Military Review

Poisoned feather. "Small cottages and pensions" (part 2)

"And I turned, and saw under the sun that a successful run does not go agile, not a brave one — victory, not a wise one - bread, and not reasonable wealth ... but time and opportunity for all of them."
(Ecclesiastes 8.11)

From the authors. The publication of the first chapter of the alleged monograph "The Poisoned Pen" caused a lively response among the VO readers. True, many people wanted to “get to the end” as soon as possible. But that is precisely the interest that this work is devoted to a story about the contents of newspapers, which in our “electronic time” no one just reads. Although their publications often hide the answers to many pressing questions of our time!

The future, according to de Barant, belonged to new generations in Russia. He believed that these “courageous merchants” would have descendants, and they would not be as modest as their fathers. Parents will give them education, teach them in different foreign languages, teach them to wear tail coats and shave their beards. Then they will travel around Europe, read books, and not only Russians, but also foreign ones, as well as newspapers. For example, the daughter of the owner of the apartment where de Barant lived, spoke French perfectly, painted, played the piano, had pleasant manners, as if she had finished a Parisian boarding school. Then, having become educated, considered de Barant, the bourgeoisie, in addition to wealth, will also demand power to become richer, and on this path the road of Russia will converge fully with Europe’s road. As a man looked into the water, is not it? It all repeated, even twice: first in Tsarist Russia, then ... in the USSR!

As you can see, already in the 1877 year many local newspapers had a completely modern look!

But as for the awareness of Russian society, then ... and it was not much inferior then to the same "enlightened" Europe. True, the size of the country gave rise to certain features, unknown to Europeans of that time. The telegraph was already even optical, and courier communication was clearly in place. But it happened, although rarely, that in remote areas of the country the message about the death of the sovereign and about the accession to the throne of the new arrived a month later, and even more. For us, it seems to be a trifle, but at that time it threw the local clergy into shock. It turned out that for a whole month they were praying "for the health" of the sovereign, and it was necessary to pray "for the peace", which was a terrible sin. But the mail, nevertheless, acted. Printing houses, both state and private, and synodal were in each province, numerous newspapers and magazines were published. Everything is like in Europe, right? Well, the optical telegraph ... yes, quite often it didn’t convey at all what was needed, as described by A. Dumas in his novel The Count of Monte-Cristo.

And then Russia took an important step in the field of ensuring freedom of information. Soon after his accession, Alexander II abolished the censorship committee of his father. Well, then, in March, 1856, he did say that "it is better to abolish serfdom from above, rather than wait until it starts canceling itself from below". And since he said these words to the Moscow nobility, it is clear that he did it not at all by accident. Because the information about the words of the Russian sovereign has spread throughout the country in the most lightning manner, and not only among the nobility!

Even before the abolition of serfdom in Russia, for example, such a newspaper was published in the country, which had the goal of raising the culture of farming in the country. Of course, it was not designed for the peasants, but it was.

At the same time, the most surprising thing is that he said it, but not one of the official channels for disseminating information in society, such as the telegraph and the periodical press, used the peasant reform in Russia! These channels and 19 February 1861 of the year were not used. It is clear that all the work on its preparation was carried out in deep secrecy, on which Alexander II himself insisted. It is clear that not immediately, and far from all, provincial committees were also created, which were to develop draft regulations on peasant reform. But in order to show their activity in print, it never even occurred to anyone. But one could say that “in his unspeakable mercy, the Father-Father would indicate that he deigned to collect elected people from All the Great, Little and White Russia, and instructed them to think about how to solve the issue of the future possession of souls in all fairness!”

Very many newspapers in Russia were daily. Do you represent the amount of material that journalists had to collect for each issue? And this is in the absence of the Internet. True, the electric telegraph has already been!

Moreover, “you can’t hide the sewing in the bag”, and information about the upcoming reform was, of course, spread at all levels, including through the all-pervading popular rumor. Speaking in the language of modernity, an “information leakage” was organized to say something, nothing, however, without informing! So, December 28 1857 in Moscow during a ceremonial dinner in a merchant meeting among 180 representatives of both creative intelligentsia and merchants, the forthcoming abolition of serfdom was spoken in the speeches quite openly, but the servants who had “relatives” also heard these speeches in the villages. But that's all! No impact on public opinion was organized!

Meanwhile, V.O. Klyuchevsky wrote that the result of such unprepared minds for social change was, above all, distrust and even the most direct and fierce hatred of the authorities. After all, the defining feature of Russian society for many centuries was its compulsory legality. The law in Russia was imposed on the people by the state, whether it wanted to or not. The Russians could not defend their rights and freedoms, because any of their actions against the legitimate authorities were considered as an attempt on the state, the Motherland and the whole society (how little has changed, however, since that time, and? - author's comment). This state of affairs created the most favorable basis for truly unlimited arbitrariness on the part of the authorities. After all, there was no real public control in the state under tsarism. The sense of justice was traditionally weak, the norms of public law and personal freedom are undeveloped (it is interesting that the concepts of law and freedom in the same French language are indicated in one word), and as a result, the people more easily endured, as A. Herzen wrote, the burden of forced slavery than gifts of excessive freedom. Yes, the mentality of the Russians has always been distinguished by strong social principles, but the majority of the population did not belong to the class of owners, it was alienated both from the land and from the means of production. And this by no means contributed to the education of such qualities as individualism, respect for property and property owners, and naturally pushed a significant part of Russians towards social nihilism and the many hidden forms of resistance to their state. At the same time, the institute of the state has always played a very important role in Russia, so the custom was very deeply rooted in the social psychology of Russians to easily obey any dictatorship of the authorities, so that they would take on the most difficult issues of general life support. “The people are silent!” - wrote AS Pushkin in his tragedy "Boris Godunov", that is, he did not support power. But ... he didn’t reproach her at the same time.

In pre-revolutionary Russia, illustrated applications to the mainstream were very popular. And why - also understandable.

A typical example of the attitude of the then Russian person to state power, according to the American historian Richard Robbins, was the case of the Samara governor I.L. Bloc, when in 1906, in one of the rebellious villages, he tried with his authority to calm the crowd of sullen and aggressive peasants. They did not react to his exhortations, but surrounded him with a tight ring, and it shrank more and more closely. If someone had shouted: “Beat him!” The governor would be torn to pieces. But then he, all trembling from inner fear, but outwardly calm, stepped right into the crowd and said loudly: "To the Russian governor!" The peasants, accustomed to obey the power, and power is power, parted, and Blok freely approached his carriage and calmly left.

That is, knowing our people, they could easily have been managed without blood. And here the question arises, and what didn't our authorities know about the secret “springs” of human actions and the motivation for their actions? Of course, they were known, described in the literature, discussed since the time of Voltaire and Montesquieu. Moreover, since the epoch of Peter the Great, Russia constantly met with manifestations of information hostility from neighboring countries and responded to them, using a number of specific methods of working with the public. After all, Russia at that time abroad was positioned as a barbaric, cruel and ignorant country. And after the Battle of Poltava in the foreign press many reports were published about truly incredible atrocities on the part of Russians against the captured Swedes *, and it was then that, in the eyes of Europeans, the brown bear, which, as Prussian King Frederick Wilhelm I said, should be kept on a strong chain. So the news of the death of Peter I was received there with joy, which our envoy in Denmark, and the future Russian Chancellor, AP, reported to Russia with great indignation. Bestuzhev-Ryumin.

A lot of publications printed stories, stories, poems. A competent person could always find a reading for his soul!

Later, during the Russian-Swedish war 1741 – 1743. the Swedes used leaflets containing the appeal of Lewenhaupt to Russian soldiers who entered the territory of Sweden. They said that the Swedes themselves would like to save the Russian people from ... oppression from the Germans. Well, the appearance on the throne of Elizabeth Petrovna was accompanied not only by Mikhail Lomonosov’s laudatory ode, but also by the real information war, since the Western “Gazetirs” unanimously condemned everything that happened in Russia, and it turned out to be impossible to call them to order: “We have freedom of speech!” - Western ministers answered the Russian envoys.

And then the Russian envoy to the Netherlands, AG Golovkin suggested that the government pay certain “cash dachas” and small annual pensions “to keep them from such accusations” to the “preterrital gazebiers”. True, at first the government was scared of expenses, they say, we don’t buy all, we don’t have enough money, and if we buy a part, then the “offended” will write further. But, on reflection, the payments and the “dachas” decided to apply all the same! The first to whom the Russian Foreign Ministry began to pay "a pension to keep from denunciations," was a kind of Dutch publicist Jean Rousset de Missy. And although he annoyed the empire a lot with his “pashkviliyami”, he treated the “subsidies” from the Russian side with a full understanding of why the content and the tone of his articles changed dramatically! 500 chervonets were sent to the Dutch press from Russia a year, but the publications necessary for strengthening the image of the country appeared in it right away! Before that, newspaper workers had called Elizabeth Petrovna not only “a parven on the throne,” and it immediately turned out that never before in Russia was there such a worthy monarchy and such benevolence that came under the benevolent rule of the Emperor Peter’s daughter. That's how ... It looks like modernity, isn't it? And if it looks like, then - the question arises, what then is not enough for us for the same thing: knowledge (here they are), experience (it does not hold), money (there is always money!), Desires ... or everything is so planned. that is, the Europeans throw mud at us, while we “sluggishly” answer them, laid some deep meaning from the beginning?

Poisoned feather. "Small cottages and pensions" (part 2)

As in the USSR in 1941-1945, the army newspapers were published in the tsarist army during the First World War.

By the way, both the Russian and the Soviet government - yes, yes, this method was used with success, and it did the same thing, starting from paying articles written by "their" foreign journalists, and organizing special trips around the USSR known for their progressive views of writers from Europe and the USA. Moreover, it is clear that they showed only what the authorities wanted to show them.

That is, the effectiveness of monetary incentives for journalists was well known in Russia long before Alexander II, and he should have known about it! That is, he should only have given the command to journalists to start writing in their newspapers about the upcoming reform, so that everyone waited like manna from heaven. And all their aspirations, hopes and thoughts were associated with his name, Tsar-Batyushka! But ... nothing was done. It seems to be an intelligent and enlightened king, but he did his will in the silence of the office, contenting himself with spreading rumors, and did not use the press to support the reform in his mind completely! Alas, did not understand, apparently, the meaning of the printed word. And I did not see in Russia what the Frenchman de Barant saw ... that people, even cab drivers, are already reading!

Although, how did not understand? Write so, then write a lie! He should have understood! The fact is that it was in Russia that in 1847, a special magazine for soldiers began to be published, which was called “Reading for Soldiers”, which was published in such a way as to educate and educate them! Officers were required to read it to soldiers (they, by the way, were taught in the army to read and write!), And judging by the content, he was devoted not only to their military profession, but also told about carpentry and carpentry, how to become a tanner and cheesemaker, that is, this magazine was preparing soldiers for future peaceful life!

Interestingly, magazines in pre-revolutionary Russia were ... more popular than newspapers. The latter were seen as a source of gossip and News. One could think about the contents of the magazines! True, not everyone had enough money for them, but the intelligentsia, of course, read all the most popular magazines.

We will tell you more about this journal and similar editions in the Russian imperial army, however, it is clear that the government of the Russian Empire did not neglect the impact of the words. And only in the case of the abolition of serfdom, the provincial press in his hands for some reason did not use it at all. Well, about what it turned out for him, we will tell the next time ...

Look - war – war, but how many and what books have Russians been offered to subscribe to ?! The country was “reading” even then, with more than 70% illiterate among the population.

Продолжение следует ...

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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 20 February 2017 04: 27
    An interesting article ... I look forward to continuing.
    There is something to ponder about the history of newspapers and magazines in pre-revolutionary RUSSIA.

    (The law in Russia was imposed on the people by the state, whether he wanted it or not.)

    Seductive thoughts are expressed ... but I completely agree ... the same thing is happening in modern RUSSIA ... the opinion of the people is on the lowest bar for those in power ... hehe returned to the roots of capitalism, so to speak.
    1. Vend
      Vend 20 February 2017 09: 29
      Many thanks to the author. However, it will be impossible for the red-eyed gorlopans to prove that Russia until the 1917 year was a strong power. Well, they do not want to understand this.
      1. Uncle Murzik
        Uncle Murzik 20 February 2017 10: 36
        Wend tsarist Russia was a strong power? belay in what? laughing apparently only in your fantasies! belay
        1. antivirus
          antivirus 20 February 2017 12: 59
          So strong that they wanted and flew to Mars. Invented to conceal extraterrestrial power "aliens visit us."
          and left the frail western bourgeoisie and their people (the best taken with them) to grieve. Mind mind to be typed.
    2. baudolino
      baudolino 20 February 2017 09: 53
      It’s interesting, but is there a place on earth where the authorities are interested in the opinion of the people? Ukraine, Montenegro, Sweden, Germany, USA? Blessed and constantly cited as an example, Singapore?)
      1. Weyland
        Weyland 21 February 2017 02: 02
        Quote: baudolino
        Singapore blessed and constantly cited as an example

        The long-standing permanent leader of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew, regarding the “opinion of the people” said:
        "Weak people vote for those who promise to lead the easy way, while in fact, there are no such ways" tongue
    3. Dart2027
      Dart2027 20 February 2017 14: 19
      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      in modern RUSSIA the same thing happens ... the opinion of the people is on the lowest level for those in power

      And when was it different? IN USSR? So the opinion of the people there, too, no one asked.
  2. Cartalon
    Cartalon 20 February 2017 06: 26
    Alexander the second was certainly a smart and not evil person, but very divorced from reality, everyone who did not enter his inner circle annoyed him
    1. Turkir
      Turkir 21 February 2017 07: 21
      I would like to remind, not only to you - that without the past there would be no present.
      Those who do not see the connection of time are cut off from reality.
  3. Monster_Fat
    Monster_Fat 20 February 2017 07: 43
    Another thing is curious - before WWI, Russia steadfastly held first place in the number of printed publications — churches, cheap magazines, calendars, postcards, etc. By the way, the name izba-reading room came from that time, and not from Soviet times. Such huts were organized by Sytin in the villages in order to distribute their publications among the peasants ...
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 20 February 2017 08: 02
    Moreover, since the era of Peter the Great, Russia has constantly met with manifestations of information hostility from neighboring states and responded to them
    ... Information hostility towards Russia was not manifested from the era of Peter I ... it started earlier .. much earlier .. From the beginning there was a condescending neglect .. Then hostility .. especially when Russia got into European affairs ...
    1. Medium
      Medium 20 February 2017 09: 08
      Information wars accompany the whole history of mankind. At first they were religious and ideological, and all kinds of repressions were used to fight against the carriers of other people's views. With the development of, let's say, international relations, information wars have also developed.
      Therefore, as soon as Russia became a subject of international politics, it also became an object of informational influence.
    2. Dart2027
      Dart2027 20 February 2017 14: 20
      Quote: parusnik
      Information hostility towards Russia was not manifested since the era of Peter I

      Ivan the Terrible. The Polish army had a special printing press for printing various libel books.
  5. ruskih
    ruskih 20 February 2017 10: 04
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, Svetlana, very interesting! Photos of newspapers are very informative, a special plus is that you can see the release dates. "Agricultural newspaper" good I look forward to continuing.
    Have a good and successful week. love
    1. creak
      creak 20 February 2017 10: 25
      I join, I wish the authors to continue in the same spirit and not lower the bar. The article compares favorably with many publications on HE with a professional approach to preparing the material, balanced assessments, without ideological distortions and extremes and, very importantly, the absence of unsubstantiated statements and early conclusions ...
      Good Luck!
      1. kalibr
        20 February 2017 12: 59
        Thank! But you see before you the result of seven years of work, so that both the amount of material used and the level of processing = time spent, as well as the amount of labor. We are throwing out footnotes, otherwise the monograph itself ... you just can't read it - there are so many of them at the bottom of each page. By the way, conclusions, of course, will be, but in the end, but it is still far from him. Actually, I am surprised to myself: to read Penza provincial news from 1861 to 1917 and not to go crazy - it's cool! Now I would not. But seven years ago ... why not ?!
  6. Uncle Murzik
    Uncle Murzik 20 February 2017 11: 16
    and what editions were published? belay the author is somehow silent! It is not surprising that Pushkin’s largest lifetime circulations did not exceed 1200 copies, and even those had been lying for years. The fate of the journal Sovremennik founded by Pushkin is interesting. According to Strakhov, in the correspondence between Grot and Pletnev, there is an indication that in the 1840s Sovremennik was printed in 600 copies, of which 200 diverged. The publication was unprofitable. An eloquent indicator is the celebration of Pushkin's centenary in 1899. The jubilee academic publication (but still not completed) of the poet’s complete works was printed in a print run of ... 2 thousand copies - for 140 million people. As for the anniversary Pushkin brochures for a simpler people, their circulation reached 10 thousand copies.
    The largest pre-revolutionary publication of Pushkin was the 10-volume published by Suvorin. With a circulation of 15 thousand, it cost 1,5 rubles. On the whole, as Strakhov writes, "these books did not go farther than the city and deeper than the intelligentsia." The only exception was Leo Tolstoy - truly the most popular writer among the Russian intelligentsia. The circulation of his Complete Works, published as an appendix to the magazine Around the World in 1913, reached astronomical copies of 100 thousand at that time. What did ordinary reader (tradesman, philistine) read in tsarist Russia? When a similar question was asked to Leo Tolstoy, he answered: Matvey Komarov.
    Today, no one knows such an author, and even at the beginning of the twentieth century his books were published in huge editions at that time: for example, the most popular “Glorious scammer and thief Vanka Cain” at a price of 3-5 kopecks. could have a single circulation of 50-100 thousand copies. The second most popular are songbooks, dream books and scribes.
    1. kalibr
      20 February 2017 12: 48
      Even in huge quantities, 5-penny brochures were published for the adventures of detective Nat Pinkerton, and many gymnasium students deprived themselves of breakfast if they were to buy the next issue. Next will be about it ...
      As for the "silent", then write about everything will not work in any case. It’s like in Mikhalkov’s fable “Elephant-painter” - “The guests looked at the landscape and whispered - jumble!”. So, the volume of the monograph significantly exceeded 10 copyright ...
    2. Mikado
      Mikado 20 February 2017 13: 01
      Murzik, you are a fat plus for a meaningful motivated comment! good Nice right word hi
      When a similar question was asked to Leo Tolstoy, he answered: Matvey Komarov.

      unfortunately, we do not remember many authors who ancestors read. Take the same Zagoskin. And at one time he was hyperpopular (though, probably, in the layers of the intelligentsia and above), plus he was the founder of a Russian historical novel!
      1. ruskih
        ruskih 20 February 2017 13: 58
        I'll just add a little. smile Well, why, you should immediately consider the article from the standpoint of red - white. The authors suggested a very good presentation of the material. Perhaps you should take a neutral look, as it were. Before the eyes of the newspaper in 1835 and 1877 a small period of time seems to be. And look, what a big difference in design. Yes, during this period, Russia has turned from a feudal monarchy into a bourgeois monarchy; accordingly, the number of newspapers owned by private owners is increasing. Most of the private owners - publishers are not writers at all, newspapers are published not only in the capital, but also in provincial cities, newspaper circulation is growing, and accordingly there is a pursuit of subscribers, and what they start to write about, oh, as there is always gossip, gossip ,. ..., ads, and the quality of the submission is declining. Does this remind you of anything? wink And I often meet here in VO complaints about this. Well, let's not forget about technological progress and the appearance of photography. All this contributes to the development of newspaper business. But about the content of newspapers and the rest, I think the authors will offer us some very interesting and fascinating material.
      2. Weyland
        Weyland 21 February 2017 02: 05
        Quote: Mikado
        at one time he was hyperpopular (though, probably, in the layers of the intelligentsia and above), plus he was the founder of a Russian historical novel!

        He was hyperpopular precisely as the founder of a Russian historical novel! In the preface to the 2nd edition, he wrote with a fair amount of self-irony: they say that I’m far from being a genius - I just wrote the first historical novel in Russia - and immediately hit the stream!
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 21 February 2017 08: 25
          And at the same time he wrote with a bunch of mistakes, so that the editors scolded him what the light is on! But .. correcting errors is already the editor’s job hi
          1. kalibr
            21 February 2017 17: 12
            To me, my mother in the second grade, when I started writing my first novel, said that I should not be a writer, since I write with errors ... She was wrong! Mistakes are not as important as the content!
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 21 February 2017 17: 25
              if there are errors in the published book, this is not the concern of the author, but of the editor, he receives money for this. But there are no absolute literate people among us.
  7. vladimirvn
    vladimirvn 20 February 2017 13: 09
    What about the Decembrists? "For the people, but without the people." Power at all times in Russia, always believed that it knows best what the people need. What information to give, and which is harmful to him. We will soon be banned from turning off the TVs, under the threat of criminal prosecution (a joke).
  8. Dart2027
    Dart2027 20 February 2017 14: 17
    It seems that the king was smart and enlightened, but he did his will in the silence of the cabinet, content with spreading rumors, and he did not use the press to support the reform completely!

    In the book “The Reign of Emperor Nicholas II,” the author (Oldenburg S. S.) several times notes that the tsarist government neglected self-promotion and did not seek to show each event in a light favorable to itself.
  9. Medium
    Medium 20 February 2017 15: 53
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, as usual, touched on an immense topic. This time it is called "periodicals."
    What is a periodical press. The periodical press is a type of historical sources represented by long-term periodical publications whose functions are the organization (structuring) of public opinion, the implementation of the ideological influence of the state, information services to economic activities in the field of private entrepreneurship, and the establishment of feedback in the management system.
    In addition, I would indicate such points.
    When talking about the study of periodicals, they usually mean either studying the history of a publication or a group of publications (for example, the "Bolshevik press"), or studying materials published in newspapers and magazines on a specific topic. But the solution of the second research problem without a preliminary holistic study of the publication from which the information is extracted will be incorrect, as the periodical is designed to accumulate influence on the reader and the reader perceives this or that information in many respects in accordance with his expectations based on the reputation of the publication, literary and public past of its authors.

    Obviously, with this approach, the minimum unit of a periodical is its set for the entire period of the publication (or for the period of publication with one editor).
    When referring to certain materials published in newspapers or magazines, in addition to the general direction of the publication, it is necessary to take into account whether this text was created specifically for this publication or the publishers published a text created for a different purpose. This separation of materials is acceptable not only when working with historical periodicals in which historical sources were constantly published, along with research papers, but also for many other publications, for example, the publication of statistical materials in the Statistical Journal or official documents in departmental publications.
    Throughout the entire period of existence of pre-revolutionary periodicals, the role of the publisher and editor (often combined in one person) was great. Therefore, the study of a periodical should begin with a study of the personality of the publisher, understanding the goals that he pursued. It should be borne in mind that in pre-revolutionary times in Russia it was easier to buy an existing publication or rent it than open a new one. Particular attention should be paid to the reasons for changing the publisher. Sometimes, with the advent of a new publisher, the direction of a periodical changes dramatically.
    And finally, it is necessary to analyze the relationship of the publication with censorship, remembering that after the reform of 1865, part of the publications was free from preliminary censorship.
    So that the end of the cycle is not expected.
  10. kalibr
    20 February 2017 18: 26
    Quote: Medium
    Therefore, the study of a periodical should begin with a study of the personality of the publisher, understanding the goals that he pursued. It should be borne in mind that in pre-revolutionary times in Russia it was easier to buy an existing publication or rent it than open a new one. Particular attention should be paid to the reasons for changing the publisher. Sometimes, with the advent of a new publisher, the direction of a periodical changes dramatically.
    And finally, it is necessary to analyze the relationship of the publication with censorship, remembering that after the reform of 1865, part of the publications was free from preliminary censorship.

    Well, let's put it this way: this is the topic of a separate study, which has nothing to do with this topic. Material is considered within the framework of a given topic. The title of the topic is placed in the title. It is fully consistent with the content. The personalities of editors are not particularly relevant to official publications. These are the authorities, good or bad, but these are the mouthpieces of the government. That is why private publications are not considered here.
    1. Medium
      Medium 20 February 2017 19: 12
      This is for the future.
      1. kalibr
        20 February 2017 19: 29
        I understand, but I'm afraid it won’t work out. Three of my graduate students have completed work on this topic. While one defended, the second at the exit, the third did not continue to engage. So the topic is closed once and for all. Articles will be published here, a monograph will be published (again, if they receive a grant from the Russian Humanitarian Science Foundation) and all ... more of the old newspapers (primarily pre-revolutionary) none of us will do. Further work on the Pravda newspaper is possible. But before the age of 17, that's it. The train left.
        1. Medium
          Medium 20 February 2017 20: 04
          Yes, it is a pity. By the way, several years ago there was a message that the University of Voronezh took the initiative to create an encyclopedia of the regional press. Your topic has something in common with this idea. You’ve created it, it’s interesting, or everything remained in the plans.
  11. Vitalson
    Vitalson 21 February 2017 15: 23
    Quote: Wend
    Many thanks to the author. However, it will be impossible for the red-eyed gorlopans to prove that Russia until the 1917 year was a strong power. Well, they do not want to understand this.

    Dear, you stop crunching with French bread, otherwise your brain will be disconnected during this lesson. The fact that tsarist Russia during the time of Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great kicked asses of adversaries, only says that Russia had a strong army. Only this is one side of the coin - the other side of the coin is that “Strong Tsarist Russia” bought all the scientists and equipment for industrial production abroad, sent students there to teach us, for example, how to build ships. A strong country is one that has independence in all spheres of its activity, where there is a competent and educated population. Tell me respected monarchist-baker who would have been under the tsar Mikhail Koshkin? He would die like his dad at logging and we would not have a T-34. And the possessed Austrian would still have attacked us in 1941, or maybe earlier, and if we answered him with a saber and a Mosinka, would we oppose it? And do not try to make people laugh, saying that under the tsar, Russia traded in grain, and with the "reds", as you put it, there was hunger, do not make people laugh. No one says that the revolution is good, but the people just brought to this.
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 21 February 2017 17: 28
      I don’t know how it is with the T-34, but the empire was selling grain, and the union was buying, and the possessed Austrian would certainly not have come to power in Russia, not in Russia.
    2. kalibr
      21 February 2017 21: 37
      But don’t you know that Koshkin came to the plant after the engineer Afanasy Firsov was repressed there, or rather it was Firsov who brought him in and brought him up to date ?! And there is evidence that this is it ... "father of the T-34." At least the author of his ideas and drawings of a tank of 30 tons. And Koshkin only developed this idea, yes ... but without the “34” Russia would certainly not have remained without it! Official Soviet historiography associates the creation of the famous T-34 tank exclusively with the name of the chief designer Mikhail Koshkin, who replaced the repressed Afanasy Firsov in December 1936. But the foundations for the creation of the T-34, its primary technical appearance, and the main combat characteristics were laid back under Firsov. Already at the end of 1935 on the desk of the chief designer lay elaborated sketches of a fundamentally new tank: protivosnaryadny booking with large angles of inclination, long-barrel 76,2 mm gun, diesel engine V-2, weight up to 30 tons ... Alexander Firsov's closest assistants in these developments were Alexander Morozov and Mikhail Tarshinov. The same collision occurred during the creation of the famous V-2 diesel engine, which is still used on modern tanks. The pioneer is Konstantin Chelpan, his successor is Ivan Trashutin.
  12. Old26
    Old26 21 February 2017 21: 41
    Many thanks to the authors. We have raised a layer, of which there is very little, we know fragmentarily. But the most interesting materials. In the early 50s, my father bought a four-volume encyclopedic dictionary (an appendix to the journal Nature and People for 1902, published by P. P. Soikin), as a kid, he read and re-read articles of this dictionary, despite the fact that there was a TSB and an encyclopedic dictionary. And then I did not understand why the owner of these books made notes what ink ...