenes. "

However, Beck’s “mad agitation” did not bring success to Warsaw. The Netherlands, Portugal and Switzerland voted against the entry of the USSR into the League of Nations. Seven more states abstained from voting. But against the inclusion of the Soviet Union in the Council of the League there was not a single vote (representatives of ten states abstained). Thus, the USSR was accepted into the League of Nations and became a permanent member of its Council.

The Soviet delegation, which arrived in Geneva, consisted of Maxim Litvinov, USSR Commissar for Foreign Affairs, Vladimir Potemkin, the Plenipotentiary in Italy, and Boris Stein, the Plenipotentiary in Finland. The latter recalled: “We arrived at the appointed time, we were led into a round hall, and then we were led to the door of the meetings. The master of masters was very worried, he opened the door several times. When he once again opened the door, Maxim Maximovich, Potemkin and I entered the meeting hall. Litvinov calmly passed through the hall and took his place. The whole League of Nations looked our way. We were greeted nodding their heads. It was a spectacular sight. When we sat down to our seats, the chairman had already announced the results of the vote, but had not yet managed to finish his speech. He did not realize that he should not read out the last sentence of the speech, and declared: "I invite the gentlemen of the Soviet delegates to take their seats." And we already sat on their seats. ”

Litvinov’s biographer Zinovy ​​Sheinis stated: “One of the journalists did not fail to take advantage of this fact. He said that the Bolsheviks showed themselves this time too. Without waiting for an invitation, they entered the hall. ”

Be that as it may, Litvinov really "showed himself." In his speech, he expressed regret that the League of Nations does not have at its disposal the means to completely abolish war. However, with firm will and friendly cooperation of all its members, Litvinov stressed, much can be done to prevent war: “The Soviet government did not cease to work on this task throughout its existence. From now on, it wants to combine its efforts with the efforts of other states represented in the League. ”

Ps. Alas, less than a month later, opponents of the collective security policy struck back. This was done by the hands of Vlado Georgiev-Chernozemsky, who killed on October 9 in Marseille, Louis Bart and Yugoslav King Alexander Karageorgievich. On that day, many remembered what the shots of Gavrilo Princip, which sounded in June of 1914, turned for Europe ...

At the invitation of 34 States

Maxim Litvinov, People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the USSR

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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 25 September 2017 05: 51
    The Soviet people's commissars had a leader who did not forgive mistakes and failures ... it stimulated them to protect the interests of the USSR ... and their professionalism (with all due respect to Lavrov) was an order of magnitude higher than current diplomats.
    1. svp67
      svp67 25 September 2017 10: 11
      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      and their professionalism (with all due respect to Lavrov) was an order of magnitude higher than current diplomats.

      Let's just say that their quantity and quality was higher and there was no dominance of “sons and daughters”
    HEATHER 25 September 2017 07: 38
    Yes, to relocate them all - and all things. A stupid joke. Maybe just gently face the face. It will be clearer. Some words will change, and it will go into the subject.
  3. ogi
    ogi 25 September 2017 10: 40
    Quote: Oleg NAZAROV
    By 1934, even the most notorious Western Russophobia and anti-Soviet

    Everything mixed up, horses, people.
    So Russophobes or anti-Soviet?
    Russophiles, these were one of the anti-Soviet.
    And the "advisers", they were just Russophobia including
  4. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 25 September 2017 12: 56
    No matter how the UN repeats the fate of the League of Nations.
    And now some dream to revise the results of world wars
  5. alatanas
    alatanas 26 September 2017 11: 57
    mp; v = 6NgvJ1kOqJA
    Marseille Atentat.