Stepan Razin - the embodiment of popular anger

Dashing free Cossack known by the people as Stenka Razin appeared on the Don not by chance. The oppression of the serfs became harder and harder, and the dependence of the peasants became more and more fixed. Voivods and the bureaucratic apparatus were rotten, bribery and red tape flourished in Russia, there was no fair trial. The flight of the peasants acquired colossal proportions, even in the petitions of that time there were often threats to “run apart”. In such a situation, the appearance of a strong leader and protector was a regularity. The revolt was not caused by Razin, but rather Stepan Timofeevich became a product of popular anger.

The amazing, adventurous life of a freedom-loving, extraordinary man, a successful chieftain, passed on the battlefield. The personality of Stepan Timofeevich fanned by fame, which any crowned autocrat can envy, is attractive to the Russian people, primarily because of its open and desperate character. Stepan Razin in folk tales personifies the leader of the peasants and the valiant Cossacks, the protector and the liberator.

The future formidable ataman was born in the Zimoveyskaya stanitsa on the Don. A lot is connected with this mysterious place for the Russian people. A little later, Emelyan Pugachev will be born, having passed through our country no less bloody road than the damned Stenka Razin. What anomaly in these places is not known. However, the fact remains that it was here that two of the most desperate rebels, so beloved and respected in Russia, were born.

Vasily Surikov. Stepan Razin. 1903 – 1907

By the middle of the sixteenth century, the Don Cossacks consisted of two specific strata: indigenous people and runaway or alien people. The “poor”, who had no permanent place of residence, often broke off in campaigns in order to rob the passing ships with goods and nearby territories. Such thieves' actions were called by Cossacks for “zipuns”, and although the indigenous wealthy residents did not approve such raids publicly, they still secretly financed them for a certain share in the spoils. One of these trips and began the popular "storm", whose name is Stepan Timofeevich Razin.

A small detachment of Cossacks, according to some data, its number was about 2-x thousand people, headed for the robbery down the Volga. At the head of the squad stood a young and successful ataman Stepan Timofeevich. The march quickly went beyond the usual raid characteristic of the Don Cossacks. At first, the government made rather sluggish attempts to pacify the Cossacks, and time was lost. As early as May 1667, the Cossack detachments defeated the archers and plundered the convoy of ships Shorin, who accompanied the ship with the exiles. Prisoners were released and willingly joined the Cossacks. Razin invaded Yaik, then headed to the Persian shores, where he captured the Persian princess famous from folk songs. Whether Stepan Timofeevich threw a Persian in the water or not has not yet been unequivocally established, but one thing is known that the daughter of Mamed-Khan Astarinsky from the Cossack captivity never returned.

The return to Astrakhan was triumphant for Stenka Razin. Governors were brought guilty, in exchange for a passage to the Volga. During his stay in the city, the ataman rode on strugues and in every possible way emphasized his independence and rebelliousness. Despite the promise to give the authorities all the booty and prisoners, the Cossacks did not give them anything, and went to Tsaritsino.

In the city, an attempt to prohibit Cossacks from visiting taverns was severely punished by Razin. In fact, Stepan Timofeevich refused to obey the tsarist administration and captured the city. The ataman responded to all threats with abuse and retaliatory promises of reprisals. In every possible way, Razin emphasized his non-acceptance of the existing regime of oppression, preached equality, cruelly punished those who were undesirable, but did not dishonor the king directly. Desperate Ataman well understood that the king in the minds of the population can easily be opposed to hated voivods and greedy boyars, which he actively used in his speeches and deeds. The defeated governor and military commanders Stepan Timofeevich publicly used rods, which also raised his authority in the eyes of his subordinates.

Stepan Razin - the embodiment of popular anger
Buzulukov S.A. Stepan Razin in Saratov. Xnumx

Each city occupied by Razin passed to the Cossack administration and adopted their lifestyle. Many joined the valiant and riotous armies. Chiefs, gentlemen, boyars who were disagreeable to the local population were ruthlessly exterminated, and daughters from noble and noble families, at best, were married to simple peasants or Cossacks. Interestingly, Stepan Timofeevich completely refused to recognize the wedding ceremony and organized the wedding ceremonies himself. The sacrament consisted in insane dances for a short time, after which the couple was declared the legal spouses.

After Tsaritsyn, Razin occupied Samara, Saratov and a number of other cities. Moving on the crest of the peasant war, which originated in 1670, the Cossack forces were all arriving and more and more resembled the insurgent army. In order to attract the people, Razin ordered to sheathe one of his ships with red cloth and set the unknown prisoner as Tsarevich Alexei, and covered the second boat with black covers and spread rumors about the presence of Patriarch Nikon on it. Thus, Stepan Timofeevich actively tried to discredit the image of the sovereign, not expressing direct intentions about the overthrow of the autocracy. Razin indicated that he was fighting for the tsar, but against the governors who had been enticed, the boyars and other nobles.

However, in the campaign, the ataman constantly drank, brawled and indulged in various bloody entertainment. Gradually, he lost his original image of a defender and was transformed into a possessed, ruthless killer, driven by the opinion of the crowd, magnified by his achievements and victories. The measures applied by Razin’s environment to the sovereign's henchmen were very cruel. The unfortunate were hanged, wheeled, drowned and tortured in various sophisticated ways. The punishments were intimidating. Cossack detachments were divided and occupied all new cities, the excitement swept not only the Volga region and the central part of Russia, but even reached the territories of the White Sea.

In 1670, the army of Razin suffered its first failure in the siege of Simbirsk, and already in early October it was defeated by the royal army of 60 thousands of soldiers under the command of Baryatinsky. Stepan Trofimovich was seriously wounded and, leaving the main part of his squad, fled to his native Don. Subsequently, Razin was given the Cossacks with his brother Frol.

Sergey Kirillov Stepan Razin. 1985-88

They attempted a national ataman in the royal dungeons, but his courage was respected even by executioners. The hardy Cossack did not utter a word, he did not ask for mercy and did not beg for mercy. A proud and surprisingly strong man, even in the face of imminent death, retained his dignity. The execution was terrible and painful. Stepan Trofimovich was cut off his arm, and then his leg, and only then the pitying executioner cut off the ataman’s head. By sentence, Razin should have been quartered, but death came faster. The indignation of the chieftain was caused by the behavior of his brother Frol, who, fearing a bloody spectacle, uttered the words of repentance. According to eyewitnesses, only then did Razin swear hard at him.

The amazing desperate life of a rebel ended in a chopping block, which is typical of the leaders of popular uprisings in Russia. The bloodthirsty crazy brigand remained in the people's memory as a hero-liberator. Is it everyone decides for himself. Stenka Razin belongs to those great and mysterious personalities who judge only story.
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  1. +1
    1 February 2012 08: 46
    One could also consider the version of separatist currents in the Don in the second half of the XNUMXth century.
  2. 755962
    1 February 2012 11: 26
    Stepan Razin was a Russian Robin Hood: he robbed princes and boyars, but ordinary people did not give offense. And when the chieftain with his peasant army began to raise the people to revolt, many cities surrendered to him without a fight.
    1. +2
      1 February 2012 13: 58
      Quote: 755962
      Stepan Razin was a Russian Robin Hood: he robbed princes and boyars, but ordinary people did not give offense.

      Judging by the legends, Robin Hood handed out the loot to the poor. For Stepan Timofeevich, this did not seem to be observed ... smile Also according to legend, he dug up the loot nonsense somewhere, are still looking ... wink
      1. 755962
        1 February 2012 14: 08
        Quote: Svist
        he looted stuff looted somewhere, still looking ..

        it is spoken, it will never be found. And about Robin Hood, a fairy tale, a fairy tale .....
    2. Zynaps
      1 February 2012 15: 27
      these are fairy tales. Cossack freemen Razin perfectly robbed and ordinary people. I had read the studies on the basis of the documents of that time, and so it appears from them that only during the Razin campaign against Astrakhan, at least a quarter of a million people escaped from robbery and violence from their places.

      what to do: rebels usually have a bad situation with humanism.
    3. -1
      2 February 2012 07: 40
      he was a Russian robber and nothing more ... propaganda created a halo of a martyr for him ...
  3. Strabo
    1 February 2012 11: 56
    Stepan Razin could not be the embodiment of popular anger. It was, as is now customary to say, an organized criminal group. Stepan Razin, unlike Pugachev, never put forward political demands. He was literate, able to write and read. Masterfully owned a saber. In circulars about his detention, it was specifically stipulated that if Stenka had a saber, then there was nothing for ten to do next. Nothing, of course, an article, but some kind of scumbag, this material requires a detailed approach to Stepan’s personality.
  4. Vrangel
    1 February 2012 13: 47
    In this article, "Comrade" Sobin displays an exclusively Bolshevik view of this stage of history. Stepan Razin was not the embodiment of the people's anger, but was an ordinary robber of that time.
    1. 0
      1 February 2012 20: 04
      Well, not quite ordinary. Razin initially represented the interests of a part of the Don Cossacks, striving for isolation from the Russian state. And since this part was small in number, they had to communicate with them and ultimately rely on it.
  5. +1
    1 February 2012 13: 59
    Well, I don’t understand why in Russia they made robin hoods from dashing people. The Soviets then clearly tried to discern the revolutionary moods and the struggle against the autocracy ... even in such a crime. But in fact, that’s a little different, that Pugachev is Russia's enemies.
    1. Zynaps
      1 February 2012 15: 37
      You better ask the Americans why they still adore romantics from the highways of Bonia and Clyde, as well as the famous raiders of the Great Depression, such as John Dillinger. in Russia about Stenka except that the song was composed, but no one had guessed to shoot positive films and stage musicals.
      1. +1
        1 February 2012 16: 11
        to be honest, I do not care about Americans. but that is why we admire the "romanticism" of the walls of different and more modern Murkas - the lesson is not clear. Prison chanson is rushing everywhere. We are destroying our culture in addition to history, calling such characters dashing atamans. You can explain why the personality of Yermak is not so popular in contrast to the murderer stents?
        1. Zynaps
          1 February 2012 16: 30
          darling, don't be so nervous. Be that as it may, S. Razin is a part of Russian history and definitely has nothing to do with the prison chanson. if only because among the free Cossacks there was no thieves hierarchy and "concepts". the rebels were a product of their time and their rebellion was a reaction to an unjust way of life and enslavement. in fact, Soviet history has focused on this. why repeat the nonsense of the self-styled Chornago Baron?
          1. 0
            1 February 2012 18: 32
            sorry if offended. just murka and chanson cited an example on boni and clay. and the "product of his time" dealt with serfs no less cruelly ... that's how they are fighters against injustice
  6. +4
    1 February 2012 14: 40
    From the article:
    The governors and the bureaucratic apparatus rotted, bribery flourished in Russia, red tape, there was no fair trial.
    Well, just like now. Nothing has changed in Russia for 340 years.
  7. -1
    1 February 2012 17: 45
    lucky bandyugan for the time being - there were enough of them in Europe !!! wink
  8. 0
    1 February 2012 18: 48
    At school they taught that Razin and Pugachev with Salavat were national heroes, and only Salavat Yulaev was wiped off the monument!
    1. Punch 2011
      1 February 2012 21: 02
      In Saransk there is a monument to E. Pugachev; he looks at the city center, where the richest as usual live and work
  9. Punch 2011
    1 February 2012 21: 05
    In general, I am surprised that there were few uprisings and rebellions - with such a life of slaves, many of us would have long taken up axes and pitchforks.

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