The Great Names of the Time of Troubles - Kozma Minin

MI Scotty. Minin and Pozharsky. Xnumx

The Time of Troubles was one of the most difficult historical periods for our country. Constant changes in power, the march of impostors across Russia and the occupation by Polish and Swedish invaders almost destroyed the statehood. However, despite the fact that historians assess this time as dark and difficult, it was this time that showed all the wisdom and strength of the Russian people. It was this period that inscribed the names of its heroes and devoted sons in the chronicle of Russia in golden letters of national memory.

The school curriculum includes the compulsory study of the biographies of emperors, noble nobles and political figures, even attention is paid to criminals, while real heroes are only mentioned in passing. It is not surprising that the younger generation simply does not know most of the glorious names that should be proud of grateful descendants.

Minin Kuzma Zakharievich practically did not leave any historical traces about himself until 1611. It is only known that he was a butcher or had his own butcher's shop. There is evidence that he bore the nickname Sukhoruk and, apparently, did not differ much from the townspeople. From what year Kuzma Zakharievich lived in Nizhny Novgorod is unknown, however, according to the historians of that time, he lived in average income and was respected among the residents. Taking into account the pace of life at the end of the sixteenth century, as well as the customs of independent Novgorodians, in order to earn their respect and trust, Minin had to stay in the city for 10 years, or even more. It is also possible to speak about the age of this glorious Russian only presumably. Most historians are inclined to believe that he was mature for years, but not quite an old man. Judging by the average life expectancy during this period, we can say that at the time of his speech to the townspeople with an appeal to collect the militia Kuzma Zakharievich was 35 or 45 years old. Historical documents indicate that the national hero had a small family. His wife Tatyana Semyonovna, having outlived her husband, ended her life as a nun in one of the Novgorod cells. Researchers are inclined that it was the Resurrection Monastery. The only son Nefyod Kuzmich was a famous Moscow solicitor and until his death owned the village of Bogorodskoye granted to his father and the nearby villages and lands in the Nizhny Novgorod district. After his death in 1632, the property returned to state ownership. According to the official version, Kuzma Minin came from the large family of the saltman Ankudinov, but this point of view has been harshly and well-grounded criticism in recent years. Recently, books and archival documents were analyzed, and as a result, historians came to the conclusion that Minin had no relationship with this person. The hypothesis is controversial, so it should not be taken as the only correct one. However, one should not evaluate the previous point of view as an immutable truth. Both theories have their own serious gaps and cannot claim to be completely reliable.

KE Makovsky. The appeal of Minin. Xnumx

The beginning of activity is connected with reading the letters of Hermogen on the city council. According to contemporaries, Minin himself said that he was repeatedly canonized Sergius demanding the commencement of the convening of the militia to protect the state. How reliable the legend is is unknown, most likely, this is just another popular legend, invented in order to further glorify the glorious Novgorod citizen. In the fall of 1611, the city of Minin was elected headman and began collecting militia.

Recognition of Novgorod Minin received thanks to his speech at the meeting with a speech about the need for the militia and its funding. Kuzma Zakharyevich was able to speak. The eloquent and fiery call of the headman was heard, and a personal example of donation also helped. His words kindled the hearts of the citizens and forced him to give a third of his personal property to the collection and maintenance of the national army. By the way, to say that the financing was completely voluntary is still impossible, since for trying to evade the transfer of the contribution a strict sanction was envisaged in the form of selling the culprit to the serfs with confiscation of all his property.

Novgorod quickly became the center of a cluster of militias, and Minin suggested that Dmitry Pozharsky be elected as a military commander. The prince was on treatment near the city and expressed a desire to become the head of the army and use his leadership talent for the good of the Fatherland. Kuzma Zakharyevich was appointed as the head of the treasury of the militia, as a man who deserved great people's trust. The position was very difficult, as in the conditions of general ruin, Minin had to not only take care of the feeding of the soldiers, but also dress them in the conditions of the harsh Russian autumn and winter. The merit of Kuzma Minin, first of all, is that the supply of the rebel army was organized at the highest level, which was facilitated by a business acumen, sense of duty, responsibility and crystal honesty of the Novgorod elder. Thanks largely to the work of Kuzma Zakharyevich, the second militia escaped the fate of Lyapunov's national army.

The Great Names of the Time of Troubles - Kozma Minin

An amazing person, whose origin is not known until now, possessed not only the gift of eloquence and management. Not far from Moscow, in the battle with Khodkiewicz, a detachment under his leadership dealt a decisive blow to the enemy, thereby deciding the outcome of the battle in favor of the militias. Courage, honesty, sense of duty, responsibility, accuracy and many more positive and unique qualities combined in this mysterious person. Minin became a national hero who, together with other equally valiant sons of the Russian state, defended his independence and freedom.

The merits of Kuzma Zakharyevich were noted by the young tsar Mikhail Romanov of the nobility title and service in the Boyar Duma. Already in 1614, in view of his proven honesty and diligence, Minin is charged with collecting duties from foreigners, merchants and other merchants into the treasury, which was a very honorable and responsible matter in a ruined country. In 1615, the sovereign reaffirmed respect and favor for the national hero, including him in the board that ruled the capital and state affairs during the pilgrimage of Mikhail Romanov to holy places. Minin rightfully enjoyed the infinite trust of the king and his entourage, and even greater love among the common people. In the same year, Kuzma Zakharyevich had to participate with Romodanovsky in the investigation into the uprising of foreigners.

The tomb of Kuzma Minin in the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral of the Kremlin. Built by L.V. Dahl in 1874

The death of the national hero, about which legends and tales began to take shape during his lifetime, in May 1616. became a real grief for the common people. After the death of Minin, the government was especially respectful of his family and provided full support to the widow and son.

There are very few historical assessments of this person. For the most part, we explore only the second half of the life of this mysterious man who came out of nowhere to save a poor country. Of course, the expulsion of the interventionists was not only a matter of Kuzma Zakharyevich, but his contribution to this national feat was invaluable. It is unacceptable to oblivion such glorious names as Minin, as well as not worthy to challenge his positive role in the history of our state. This is one of the most brilliant examples of a worthy citizen of his country.
Kozma Minin - Mr. X Russian stories

A documentary film dedicated to one of the main characters of the Time of Troubles - Kozme Minin.
Why is the person who recreated the Russian state from the ruins, not perpetuated in the annals and legends? Why is not one of the streets of our capital named after him? Why did he annoy the historians of the XIX century and the reformers of the 90 of the last century? And most importantly - why, it would seem, about one of the most famous historical figures we know little offensively?

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    1. 0
      7 February 2012 10: 36
      The glorious son of his fatherland. A true patriot! Fortunately, God does not leave Russia, and people like Minin and Pozharsky always appeared in difficult times.
    2. +2
      7 February 2012 10: 55
      Residents of Nizhny Novgorod are called Nizhny Novgorod, not Novgorod, as the author of the article calls them.
      1. Svyatoslav
        7 February 2012 12: 56
        As a resident of the Nizhny Novgorod region, I say thank you for the amendment.
    3. serge
      7 February 2012 15: 15
      Where are you, Minins, Zhukovs, Nevsky?
      Where are you, Sergius - the intercessor of Russia?
      Gay great people! Enough sleep doze!
      Stand in whom faith and conscience are clear!
      Time to collect Russia, time to collect Russia,
      Where are you, Ivan Kalita?
      1. Basileus
        9 February 2012 00: 19
        Putin is both Minin and Pozharsky all rolled into one.
    4. Strabo
      7 February 2012 23: 59
      Good verified article. And what about the time of troubles, this is still how to say. Gorbachev’s perestroika and the rule of Yeltsen - this is the time of troubles. That time showed all the wisdom and power of the Russian people, but what does it show?

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