Military Review

Landing in Soviet Japan

34
In 1945, the Allied Powers decided to occupy Japan. A plan was developed for its division between the victor countries in the image of Germany. The entire island of Hokkaido and the northern part of Honshu were transferred to the USSR. The death of Franklin Roosevelt, the rise to confrontation of Harry Truman, crossed out this project.


In 1945, the Allied Powers decided to occupy Japan. A plan was developed for its division between the victor countries in the image of Germany. The entire island of Hokkaido and the northern part of Honshu were transferred to the USSR. The death of Franklin Roosevelt, the rise to confrontation of Harry Truman, crossed out this project.

Objectively, the entry of the USSR into the war against Japan was beneficial to the United States, England, and China. Of course, the Soviet Union had its own reasons and pursued its own vital interests, the main ones recognizing the elimination of a large strategic grouping of a hostile state near the Far Eastern borders, which had been preparing for an attack on the USSR for many years, and then forcing Japan to peace. The geopolitical task was to consolidate South-Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands under the jurisdiction of the USSR in accordance with the Potsdam and Yalta accords adopted by the leaders of the anti-Hitler coalition countries.

The entry of the USSR into the war against Japan undoubtedly created the preconditions for the extensive use of Soviet forces for the subsequent occupation of part of its territory. However, as subsequent events showed, the American politicians and military were concerned that in this case the Soviet Union would receive greater rights in the administration of the defeated country.

In accordance with the geostrategic and geopolitical interests, the Soviet General Staff developed a plan for the Manchurian offensive, the South Sakhalin offensive and Kuril landing operations, as well as the landing of a large contingent of troops in Hokkaido, "if Japan continues its further struggle after the defeat in Manchuria and Korea." The last operation was to start from South Sakhalin immediately after its release.

The Soviet command successfully carried out this entire plan with the exception of the last point - the landing of the Soviet divisions in Hokkaido. Preparation was carried out, but the landing did not take place.

Purely symbolic occupation

As is known, the Soviet forces, which were carrying out the task of liberating southern Sakhalin and the Kuriles, were opposed by the troops of the 5 of the Japanese front with headquarters in Hokkaido. Therefore, it was logical to decide the General Staff on the results of hostilities in this operational direction to accept the terms of surrender from the front command (as the direct executor of the will of the emperor) at the location of the headquarters. This did not disagree with the American plan for the dismemberment of Japan into the occupation zones by the Allied forces, in which the USSR assigned the entire territory of Hokkaido and even part of the largest Japanese island of Honshu.

Landing in Soviet JapanMoreover, in a telegram addressed to Stalin on 18 August 1945, Truman reported that he and General MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in the Pacific, had determined the order of occupation of Japan, and during the preparation and signing of the Surrender Act "symbolic allied armed forces would be used forces. " Apparently, on the basis of this circumstance, Stalin established himself in the operation, assuming that the two rifle divisions intended for disembarkation would become these "symbolic" forces in comparison with the two American armies occupying Japan. At that time, the Soviet leader still trusted the US president to some extent and hoped for his decency. However, relations between the two countries at the suggestion of Truman and his administration took a completely different turn.

Another 15 of August for the information of the leaders of the states involved in the defeat of Japan, was sent a draft general order No. 1 of General MacArthur on the procedure for accepting and carrying out the surrender of the Japanese armed forces. This document “forgot” to indicate that the Japanese garrisons in the Kuril Islands should surrender to the Soviet troops.

In a reply from 16 in August, Stalin reminded Truman of this and restraintly but firmly suggested “including the northern half of Hokkaido island to the Japanese command area, and the demarcation line between the northern and southern half of Hokkaido island (and not Some historians consider. - AI) to follow the line going from Kushiro to Rumoë ... ”The letter clearly indicated the purpose of the landing of the Soviet divisions: to accept the surrender of Japanese troops in the northern part of Hokkaido as idents completion SAKhALINSKAJa Kurile liberation operation.

But in the aforementioned answer of Truman from 18 in August this proposal was rejected, the Soviet troops in the reception zone of the surrender in Hokkaido were denied. At the same time, the letter contained a request (!) Of the American president to provide an airbase in the central part of the Kuril ridge (apparently, it meant an airfield on Iturup), the appearance of which negated the entire defense of the USSR in the Far East.
Truman’s answer is essentially rudeness, but for the American side, given the Anglo-Saxon mentality, it’s quite natural.

The trump card in the post-war game of the former American allies was the atomic bomb tested in Japanese cities. In this regard, their views on the post-war structure in the country of the defeated enemy changed. Truman and his headquarters decided to turn Japan into a stronghold of the struggle against communism in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, primarily with the USSR and China. Therefore, it was decided to "make the occupation of Japan a purely American enterprise" and not allow the armed forces of other states participating in the war to enter the islands. The American Committee of Chiefs of Staff appreciated the strategic importance of Hokkaido, which was that if it was occupied by Soviet troops, the vast Sea of ​​Japan would turn into the internal waters of the USSR, and in the Pacific fleet a convenient southern bridgehead would have appeared. American generals did not want to give up this territory just like that.

We don't need this Hokkaido

Having been refused by the President of the United States, Stalin correctly assessed the actions of the Allies and, after weighing all the pros and cons, decided to cancel the planned landing of the Soviet divisions in Hokkaido.

Even now, after many years after those events, the difficult psychological state in which the Supreme Commander was in, and the reasons that forced him to take such a step, despite the wounded pride of the leader of the power that broke the back of Hitler's Germany, and just on the battlefields of Manchuria, on Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, which once again demonstrated its military power and loyalty to the allied duty. The motives that prompted the final decision could be the following:
in spite of everything, remain faithful to the letter and spirit of the Potsdam and Yalta agreements, which, according to Stalin’s deep conviction, could not have been an alternative in the post-war world and which did not provide for Soviet control over Hokkaido. He understood that violating these agreements would put at risk the acquisitions of the USSR in the Far East, including the southern part of Sakhalin and the Kuril ridge (this became evident from Truman’s quoted letter of August 15);
Stalin wanted Soviet-American cooperation to take place on the terms of respect for both sides to each other’s reasonable demands. This concerned the issue of our presence in Hokkaido. That is why the zone of capitulation by the Soviet troops was proposed on this Japanese island. In this case, the Supreme was guided by the consideration that the Americans won the war in the Pacific, but the USSR won a victory in Europe. If Moscow was able to come to terms with the presence of Americans in Germany, why would Washington refuse to tolerate the Soviet contingent in Japan?

On the other hand, the main geopolitical goal of the USSR when entering the war against Japan was to force it to peace, which happened with the surrender of Tokyo. And with the breakdown of the Japanese resistance in the Sakhalin-Kuril operational direction, the military need for the landing of Soviet troops in the metropolis has disappeared.

Irreparable concession

Strictly speaking, by adopting such a decision, the Supreme in no way violated the plans of the Soviet General Staff. Then, in 1945, Stalin still perceived Truman as a partner in managing the post-war world. But he changed his mind pretty quickly. Truman, for his part, mistakenly accepted the refusal to land on Hokkaido as a sign of political weakness and even cowardice. History showed that both leaders of superpowers were mistaken in each other's assessments.

The refusal of the landing of the Soviet divisions in Hokkaido was a major concession to Stalin, and he did not go for it because of Hiroshima, as it seemed to world public opinion. Our leader at the time did not believe in a nuclear apocalypse, stating that the outcome of wars was decided not by atomic bombs, but by the army. The main or even the only goal was to preserve the partnership with the United States that was destroyed in front of our eyes, obtained in battle.

It is appropriate to mention the myth that Stalin had the idea of ​​creating a Soviet satellite in Hokkaido - a people's democratic republic like North Korea. Let us turn to the expert, Doctor of Historical Sciences Anatoly Koshkin: “For the creation of the pro-Soviet regime on the backward, which did not have industry on Hokkaido Island, Moscow had neither the means, nor the experience, nor the necessary personnel ... Besides, there are no documents in the archives of various departments Japanese People's Democratic Republic ".
Another myth about the failed operation is that the Soviet troops from the landing on Hokkaido allegedly restrained the fear of serious resistance of the Japanese on their own territory. It is worth recalling that the Kuril Islands, like the southern part of Sakhalin, were considered by the Japanese population and army to be their territory from the 19th century (the Kuril Islands) and from 1905 (South Sakhalin). However, the resistance here was broken in the shortest possible time. An unprecedented incident occurred in the Kuriles when, in front of two companies, marines from the detachment of the first rank captain Leonov capitulated the garrison of Paramushir island with 13 500 soldiers and officers.
Stalin, seeing the dishonesty of the Anglo-Saxons, bordering on meanness towards the USSR, most likely regretted his concession. This is evidenced by such a fact. In 1947, Admiral Yumashev, commander in chief of the Navy of the USSR, the author of the landing plan for Hokkaido, raised the topic of canceling the operation in a conversation with Stalin and recalled that at that moment he wanted to bypass the headquarters and insist on landing troops, bypassing the commander in chief of the Armed Forces in the Far East but did not. “In vain,” the Supreme Commander replied, “if it did, they would be awarded.” If it didn't work out, they would punish me. ”

In any case, the reasons why the Soviet leadership and Stalin personally did not launch the Soviet divisions in Hokkaido, not military, but political, and they appeared at the very top - in the offices of the Kremlin and the White House as the beginning of the Cold War between the two former allies.
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http://vpk-news.ru/articles/38651
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  1. moskowit
    moskowit 3 September 2017 07: 37
    +2
    I read somewhere that the Supreme gave the order not to land on Hokkaido, literally a few hours before it began.
    It’s interesting, but does Vasilevsky have anything about this in his book “The Work of All Life”? It is necessary to look .... The topic of the joint occupation of Japan by the allies began to be widely covered after the collapse of the USSR. Previously, broad sections of military history buffs did not know about this ... "..I think so ...."
    1. Looking for
      Looking for April 8 2018 18: 28
      -1
      Where did you study Russian? ".. gave an order not to land on Hokkaido." In Russian, it sounds something like this ... canceled the order on landing ...
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 3 September 2017 08: 16
    +7
    In any case, the reasons why the Soviet leadership and Stalin personally did not launch the Soviet divisions in Hokkaido, not military, but political, and they appeared at the very top - in the offices of the Kremlin and the White House as the beginning of the Cold War between the two former allies.

    In time for this article. Yesterday, September 2 was the 72nd anniversary of the end of WWII. With what I congratulate the veterans of the Second World War.
    1. verner1967
      verner1967 3 September 2017 08: 48
      +3
      Quote: Amurets
      was the 72nd anniversary of the end of WWII. With what I congratulate the veterans of the Second World War.

      this is precisely the fact that veterans of the Great Patriotic War (except for those who managed to fight in the Far East) have only an indirect relation to the end date of the WWII, but veterans of the Far Eastern Campaign are not winners. The USSR had its own war - the Great Patriotic War having a clearly limited time frame 22.06.1941/09.05.1945/XNUMX - XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX.
      1. moskowit
        moskowit 3 September 2017 13: 08
        +5
        You write nonsense ... Victory Days over Germany and Japan were celebrated as national holidays ...
        PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE USSR
        DECREE
        from 2 September to 1945 year
        Announcing 3 September as the Victory Day over Japan

        [216] In commemoration of the victory over Japan, establish that September 3 is the day of nationwide triumph - the celebration of victory over Japan.
        September 3 be considered a day off [1].
        "Vedomosti of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR" 1945, No. 61 ..
        True, in the future, as weekends, they were canceled.
        May 9 became a day off from 1965 of the year, and Victory Day over Japan now received the status of the day of military glory, which of course is the omission of the current authorities ... This is again, in principle, idiotic political reverence ....
        By and large, to celebrate the merits and feat of the People who defeated fascism in Europe and the Far East at the All-Union level began thanks to Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev. It just so happened. And if one of the “Young Turks” stood in power in 1964, then everything would have been forgotten until now ... You, apparently, are young, and therefore don’t remember how you played the wall with abandoned medals, stitched your ear and played .. .. I myself was small, but I saw these games with my own eyes ...
        1. verner1967
          verner1967 3 September 2017 14: 29
          +2
          Well, yes, yes, yes, everything was on paper, but ask the first person you met about the dates of the Second World War and the dates of the war in the Far East, they will answer the first question, but the second? Where did you see the parades and congratulations in September?
          Quote: moskowit
          Do not remember how you played at the wall with abandoned medals, stitched your ear and played ....

          and what are you talking about? Actually, in infancy, I used the medal myself as a bat, but I didn’t cut the ear, it was a pity to spoil.
          1. moskowit
            moskowit 3 September 2017 20: 02
            +1
            And the fact that under Brezhnev was paid tribute to the participants of the Great War And the people who forged Victory in the rear !!! And under Khrushchev’s rule, especially when the military officers were dismissed from the army without any means of subsistence, no one remembered the participants in the war ...
            1. verner1967
              verner1967 4 September 2017 06: 47
              +2
              Quote: moskowit
              And the fact that under Brezhnev was paid tribute to the participants of the Great War

              The Great War is the first world war, but I did not divide Brezhnev and Khrushchev, I just remember that they celebrated on May 9, but not on September 3, so I’m talking about that.
  3. verner1967
    verner1967 3 September 2017 08: 26
    +3
    And what would this landing, only moral satisfaction. According to Anatoly Koshkin, doctor of historical sciences, to develop this island: "Moscow had neither the means, nor the experience, nor the necessary personnel to create a pro-Soviet regime on the backward island of Hokkaido, which didn’t have any industry ..." Only an extra reason to blame the capitalists that the island was controlled by the Soviets it is the most backward part of the occupied territories, with which we would still have to leave, dumping unmeasured resources.
    1. moskowit
      moskowit 3 September 2017 08: 42
      +3
      The question of what the occupation of Hokkaido would and would not give is not at all interesting. This military operation would be carried out, it would give additional glory to our Army. And until now, the course of the operation would be studied in all military academies of the world, as a page of military art. There would be a zone of Soviet influence .... This is a purely political issue .... After all, there was a zone of responsibility in Austria ... In 1955, troops were withdrawn .... So they would have left Hokkaido if the political situation changed ... .
      1. verner1967
        verner1967 3 September 2017 08: 50
        +2
        Quote: moskowit
        The question of what the occupation of Hokkaido would give and what would not give is not at all interesting

        Quote: moskowit
        This military operation would be carried out, it would give additional glory to our Army.

        so you already decide whether this question is interesting or not
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 3 September 2017 09: 20
          +4
          Quote: verner1967
          so you already decide whether this question is interesting or not

          The operation has begun. My father was in the first cast and they already went to sea, but in the Peter the Great Bay, the ship EMNIP, the minesweeper of the type AM on which the father was, was returned back. He never told the reasons, but probably did not know.
          And the fact that the division of veterans happened is so our leadership is to blame, because the Far East participated in whole formations deployed from the Western fronts and we still had many participants in two wars: both the war with Germany and the war with Japan.
          1. verner1967
            verner1967 3 September 2017 09: 30
            +3
            Quote: Amurets
            And the fact that there was a division of veterans, so our leadership is to blame

            so no one shares the veterans, then he fought and no matter where, thank him for that! It’s just that our leaders, in fact, stole a holiday from some honored people.
        2. moskowit
          moskowit 3 September 2017 12: 20
          +2
          Dear "pensioner", do not confuse the political moment and the opportunity to get on the pages of military history textbooks. The hypothetical presence of the Red Army and the actions of the military administration in Hokkaido cannot be discussed at all .... But a military operation, if it had been completed, would have been studied by all possible opponents and allied states ... What is not clear ?? .... And I absolutely do not need to be determined ... I clearly outlined my position ...
          1. verner1967
            verner1967 3 September 2017 14: 34
            +2
            Quote: moskowit
            The hypothetical location of the Red Army and the actions of the military administration in Hokkaido cannot be discussed at all ....

            Yeah, but the operation, which is still unknown how it went through, maybe. Clear. No more questions
            1. moskowit
              moskowit 3 September 2017 17: 48
              +1
              With the science that we have made huge sacrifices and blood, I think that everything would have gone as it should ... We have managed to manage the Kwantung army in a decade ...
              1. verner1967
                verner1967 4 September 2017 06: 49
                +2
                Quote: moskowit
                We won over the Kwantung army for a decade ...

                do not compare the personnel army with the Kwantung one, see how difficult it was for us to have the southern Kuril Islands and Southern Sakhalin.
      2. Black5Raven
        Black5Raven 3 September 2017 13: 24
        +2
        Quote: moskowit
        This military operation would be carried out, it would give additional glory to our Army

        She would have given tens of thousands of dead and wounded, that is what that operation would have given. stop
        1. avva2012
          avva2012 3 September 2017 17: 12
          0
          During the entire war with Japan, the Soviet army lost about 10 thousand, not the smallest army opposed it. Do you think it would be more difficult in Hokkaido?
          1. Black5Raven
            Black5Raven 3 September 2017 20: 24
            +2
            Quote: avva2012
            For the entire war with Japan

            Those. about a month
            Quote: avva2012
            the Soviet army lost about 10 thousand

            Would you need another 10 thousand corpses? When was the war over?

            Quote: avva2012
            Do you think it would be more difficult in Hokkaido?

            At least the next ten thousand soldiers who would not return home.
            1. avva2012
              avva2012 4 September 2017 04: 23
              +2
              Sorry, for you 10 thousand, is it a magic number? Where, in general, from such calculations (tens of thousands)? Apparently from the ceiling.
              1. Black5Raven
                Black5Raven 9 September 2017 11: 22
                0
                Losses in the destruction of the Kwantung army - that is where this number comes from and that, after all, many surrendered. Would it be different when landing? Here is your from the ceiling. When landing on the islands and “forcing peace”, the Americans expected to get one million zinc to their homeland.
                1. avva2012
                  avva2012 9 September 2017 11: 34
                  +1
                  I think about the "million coffins", this is not real calculations, but an attempt to justify the use of nuclear weapons. There are quite a few reasons why the Japanese emperor declared surrender, Americans believe, for example, nuclear weapons, and normal, not engaged specialists, are sure that the Soviet invasion of Manzhuria (the main production forces were concentrated there, and not on the islands). There is also an opinion that the Japanese elite took seriously enough the quick capture of Hokkaido, which was also a factor in accepting surrender. Losses on our part? You know, in recent decades, liberal historians have tried to drive into their heads the thought that Our soldiers were not counted. In the opened archives, now, you can find how our military leaders treated the losses. I think if they would be prohibitive in the calculations, and 10 thousand, in comparison with the entire operation against the Kwantung Army, would be prohibitive, then they did not plan to land.
                  1. antivirus
                    antivirus 25 September 2017 09: 03
                    0
                    Truman’s answer is essentially rudeness, but for the American side, given the Anglo-Saxon mentality, it’s quite natural.

                    INFLUENCE IN CHINA - ALREADY MUCH FOR THE USSR. apparently they really appreciated their strength and it was possible to “grab” to a heap of hokkaido, and then there is soup with a cat. there were different opinions ... and now they have not created Novorossia (but could they, just do it?)
      3. Curious
        Curious 3 September 2017 22: 32
        +2
        Question. And how outstanding, in your opinion, should this operation have been different for all military academies to study?
        1. Two handed
          Two handed 5 September 2017 10: 41
          0
          In general, large amphibious operations are outstanding events, they are almost never carried out. Overlord is probably the only example of such an amphibious operation, and it has been prepared for a couple of years.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 3 September 2017 08: 36
    +7
    The proposal to occupy Hokkaido is for God's sake that we do not care ... I.V. Stalin acted reasonably ... refusing cheese in a mousetrap ...
    1. lego305
      lego305 3 September 2017 10: 50
      +2
      I agree. With the complete dominance of the mattress fleet in the alleged war, our troops in Hokkaido would be trapped. And even the fact that Stalin did not “throw” the Fed owners with South Korea for these tricks, then played a huge role in saving the USSR from the Fed owners.
  5. EvgNik
    EvgNik 3 September 2017 14: 25
    +5
    Politics by politics, and holiday is a holiday! Happy Victory Day over Japan guys!
  6. nnz226
    nnz226 3 September 2017 16: 11
    +1
    For refusing to give Hokkaido, it was necessary to refuse the Americans in South Korea, there would be no war of the 1950-53 years, and now there are no troubles
    1. lego305
      lego305 3 September 2017 17: 06
      +1
      But you are wrong. It was the Korean War that saved the USSR from the implementation of such plans by the owners of the Fed as the Dropshot, preventing them from concentrating troops and aircraft to attack the USSR.
  7. Roman 11
    Roman 11 3 September 2017 17: 25
    +2
    An unprecedented incident occurred in the Kuril Islands when a garrison of Paramushir Island with 13 soldiers and officers capitulated to two companies of the marine corps from the squad of Captain First Rank Leonov. It is necessary to understand the details. Maybe there was no strength from hunger. What kind of soldiers? My ancestors fed the Japanese prisoners, so they just didn’t recruit, for example there were a lot of intelligentsia: teachers, engineers, various creative people (artists, writers, etc.) ..... So they hardly knew much about the military art. And if so, then given the general situation, there was no sense in extermination.

    And then, before capitulation, not very many shock parts remained. When the Americans dominated the sea, they were simply scattered across the vast expanses of the ocean on countless islands. They still somehow could maneuver aircraft, but by the middle of the 45th there were only a few with experience, and the recruits were cherished as kamikazes. So the Kwantung army does not seem awe-inspiring, this does not mean that there were no elite units at all, especially in camouflaged fortifications, they valiantly defended themselves ..... Nevertheless, suicide bombers were used in episodes. My ancestor told me that the war was less than a month, participated in several battles, it was especially difficult near Harbin, there was something like a trap, it was there that he saw the dead suicide bombers only once. They also called the neighboring mountain Sapun - the mountain, as near Sevastopol, where the samurai fought fiercely. But again, such battles were focal in nature, associated more with strong, often underground positions, where ours suffered heavy losses.
  8. Declarant
    Declarant 4 September 2017 04: 50
    +3
    My wife’s grandfather said that after the capture of Sakhalin, they were ordered to prepare for the landing in Hokkaido. But at the last moment it was canceled. Perekopko his last name ..
  9. vnord
    vnord 29 September 2017 11: 52
    0
    Quote: Amurets
    because the Far East participated in whole formations deployed from the Western fronts and we still had many participants in two wars: both the war with Germany and the war with Japan.

    My grandfather was transferred from Norway to the Far East, where he ended the war. . And he began as part of the Far Eastern Division near Moscow.