Military Review

Mordoboy Hour

30

Nicholas II and Empress Alexandra Feodorovna among the soldiers and officers of the consolidated company of the Life-Guards Volynsky Regiment. December 1906 of the year.


The uprising of the Petrograd garrison, which brought victory to the February revolution, began with a riot in the reserve battalion of the Volynsky Life Guards Regiment.
But how could this happen?

After all, the Life Guards Volynsky was the most disciplined in the Russian army!

He stood out even against the background of the other regiments of the 3 th Guards Infantry Division - famous for its "convict" discipline and exemplary appearance of a soldier.



"Convict" division

Discipline in the soldiers of the 3 Guards forged at every turn. To do this, they sought from them an exemplary appearance, perfect drill training and strict observance of internal order. After all, accustomed to accuracy in trifles, accustomed to do only what is necessary, and only when it is supposed, does a person learn to observe the established rules, to subordinate his will to someone else.

“Strictness - neither breathing nor breathing; you can’t stretch your legs without the authorities' sanction,” wrote one of the 1914 fallen in September to the reserve battalion of the Lithuanian Life Guards regiment. “You want to go to the toilet — go with a report to the separated truck. [.. .]

Boots in fact do not shine - outfit out of turn. Buttons dim - outfit.

Klyamor not shines - walk in a goose step. "

Yes, in the 3 Guards they were forced to clean the belt that was not even visible under the badge (clasp) belt. And the main teachers of the soldiers — non-commissioned officers and corporals — used “methods of training and education not provided for by the then charter”.

“Some walk in a goose-pitch”, “others run around the stable with caps, with straps, with bowlers, with mugs, with footcloths, with socks, with boots in their teeth” - and everyone, “trying to shout over each other, yell:

- I'm a fool! I'm a fool! I'm a fool!

- That's how clean the klyamor! Here's how clean the klyamor!

- I'm noodle! I'm noodle! "

After such a training, people executed orders automatically.

As required.

Indeed, in combat, a person turns on a powerful instinct of self-preservation. To suppress it, the consciousness of many may not be enough. It is here that the habit will rescue without hesitation, automatically, almost instinctively, carry out orders.

So, in the Life Guards Volyn discipline forged even more insistent than in the other regiments of the "convict" division.



"Iron" regiment

Mordoboy Hour“Special clarity is decisive in everything: in honoring, marching, gun techniques, in every movement, Volyntsev always and everywhere distinguished,” the officer of the Finnish Life Guards admitted to 1930.

Volyns were able to preserve this distinctiveness even in the First World War when the regiment changed its ranks more than once. “A firm step, as in a parade, a perfect alignment, a special hand-waving [back to refusal - Auth.], By which the Sovereign recognized our soldiers even when they, being transferred to another regiment, were already wearing a different form. Thin dash the bayonets, strictly aligned along the rows in the horizontal and vertical plane, are completely immobile ... "So the Volhynians passed before the authorities in July 15 on July 1916, on the march in the front line.

The regiment naturally fought, not paying attention to death. Having seen the yellow braid on the cuffs of Russian tunics in July (1916 Guards Infantry Division), and on the slats, along the cut, it was dark green (the fourth regiment of the division, Volynsky Life Guards), the German prisoners revived: "A- a, the regiment sign [regiment (German). - Auth.] ... Iron regiment ... "

And it is only seven months before the historical rebellion.

"Discipline was visible in everything and manifested itself at every turn," - so, according to the recollections of the then regiment commander, it was still February of 1917.



Lashkevich and Mordoboy

And here in the reserve battalion of this unit the training team rebelled! The one where the non-commissioned officers were trained - those who himself had to discipline the soldiers! Yes, and with such a head of the training team, as the staff captain Ivan Stepanovich Lashkevich ...

About this "girlish ruddy, with a round Russian face and clear good big gray eyes" officer, who was 26 year in February, suffice it to say that this is the former sergeant major of the Alexander Military School.

This is the mark.

This means - a great soldier and mercilessly demanding boss.

Only such junkers were appointed to the post of sergeant-major (in Soviet style, foremen). After all, the sergeant-major, the direct head of all the junkers of his company, was responsible for the order in her.

According to the testimony of a number of officers of the Volynsky regiment, as well as Colonel M.N. Levitov (already in the summer of 1917 of the year, he spoke with the ranks of the reserve battalion), and the instigator of the riot, senior noncommissioned officer Timofey Ivanovich Kirpichnikov also had the reputation of a strict chief. The soldiers even called him "Fight."

Smile of fate: it was Kirpichnikov on the night of 26 in February that Lashkevich appointed Feldweiler 1 of the company (a few days before, two companies had been formed from the ranks of the main training team to suppress possible unrest), instead of the urgently "ill" ensign Lukin. From the story of “Mordoboy” about further events, it is clear that Lukin’s main post, field officer of the main training team, was also transferred to him (there were two more preparatory and additional).

Lashkevich’s decision became fatal - both for his personal fate and for the fate of Russia.



Murder before the formation

24 - February 26 both companies dispersed protesters on Znamenskaya Square (now Vosstaniya Square).

According to Kirpichnikov’s later narrated story, he slowly ordered the soldiers to target over their heads, and on the night of 26 he suggested that the “unters” of both companies not shoot at all. In the evening, 26-th convened platoon and division commanders of the main training team and suggested to refuse altogether to pacify the riots.

They agreed. Instructed their soldiers. And in the morning of February 27, the team built for Lashkevich’s arrival defiantly and grossly violated discipline.

According to Kirpichnikov, the team shouted "Hurray!" after the captain said hello to him. According to Konstantin Pazhetny, who was in the ranks, this was the answer to Lashkevich’s greeting to the team.

To Lashkevich's question: "What does this mean?" Junior non-commissioned officer Mikhail Markov answered, and it became clear that the team had rebelled. The order to fire (according to Pazhnykh’s version, Lashkevich’s orders in general) will not be carried out by people, Markov said.

And, taking a rifle "at hand", sent a bayonet to the staff captain.

The next minute, the rebels demanded that Lashkevich withdraw.

And when he appeared in the courtyard, Markov and the corporal Orlov shot him from the windows - and they killed him on the spot.

(According to the version of the officer who later asked the soldier, the team twice answered in silence to the greeting of their chief: after this, Lashkevich himself went away, and Kirpichnikov shot him. But is it possible to reject the testimonies of two eyewitnesses?)

After the murder, Kirpichnikov persuaded to join the main training team and the "noncomors" of the preparatory teams. And when they went outside, they were joined without any persuasion by the 4 Company.



Unannounced

It is quite understandable that the Volhynians did not want to shoot at demonstrators at all. His, Russian, asks for bread - is this a rebel?

But refuse to follow orders ...

Here, first of all, it was backfired that the soldiers and most of the “noncoms” of the reserve battalion did not test the Volyn drill in full volume.

Almost all of the old servicemen died by October 1916, by February they were miserable. Volyntsy 3 Company of the reserve battalion - who refused to shoot at February 26 demonstrators - these are recruits who have not served 6 weeks! The same in 1 and 2 companies.

The front-line soldiers of the beginning of 1917, at least, were not afraid to argue.

The soldiers of the 4 Company and the people of Lashkevich were trained for two to five months. This last automatic to carry out orders to shoot at demonstrators was also hampered by front-line past.

In the reserve battalion, they were already the second time.

In the interim were the front and the wound.

And not just the front, but the offensive battles of August - September 1916 of the year in the Vladimir-Volyn area. Those who went through this meat grinder were no longer afraid. More terrible than the German front will not be! It was not by chance that they rebelled first in the battalion.

The front-line soldiers of the beginning of 1917, at least, were not afraid to argue.

And how can you not argue, if by the evening of the 26, the inaction of the authorities became noticeable?

Headquarters captain A.V. Tsurikov gesture passes demonstrators on Znamenskaya.

And captain P.N. Gaiman silently swallowed the refusal of the 2 preparatory training team to shoot at the crowd rushing across Liteiny Bridge to Liteiny Prospect.

Actually, a dozen two passionaries like Kirpichnikova and Markov ensured the success of the uprising. After all, many Volhynians did not want to rebel.



Collapse

A part of one of the Volyn companies — stationed in the barracks of the Life Guards of the 1 Artillery Brigade in Baskovaya Street (now Korolenko Street) —formed against even February 27 noon. She returned to the barracks in an organized manner, when Colonel A.P. Kutepov assured that they would not shoot her.

But in the center of the riot, in the southeastern part of the Tauride barracks, at the end of Vilensky Lane, many people were cut off the way back to Markov and Orlov.

Now or go to the end - or under the execution. For participation in a riot, burdened by the murder of an officer.

There is nothing to lose!

"On the ple-cho! Step march!" - Kirpichnikov ordered, and the training teams with the 4 th company marched along the Vilnius to the nearby barracks of the 18 sapper battalion - to raise other Volyn companies stationed there.

"Massacre" reported that machine guns were set in front, and, not even reaching Fontanna, he deployed a detachment. Nothing, let's go the other way and turn left to the Parade. We will raise the reserve battalions of the Preobrazhensky Life Guards and the Life Guards of the Lithuanian Regiments stationed in the Tauride Barracks.

There is nothing to lose! - and, having broken in with the Parade, with firing and shouts of "Hurray!" into the courtyard of the Tauride barracks, the soldiers with buttonholes with dark green and yellow edging on their overcoats an hour and a half “fought” to rebel soldiers with red and yellow.

Those, too, found Kirpichnikovs - senior non-commissioned officer Fedor Kruglov raised the 4 squadron of the reserve battalion of Preobrazhensky. People were tied up here with blood: the Volyn residents slaughtered the head of the Transfiguration workshops, the army lieutenant colonel Bogdanov ...

The crowd of rebels, which has become a crowd of thousands of thousands, passed the Parade and turned left, to pick up other units on Kirochnaya Street!

There is nothing to lose!

Turning to Preobrazhenskaya (now Radishchev Street), Kirpichnikov raised (already easy!) A spare company of the Life Guards Saperny Regiment.

At the corner of Kirochnaya and Znamenskaya (now Vosstaniya Street), the troublemakers rebelled the 6-th reserve sapper battalion, killing his commander, Colonel V.K. von Goering.

Further along Kirochnaya, on the corner of Nadezhdinskaya (now Mayakovsky Street), the Petrograd Gendarme Division was quartered. The gendarmes were brought to the street, followed by the junkers of the Petrograd school of warrant officers of the engineering troops located diagonally.

"Well, guys, now the work has gone!" - with relief said Kirpichnikov.

"Gone work!"

Indeed, crowds of protesters have already joined the soldiers. The building of the District Court was already burning at the corner of the Foundry and Shpalernaya District - part of the divided mass of the rebels penetrated there as well. Already arrested and killed the police. The emissaries of the members of the State Duma, who had decided to seek the king’s abdication, were already leading groups of soldiers to the Tauride Palace, where Duma members gathered ...

The riots turned into the February revolution.
Author:
Originator:
https://rg.ru/2017/02/10/rodina-volynskij-polk.html
30 comments
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  1. Cartalon
    Cartalon 18 February 2017 05: 52
    +5
    Bloodlessness is rushing, although the authorities themselves are to blame, the draft troops are not suitable against the internal enemy.
    1. avva2012
      avva2012 18 February 2017 07: 21
      +13
      The internal enemy, this is his man who asked for bread ?!
      1. antivirus
        antivirus 18 February 2017 09: 48
        +1
        Army shot demonstrators on the basis of the oral order of the junior commanders? or martial law or siege, or others?
        was the legal side of the crackdown?
      2. vladimirZ
        vladimirZ 18 February 2017 12: 06
        +12
        The course of revolutionary events cannot be explained by a riot in one regiment, there were thousands of similar places, in different places: military units, factories, villages and cities, and when they merged into a single impulse, then a revolution, an old system, the monarchy has outlived itself.
        And no troops, even those who are fit to fight the internal enemy, will save the situation. It’s good that the current oligarchs in power, conducting anti-people’s policies, know this.
        1. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
          ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 20 February 2017 18: 15
          +1
          Quote: vladimirZ
          And no troops, even suitable for the struggle with the internal enemy, will save the situation

          You would have told Yeltsin about this in October 1993, he would have laughed! As you know, riot police and the “Knight” really liked to shoot at unarmed people-sovetskoe education!
      3. Dok133
        Dok133 18 February 2017 19: 10
        +1
        avva2012 7:21 Well, he not only asked for bread, he also, believing the slogan “robbed loot!”, wound the guts of landowners and capitalists on forks, thinking that he would be happy from this.
        1. Alexander Greene
          Alexander Greene 18 February 2017 20: 13
          +5
          Quote: Dok133
          Well, he not only asked for bread, he also, believing the slogan “rob the loot!”, Wound the forks of landowners and capitalists on forks, thinking that he would be happy from this.


          Yes, the peasant at first asked for bread peacefully, but then he realized that the thirst for profit from the landowners and capitalists is so great that they will not give him a piece, and we must take power into our own hands and establish a fair distribution, and then the slogan was “Who doesn’t work, he doesn’t eat! ”

          And about, “Rob the loot!”, These already gangster anarchists, Old Man Makhno, turned over the wonderful slogan “expropriation of the expropriators”, which meant the nationalization of the land and all means of production into state ownership.

          Yes, and "winding the forks of the landowners and capitalists" are the fruits of your sore imagination, a simple Russian poor man could burn the estate of the landowner, but he did not have atrocities.

          But how his white army Kolchak with his "bright" slogans drove back to the stall, read the diary of the Minister of Government Kolchak, Baron Budberg.

          “The degenerates who arrived from the detachment boast that during punitive expeditions they handed over the Bolsheviks for reprisal to the Chinese, having previously cut prisoners' tendons under their knees (so as not to run away), they also boast that the Bolsheviks were buried alive, with the bottom of the pit laid out with entrails released from being buried (so that it was softer to lie) "

          By the Bolsheviks, the White understood not only the members of the Bolshevik party - there were not so many of them - but also the peasants who did not want to live in the old way.
        2. avva2012
          avva2012 20 February 2017 06: 17
          +1
          Well, he not only asked for bread

          He, is this the people? You have a good idea of ​​the people. Whose will you be?
      4. Abracadabrus
        Abracadabrus 18 February 2017 23: 05
        +3
        [/ quote] The internal enemy, this is his man who asked for bread?! [Quote]

        Yeah, yeah, "onihedety")))) We heard, we know.
        1. avva2012
          avva2012 20 February 2017 06: 15
          +1
          Yeah, yeah, "onihedety")))) We heard, we know.

          Do not judge the events of 100 summer ago by current realities. Read better about what actually happened with food in Petrograd before the Revolution.
          On the other hand, it’s much easier not to turn on the head, and to appoint, well, w-Masons as the culprits. wassat
    2. Olgovich
      Olgovich 18 February 2017 09: 13
      +14
      Quote: Cartalon
      According to Kirpichnikov’s later recorded story, he slowly ordered the soldiers to aim over their heads, and on the night of the 26th he suggested that the “unters” of both companies not to shoot at all. In the evening of the 26th he called platoon and department commanders of the main training team and proposed to refuse to pacify the riots altogether

      There were no Special Departments that were supposed to destroy such brickwork in the bud even in the bud. Tsarist Russia was too liberal for wartime. And in wartime, it was just necessary to physically destroy the brick, Ulyanovsk, strikers from military factories, all of those who wreck the state in wartime. All warring countries did this, except for Russia. Stalin also understood this well, acted harshly and destroyed such provocateurs in the bud.

      And Kirpichnikov soon received a well-deserved bullet in the forehead, from Colonel Kutepov.

      And the other Volhynians, rejoiced that they had escaped from the front, in the majority, I think, perished, but already in the vile civil war, killing their compatriots instead of foreign enemies. .
      1. Alexander Greene
        Alexander Greene 18 February 2017 17: 19
        +7
        Quote: Olgovich
        And in wartime, it was just necessary to physically destroy the brick, Ulyanovsk, strikers from military factories, all those who wreck the state in wartime.

        Quote: Olgovich
        Stalin also understood this well, acted harshly and destroyed such provocateurs in the bud.


        The fact is that when the revolution has matured, the authorities are powerless against the rebellious people. The army takes the side of the people, since the children of the same people serve in it, and the destruction of the people's leaders can delay progress only for a while, but not stop. The people in the struggle give birth to new leaders.

        Stalin, on the other hand, did not defeat the leaders of the people, but his enemies, who did not have support among the people, and defeated them first ideologically and only then, when they did not calm down and went on to active wrecking, did they get what they deserved.

        By the way, Stalin's associate V.I. Ulyanov-Lenin, and he was primarily a Bolshevik.
        1. Abracadabrus
          Abracadabrus 18 February 2017 23: 13
          +2
          [/ quote] The fact is that when the revolution has matured, then the authorities are powerless against the rebellious people. [quote]
          A revolution "matures" only when someone pays very well for this "maturation". And the incorporated (or rather, fooled) people, first massively perishes in a revolutionary bacchanalia, and then goes to serve the new masters.
          1. Alexander Greene
            Alexander Greene 18 February 2017 23: 43
            +4
            Quote: Abracadabrus
            A revolution "matures" only when someone pays very well for this "maturation".


            This is a superficial look. Being determines consciousness. In 1917, millions of people in Russia did not want to live the old way, and no money would be enough to bribe such a mass. The imperialist war played a role here.

            And if you think that only the Bolsheviks bought for money made a revolution, then you are also mistaken in this. The revolution began spontaneously, there were so few Bolsheviks (only 1917 thousand left the underground in February 24, half of them were in exile and in prisons) that the liberal bourgeoisie won the victory.
      2. Uncle Murzik
        Uncle Murzik 18 February 2017 17: 36
        +2
        Olgovich BRAVO! You began to see clearly! lol
      3. kotvov
        kotvov 18 February 2017 17: 44
        +2
        Well, you can not doubt. Well, you would have asked these troublemakers. Even if your mother was there, you would not have missed the machine gun.
      4. antivirus
        antivirus 3 March 2017 15: 57
        0
        strikers from military factories, all those who wreck the state in wartime.
        ... and all those who received 100-200% profit for rot (but they didn’t use it - they didn’t use it and they drove out all the backbones)
  2. The comment was deleted.
  3. Razvedka_Boem
    Razvedka_Boem 18 February 2017 07: 40
    +2
    The lines from Kipelov perfectly reflect what happened then and can happen.
    "Time of Troubles!
    The ghost of freedom on horseback.
    Blood to the knee!
    Like in some wild dream.
    People are amused, a harness - of old gods.
    People pray, wait for righteous dreams. "
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 18 February 2017 07: 47
    +6
    Since 2015, in accordance with the new concept of studying Russian history and the historical and cultural standard, which establish uniform requirements for school history textbooks, the school will no longer study the events of February-March 1917 as the February Revolution. According to the new concept, now there is no division into the February and October revolution, but there is the Great Russian revolution, which lasted from February to November 1917. The events of February-March are now officially called the "February Revolution," and the October events are called "the seizure of power by the Bolsheviks."
    1. avva2012
      avva2012 18 February 2017 07: 53
      +10
      Like with us, everything is like with people, right?
      The French have the Great and ours, too? And, the fact that the work ended there on the bourgeoisie, man, as the spread rot, they continued to do this, but in our country the revolution was precisely Socialist, does this stir anyone? Where so many ..... got out ?!
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon 18 February 2017 09: 31
        +8
        And after the Socialist oh, the men healed well
        1. avva2012
          avva2012 18 February 2017 11: 15
          +15
          Already not even funny.
          I doubt that my grandfather, a peasant, four children would have received higher education with RI. They lived poorly in the USSR, yeah. Yes, you idiot talk about something. Logic is replaced by stamps. Reflections, emotions.
          1. captain
            captain 18 February 2017 12: 16
            +8
            Dear avva2012 General Denikin, was the son of a serf who was shaved off as a soldier for 25 years, the father of the general was promoted to officer for 20 years of service and by 75 years he became a major. A general from infantry (nowadays, Colonel General) Alekseev, son of a drummer in a military band, from the cantonists (i.e. a Jew cross), also later promoted to officer. One can cite a sea of ​​examples of how, from among the peasants, people in different periods of the history of our Russia reached very large peaks. Yes, it was very difficult, but the mood in society and attitude towards gifted people and people who could do something gradually changed. In Soviet times, when enrolling in institutes, before 1936, there was a class approach to recruitment for study. By the way, Count Razumovsky generally began his activity as a swineherd. And why do you have doubts about the mental abilities of your grandfather?
            1. avva2012
              avva2012 18 February 2017 13: 40
              +11
              So, I’m saying that it’s useless to speak. How can one compare universal education in the USSR, as a system, with individual geniuses in the Republic of Ingushetia? And that Lomonosov was not remembered, but Denikin. With Lomonosov, it is a more revealing example.
              captain Yes, it was very difficult, but the mood in society and attitude towards gifted people and people who could do something gradually changed.

              Yes, everyone is tired of waiting. Everything is hard, but hard. Do you think, if you still know that Alekseev was cross-born, is that there was a widespread phenomenon in the empire? laughing
              In Soviet times, when enrolling in institutes, before 1936, there was a class approach to recruitment for study.

              It was, but not for long. And how many percent of the population were these "defeatists"?
              And how many peasants in RI were in the same percentage?
              You still remember the law on "cook children"! laughing "it was very difficult, but the mood in society gradually changed" laughing So changed that I can’t! More progressive relations gave way to reactionary relations as the monarchy evolved!
              Well, as for the grandfather's mental abilities, I have no doubt. That's just, you again pretended not to understand what I mean.
              1. Dart2027
                Dart2027 18 February 2017 15: 02
                +6
                Quote: avva2012
                Yes, I'm tired of waiting for everyone

                And as a result, a sea of ​​blood, everything that can be destroyed, the loss of vast territories, etc. The law on “cook children” was repealed without a revolution, maybe it was better to wait, and without jerking, but without all the attendant?
                Quote: avva2012
                More progressive relations gave way to reactionary relations as the monarchy evolved!

                Which ones?
                1. avva2012
                  avva2012 18 February 2017 15: 55
                  +3
                  Progressive relations in society, this is when they took in the gymnasium according to mental abilities, regardless of origin, albeit for money, but there are still opportunities, and then they stopped. That is, an empire from the 19 century collapsed in the 15 century.
                  1. Dart2027
                    Dart2027 18 February 2017 18: 07
                    +3
                    And in the gymnasium took by origin? If you are talking about that circular, then it was canceled without a revolution. I didn’t argue an absurd idea, but actually three years before its cancellation, the share of nobles in gymnasiums was 26%, so the 15th century is too much.
    2. Sling cutter
      Sling cutter 18 February 2017 12: 45
      +9
      Quote: parusnik
      According to the new concept, now there is no division into the February and October revolution, but there is the Great Russian Revolution, which lasted from February to November 1917.

      It is interesting how, in accordance with the new concept, the counter-revolution of 91-93 will be established?
    3. Andrey Zh
      Andrey Zh 18 February 2017 23: 43
      0
      An interesting twist! ... Wow! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
  5. free
    free 3 March 2017 16: 07
    0
    Quote: ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
    Quote: vladimirZ
    And no troops, even suitable for the struggle with the internal enemy, will save the situation

    You would have told Yeltsin about this in October 1993, he would have laughed! As you know, riot police and the “Knight” really liked to shoot at unarmed people-sovetskoe education!


    At least one proof that it was a hero and a riot police