Tsitsianov - a key figure in the history of the Caucasus

12
The brilliant commander and skillful diplomat Pavel Dmitrievich Tsitsianov was born in a noble family with deep Georgian roots. The Tsitsianovs moved to Russia long before the appearance of Pavel Dmitrievich, and the representatives of the clan managed to embrace Russian culture and traditions. Dmitry Pavlovich pinned great hopes on his son and tied his future with service to the state. All men in this glorious and noble family lived in the service of the fatherland. From an early age, the father paid great attention to the education and upbringing of the boy, hired the best tutors so that the child could master several languages.

The ardent character of the young man was traced back in the years of his stay in the parental home. Pavel Dmitrievich spent hours behind the novels and successfully translated works of genius writers and famous thinkers. Of particular interest was the young man to the art of war. One of his works was the translation of the writings of the great commander Friedrich, which once again approved him in the intention to devote himself to military exploits. European education Tsitsianov received simultaneously with the service in the army. During these times, there was a practice of recording noble children in the ranks of the military from infancy, so that when they grew up, they already had a relatively high rank.

By the 17 years, Pavel Dmitrievich was already an ensign, in 30 he was entrusted with the command of the regiment of grenadiers. During his youth, Tsitsianov participated in military battles with the Turks, but distinguished himself noticeably only a few times. However, Pavel Dmitrievich was characterized by the fact that he was a diligent student, and during that time he was able to comprehend military practice and learn tactical tricks. The willful nature led him along the path of self-education and self-improvement. The service under the wing of such bright and talented commanders as Saltykov, Rumyantsev, Potemkin did not pass without a trace for the budding commander. The zeal and abilities of Tsitsianov were noted by Suvorov himself. Decisiveness and the will to win made Pavel Dmitrievich famous, having manifested himself in hostilities with the Poles back in 1794. The actions of the regiment under his leadership provided invaluable support to the Russian military forces and to a certain extent ensured success in suppressing the Polish uprising. Great Catherine favored the young commander and affectionately called him "her general."

Contemporaries describe Pavel Dmitrievich very flattering and benevolent. According to them, this man was very proud and strong-willed. He was characterized by short temper and stubbornness, but it was explained by a firm confidence in their capabilities and talents. Many loved him and were friends with him. Among the close friends included the notorious Rostopchin. Tsitsianov was honest and fair and very keen on the word, because of which he had a lot of trouble. The disadvantage of this talented commander was his intolerance towards the opinions of others, his sensitivity to counter barbs, and sometimes excessive self-confidence.

Pavel Dmitrievich entered stories Russian Empire due to its role in the Caucasian War. In just three years, this harsh but fair man was able to calm rebellious Georgia and move apart the possessions of the empire. The presence of the military on Georgian territory was by no means a seizure. A small Christian country was surrounded by aggressive Islamic nations. In addition, the mighty Persia showed its obvious claims on its territory. The royal dynasty, torn by internal contradictions, voluntarily sought the protection of Russian bayonets.

Tsitsianov was appointed commander-in-chief of Georgia in the autumn of 1802, instead of the protege of the ousted emperor Pavel Knorring. Affairs in Georgia at that time were very bad, as the Port was increasingly insisting on influence in this region. Tensions were between the Russian military and the local population, hostile attacks were undertaken by the neighboring nations. Location to Tsitsianovu from the monarch's person expressed itself in granting him complete freedom of activity in the framework of the conquest of territories. Being simultaneously the governor of Astrakhan, Pavel Dmitrievich had at the disposal of the military Caspian fleet. However, the forces concentrated in this troubled region represented only a small part of the empire's troops, and Tsitsianov did not have to rely on reinforcements in the event of a conflict. Most of the army was concentrated in Europe and the border areas in connection with the events unfolding there. The withdrawal of the Russian military contingent could create a real threat to the state on the part of France and other states. At the same time, Pavel Dmitrievich repeatedly had to deal with a superior Persian army, the offensive of which he managed to repel.

Upon arrival at the place of Tsitsianov with his characteristic sense of purpose took up the case. An experienced commander by that time had Alexander 1 ordering not to openly confront Porta, a strong rival, but to try in ways that could not give the leadership of a powerful rival to resent and complain. Diplomatic talent of Pavel Dmitrievich was on top. In just three years of stay in the Transcaucasus, Russia included the Shirvan, Karabakh, and other small and numerous khanates who did not give rest to Georgia. The boundaries of the Russian Transcaucasus grew significantly, and most of the accessions occurred without the use of military force and human victims. A well thought out and subsequently justified decision of Tsitsianov was the expulsion of members of the royal family outside the country, in view of the fact that its members were constantly intriguing and plotting, stirring the already warlike people. Removing monarchs made it possible to eliminate the impact of a negative factor that previously contributed to Georgia’s internal instability.

However, the management of the entrusted territories by Tsitsianov was by no means indecisive and exclusively peaceful. He radically changed the policy of gifts and “purchases” of local sultans and khans, who were previously inclined to citizenship only with exhortations and flattery. With a strong and confident hand, Pavel Dmitrievich led the hostile Caucasian princes to submission. Any speeches, both by the rulers and the general population, were punished without delay and extremely cruel. The talented military leader demonstrated the power of the Russian Empire, taming restless Lezghins in the Dzhar-Belokansky region, and also took Ganju by attack, renaming it Elisavetpol. Tsitsianov chose a surprisingly correct way to control, combining dualistic behavior. On the one hand, he was a court grandee, who closely communicated with high-ranking officials and noble surnames, including Rastopchin and the imperial court, and on the other, he appeared as an imperious eastern dictator and conqueror. This behavior was partly determined by the character and Georgian ancestral roots of the Astrakhan governor, partly was the direction of military tactics.

The educated military commander undertook punitive expeditions to the territories of hostile peoples during which he burned villages of civilians to the ground. Women and babies often died in fire, livestock died, crops burned out, dooming the population to starvation. However, such barbaric methods were necessary in this recalcitrant Caucasus region, and those who had the imprudence to wage war according to the European rules were considered to be a weak and not worthy rival. The very holding of such bloody actions prejudiced Tsitsianovu, which is clearly reflected in his letters and reports to the autocrat, nevertheless, he was aware of their inevitability and even temporary usefulness in the fight against the recalcitrant. By the way, Pavel Dmitrievich was loved by the soldiers, since his golden rule was Suvorov’s assertion that people should be protected and entered into battle only if it was impossible to resolve the contradictions in a peaceful way. The population of Tiflis nurtured respect for a just commander who encouraged the development of cities and the establishment of a health care system, education, and others.

Yanovsky K. 156 Infantry Regiment Elizavetpolsky General Prince Tsitsianov regiment during the Turkish war 1877-1878. Tiflis, 1897


Tsitsianov was not only the commander in chief, but also a strong manager. During the period of his administration, roads in Tiflis and its surroundings were repaired, the municipal economy was put in order. On the initiative of Pavel Dmitrievich, schools were opened, agriculture developed, social service facilities were built, which allowed for a radical change in the attitude of the indigenous population. The Russians did not look more invaders, they finally became defenders. The leadership qualities allowed the commander-in-chief to establish indisputable authority in Georgia and the conquered khanates.

Not so smoothly and calmly everything was with the neighboring mountaineers. The methods of hanging spiritual leaders by their feet and burning villages only incited hatred, although they had a temporary deterrent effect. An example of how to keep people in submission is a brutal massacre of the rebel Ossetians. Despite sympathy for the people subjected to atrocities and harassment by the Russian leadership, Tsitsianov ordered the destruction of all those who resisted the power of the sovereign, which was done as soon as possible.

Tsitsianov’s health was seriously undermined, he saw more and more clearly the inconsistency of the plan for the rapid integration of this territory into Russia. The first attempt to retire was a request for resignation at the time of the military triumph in the city of Ganja, which the emperor refused. Some historians attribute this behavior of a proud commander to the unfulfilled expectations of the Order of St. George for taking powerful fortifications, but others are of the opinion that Tsitsianov wanted to leave at the peak of his success, fearing further setbacks. It should be noted that reviews of contemporaries about the identity of the military commander, always distinguished by confidence and self-confidence, speak in favor of the first point of view. The arguments for the second are letters with discourses about the low benefits of coercive pressure on recalcitrant mountaineers and the ineradicability of excitement and resistance.

After the conquest of the Shirvan Khanate, the aim of Tsitsianov was Baku. Going through the mountains was a real test for the commander, since his health was seriously undermined. Pavel Dmitrievich adequately coped with the hardships and hardships of the way. Nevertheless, approaching the fortress, he did not change his tactics and sent a convincing secondary demand for the voluntary surrender of the fortress and the complete subordination of the khanate of the Russian Empire. The intuition of Pavel Dmitrievich always helped him, as if he felt the mood of the enemy. The agreement of Hussey-Kuli-Khan did not surprise the commander in the least, since the fame of the power and ability of the Russian troops already encompassed all the adjacent and recalcitrant territories. The Khans and the Sultans surrendered without a fight, only a few dared to confront the military art of Tsitsianov.

8 February 1806, at the appointed time, Pavel Dmitrievich with a small escort went to the city for the solemn transfer of keys, symbolizing the consent of the Khanate to become part of Russia. However, at the most unexpected moment, Tsitsianov was killed by a shot of one of the Bakuites. The vile and vile crime that violated all the laws of wartime in Europe and Asia, caused indescribable indignation of the Russian troops. In 1806, Baku was taken by General Bulgakov, and the body of a glorious and proud commander, a devoted son of the fatherland, was buried with honor in the Armenian Church in this tragically famous city. Later, Tsitsianov’s ashes were carefully removed and reburied in Tiflis, erecting a monument to this great man. There was also a broken Tsitsianovsky Square in the city of his untimely death. Sadly, Russia has forgotten this wonderful man.

The eternal memory of Pavel Dmitrievich should be kept in the treasury of Russian history as an invaluable example of courage, dedication and devotion to grateful descendants.
Russia in the Caucasus

Transfer 1-I.
Dedicated to the origins and beginnings of Russian activities in the Caucasus. The first commanders: Prince Tsitsianov and Count Gudovich, the first expeditions to the mountains, the first errors, the first people and the first mistakes. Finally, the first hero is General Yermolov, who pacified the Caucasus. Next to him, the head of his office, Alexander Griboedov.

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  1. +3
    26 January 2012 09: 41
    Now there are three points of view on the Caucasian war. For convenience, we will call the mountain peoples opposing Russia Circassians or Circassians whom Russia encountered in the described period of the beginning of the 19th century.
    The first point of view is "Imperial" position. It originates even in that of Imperial Russia and is smoothly transformed into a statist position today. This position is characterized by a certain neutrality, justification of the appearance of Russia in the Caucasus by the interests of the Empire, the need to protect the Transcaucasian peoples and, in general, the desire to develop and strengthen. Adygs in this concept appear as “rebellious tribes”, which Russia, according to the laws of imperial development, had to subdue, in order to then include in its composition the principles of equality, fraternity and common historical destinies. The topic of cruelty is not developed in this theory, and what kind of cruelty can we talk about if we talk about one common destiny and one, Soviet ... excuse me, the Russian people? Therefore, supporters of this concept decisively and completely forget about the atrocities and atrocities that took place in the North Caucasus, and as they say - well, there was and was, what now? The main thing is together.
    The second theory is unambiguously presented pro-Russians mostly Cossack public figures and historians. This version justifies the Russian arrival in the Caucasus and focuses mainly on the heroic side of the issue - recognizes the Circassians as bold and dangerous warriors, speaks of their own courage and legalizes everything that happened in the public mind. This version also speaks of cruelty. But only about the cruelty of the Adyghe - about the continuous attacks on the villages and villages from which the Cossacks had to defend themselves, about the Russian people being taken into the Circassian captivity, etc. All this is vigorously illustrated by facts from the rich military history of the Cossacks, folk songs such as “two young slaves were walking along the path ... you are in a hurry slaves, you have the Circassian chase, Roslanbek-murza with the Uzden ...”, stories about the situation in the Caucasus was such that for decades women went to the river to get water only with armed guards, etc.
    The third theory is the version of the Caucasian war that is being propagated now among the Circassians. It does not coincide in any way with the first two during the empires, at first the Russian and then the Soviet, although it was among the Circassians, but in a different form, it was carefully hidden, and yet it was not so widespread. In the years following the collapse of the Soviet Union, this version has evolved significantly and has grown into a fairly coherent and widely distributed among the Circassians theory, carefully guarded from unnecessary discussion and discussion. According to it, Russia bears full responsibility and the worst guilt for starting a war on Caucasus, for aggression against the peaceful people, who did not provoke it to such actions, and for the genocide committed against a number of Caucasian nationalities. According to this version, all Circassians heroically fought shoulder to shoulder heroically against invaders, invaders and executioners, in the role of which the Russians were, and only the enormous numerical superiority of the Russian army ensured their loss. At the same time, the Russian authorities aimed not only to defeat the Circassians as a military adversary, but also to destroy them as a people, for the sake of which they committed cruelties that have no analogues in history - they burned dozens of villages, slaughtered entire ethnic groups, purposefully settled the surviving Circassians in places where malaria was atrocious and, ultimately, ruthlessly expelled, expelled the entire people to Turkey, resulting in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Circassians. It must be admitted that to one degree or another, this version is now supported by many, if not practically e Circassians, and if the older generation is not entirely agree with it, and generally refers to it more than indifferent, almost 100% of its socially active youth support
    So, we summarize all of the above: incredible cruelty, the desire to destroy or expel an entire people, forced deportation, forced cultural assimilation. From this the logical consequence follows: “we ask the European Parliament to comprehensively and objectively consider our Appeal and recognize the genocide of the Adyghe (Circassian) people committed by the Russian state from the end of the XNUMXth to the beginning of the XNUMXth centuries.”
    Now let's try to see what happened in the North Caucasus and how
    it was at the beginning of the 19th century. (50 years before Shamil and Ermolov)
    Let us, as they say, cling to the origins - take a look at a few real cases from that time and evaluate whether there was “incredible cruelty” against whom it was directed and by whom it was manifested.
    May 1807 Several thousand mounted Circassians, led by Prince Sultan-Girey ... attacked the Vorovskoleskaya station. It was the headquarters of the Don regiment of the army foreman F.M. Persiyanov ... a big battle unfolded, surrounded by the rangers of the 16th regiment and dragoons of the Nizhny Novgorod regiment fought off in the Vorovskolesky redoubt. In the end, the Donians of Persiyanov (52 Cossacks along with him) and part of the line soldiers were able to save part of the inhabitants, regimental banners and guns, “laying down” up to 300 highlanders. From complete destruction, the village was rescued by the ripening 2 squadrons of Nizhny Novgorod with artillery: they drove off the party. Losses: many people were killed, the Highlanders captured 136 men and 179 women, took livestock and property. During the battle in the village, the Persiyanov family (wife, adopted daughter and 2 grandchildren) was captured. The highlanders demanded 1000 rubles, he did not have that kind of money. They were borrowed from the military sums of the Donskoy Army, Colonel Bykhalov 1st became the guarantor. The Persiyanov family was bought out, but a year later, when the due date came, he could not pay. Colonel Bykhalov deposited his money in the treasury.
    November 1812, the village of Kamennobrodskoye - up to 8000 highlanders gathered on Urup to "enter the Line cordon in different places." November 7 - about 5000 kububans from 9 tribes crossed the Kuban below Ok.Okop and attacked the village. Kamennobrodskoye on Yegorlyk. They burned 35 houses, killed about 300 and captured up to 350 people (according to other sources - 200), captured about 5000 livestock.
    May 1823. The Dzhembulat party attacked the village of Krugloleskoye. The peasants themselves were partly to blame for such a fate of the village - there was a company of the Kabardian regiment captain Tsyklaurov in it, but the men, jealous of their wives to the soldiers, insisted on their departure. On May 13, Tsyklaurov left the village. Upon learning of the attack, he went back, but the highlanders detained his detachment (2 companies of Kabardins, a guard team of 24 hopers, 1 gun). Having lost 25 soldiers, Tsyklaurov broke through and saved the village from complete death. Dzembulat began to retreat. General Steel with a detachment (250 soldiers, 200 Cossacks and 2 guns), notified of the pogrom, annexed the Cossacks from their posts and went to the place of the party's return crossing. At this time, a detachment of Lieutenant Colonel Urnishevsky crossed the Kuban at Pr.Okopa and moved towards Laba across the party. In inclement weather, the infantry of the Stal detachment lagged behind, and at the crossing near Nevinnomyssky Ukrainian., The party was met by hoppers Soldatov and the Kuban Regiment of Major Stepanovsky with 2 guns. The rifles did not work due to rain; in hand-to-hand combat, up to 150 Circassians were chopped off (up to 250 highlanders were killed during the raid). Highlanders who were not crossed over the river were slaughtered and drowned in water; almost all cattle were thrown with their legs chipped. The "Predators" escaped "very upset" and survived due to the betrayal of the conductors of the Urnizhevsky detachment. They turned him back right in front of the leaving party. Circassians spent the night on B. Zelenchuk and, having divided the booty, dispersed. In Kruglolesky, 50 people died, 41 were wounded, 345 were taken prisoner (40 of them were recaptured in “wounded form”), 677 horses and 1067 livestock were stolen, property was looted (even graves were torn to graveyards and pulled nails from buildings).
    July 1823. Russian troops organize "reprisals" for the raid of Dzhembulat. The troops crossed the Kuban, went to B. Zelenchuk and took by surprise 5 Nogai auls. 3 princes with families and relatives were captured, many “common people”. On July 2, a detachment, with a large number of prisoners and cattle, went back. About 1000 “fugitive Kabardinians”, Besleeneites, Abazins and Abadzekhs came to the aid of the Nogais. The troops defeated them at the Ust-Tokhtamyshsky post. The result of the expedition - the mountaineers lost a lot of dead and wounded, 1467 people were captured, about 5500 heads of cattle, 2000 sheep were taken. Men were sent to Georgievsk for government work, and the elderly, women, children were distributed in the villages and villages. Official losses of the detachment - 1 soldier and 2 Cossacks were killed, 2 Navaginians drowned, 1 soldier and 8 Cossacks were wounded.
    April 1823. Velyaminov’s detachment (3 infantry battalions, the Kuban and Caucasian regiments, 18 artillery and foot and artillery guns) crossed at Pr.Okop to capture the “fugitive Kabardian auls” behind Laba. A detachment of Colonel Fyodor Bekovich-Cherkassky (a semi-Circassian by origin) was sent to scout their location. Behind Laba, he discovered the fortified aul of the “fugitive” Kabardian prince Ali Karamurzin. The village was burned, its population perished in the fire (only noble bridles - 68 people). In total, more than 1000 people were killed by Kabardinians, 139 "souls" were taken prisoner, up to 4000 heads of cattle and horses were captured. Losses of the detachment - 3 wounded Cossacks (2 fatally).
    January 1824 A detachment of Katsyrev (2357 infantry, 950 line soldiers, 14 guns) came out of the Ust-Labinsk fortress to stop the villages of Prince Misost Aiteko. Having missed them, Katsyrev “thwarted anger” on the Bjedugs who had nothing to do with the original purpose of the campaign. Before the detachment approached, the elderly, women and children began to leave under the cover of cavalry. The Linea caught up with the convoy and surrounded most of it. Only 150 people were captured, the rest who tried to resist were killed. On January 14, Katsyrev returned with prisoners and 1000 livestock. The emperor reprimanded him for his excess cruelty [
    To be continued
    1. +6
      26 January 2012 10: 09
      Here is a story. Naked. Nude. Whose actions are more cruel - the Russian army or the Circassians? I dont know. And I don’t even want to choose! Otherwise we will have to assume that the lives and sufferings of representatives of one side — Russians or Circassians — are dearer to us than the lives of people who were on the other side.
      Until the end of the 1810s. Russian politics in the Caucasus was clearly defensive. For almost 50 years, included by the Circassians in the Caucasian War and also attributed to genocide, which had no analogues in history, Russia stood on the right bank of the Kuban, on the former land of Nogais, did not encroach on the land of Circassia and Kuban and Laba passed only as a last resort, reluctantly, and only in response to the highlanders' raids. At that time, only Mozdok fortress was located on the Circassian land, built there largely at the request of the owner of those places, Kabardian prince Kurgoko Kanchokin.
      Throughout this period, Russia speaks of peace with the highlanders, tries to trade with them, seeks not to enter into conflicts, and if this is done, then only in response to their attacks and only on Russian soil, do not go to the land of the highlanders. At one time, there was even a rule that troops could make all Kuban crossings exclusively with the personal permission of Emperor Paul I. Violators of this rule were severely punished regardless of the conditions under which this violation was made. So, in 1797, more than 300 Kuban Cossacks, in response to the constant raids of the highlanders, which brought many of them to a half-miserable state, crossed the Kuban without permission, attacked the Circassian village and took away from it up to 5 thousand sheep, when the emperor became aware of this He ordered Pavel I to return the sheep to the Circassians, to bring the commander of the regiment to justice, and to convey to the Cossacks on his behalf that if such a thing were repeated, the raiders would be handed over to the Circassians.
      Эthat was the time when the public consciousness of the Highlanders justified and extolled the raids, considered them natural and necessary. According to the concepts that existed among the Circassians then, robberies and seizures of people were not only not considered a crime, but recognized as youth, daring, and were generally the most honorable craft in society, largely elevated to the rank of cult. Moreover, this applied not only to the nobility - the nobility simply did just that and was not engaged in anything else - but also to the simple free peasantry. Among the Caucasian experts, for example, such a thing as “seasonal raids” is known, which was carried out, as a rule, in the autumn-winter period, when field work was completed and the peasant could do something else
      That time was well described by Khan-Girey, one of the Adyghe writers, almost contemporaries: "in the steppes between the Kuban and the Don ... riders, like meteors, flew along it, leaving bloody traces everywhere." As examples of such traces, one can recall the raid carried out in 1771 by Prince Sokur Arslanbek Adzhi to the Don village of Romanovskaya, when almost half of the inhabitants were killed, and the second half was captured and stolen for the Kuban. The fate of such captives, as a rule, was sad - they were driven to the coast and sold to Turkey. Remember, at Pushkin, “and from the battle taken the slaves of the court in Anapa load” ...
      Here is the situation in the Caucasus during the period described. Now we go further
      Everything changes after Yermolov came to the Caucasus. It was him and the founder of Armavir, General Zass, who, with particular strength, like the Bacon Indians, hate the North Caucasians. It was his monuments in Grozny that even in Soviet times were periodically destroyed by "grateful" Chechens. With the advent of Ermolov, the Caucasian policy of Russia becomes completely different. But the basis of these changes does not lie at all with what many of the current written ethno-humanists blame him - not for excessive cruelty and not for the destruction of civilians - Ermolov was the first to understand that it is impossible to wage war in the Caucasus according to European principles and switched to local rules and norms of military operations. This applies to his orders without fail to strictly punish every raid, and his policy of taking from the villages the amanats (hostages), completely unthinkable during the war in Europe, and the fact that the operations of the Russian troops under him also turned into a kind of raids, in which civilians really died and, of course, his tactics of engaging for military operations against the highlanders themselves
      Was what he was doing cruel? Yes! Undoubtedly! But after all, this was the very policy that Adygs themselves had been demonstrating for many decades. It was a policy, the goal of which (although, of course, not the only one!) In many respects, was precisely the neutralization of the Adygean raids! Not the conquest of the highlanders as such, but "pacification" according to the then laws of the Russian Empire. It was not about the total extermination of the peoples of their assimilation, the prohibition of faith and customs. All this, as we can see, has been perfectly preserved to this day.
      This is so, the Adyghe leaders object to them, but the Circassians were on their land and defended their homeland, which meant they were conducting a just war! ... Yes and no! Indeed, from the moral point of view of our time, we can say that at the second stage of the Caucasian War, the Circassians defended their homeland from the Russian troops invading it. But whose homeland did they defend for 50 years before that? Whose homeland did they defend in the village of Romanovskaya and the village of Kamennobrodsky? The defense of whose homeland was achieved by the annual sale of thousands of slaves to Turkey?
      Do not get me wrong, I’m far from thinking of justifying the Caucasian war by Russia's desire to protect its borders from Circassian raids and stop the slave trade in the Caucasus. Although there is no shortage of such theories either. I'm sure in war is based on much deeper processes. It is impossible - wrong and criminal! - completely turn a blind eye to the atrocities perpetrated by one side of the conflict and, with a magnifying glass in hand, seek out and stick out any dirty tricks done by the other side!
      How this is done in this rather provocative article The Caucasus differs from Russia in that way. The truth is true in the Caucasus. In Russia, power is in truth Hence all our differences. IMHO
  2. Ivan043
    +1
    26 January 2012 10: 39
    Cossacks rescued my great-great-grandfather from the Nogai army at the end of the 18th century. He was a child, his relatives all died and did not know where he was from. Cossacks left him in the village of Promyslovka in the Astrakhan region. There was an outpost nearby, guarded the road to the Caucasus. And the Nogais lived and live from Astrakhan to the Crimea, inclusive. It looks like the descendants of the Khazars. They call themselves Astrakhan Tatars similar to Kazakhs and Caucasian to Caucasians. By the way, Russian Cossacks have been living in the Caucasus since the 16th century, and they came there peacefully from the Ryazan principality, having left the Tsar of Moscow.
    1. polukazak1
      -1
      26 January 2012 20: 09
      You know the Jews of the Khazars. Just do not think to say this to the Nogais.
      1. ab
        ab
        +1
        26 January 2012 20: 17
        Quote: polukazak1
        You know the Potmaz Khazar-Jews. Just do not think to say this to the Nogais

        Khazars were more correct than Jews. (Although the descendants are accordingly the same)
        1. 0
          26 January 2012 20: 32
          In this case, the Tatars are Arabs. Muslims ... Khazars were of a Mongol-like type, and the fact that they are Jews does not mean that they were Jews.
          1. ab
            ab
            0
            26 January 2012 21: 06
            quote = Svist] The Khazars were of the Mongol type, and the fact that they are Jews does not mean that they were Jews. [/ Quote]
            Jew and Jew are one and the same. A person can be a native Jew (nationality is determined by mother), but having adopted a different faith, he remains a Jew. For example, baptized Jews. A person who accepts Uidaism automatically becomes a Jew. There are no Russian-Jewish concepts. Maximum Jew from Russia, which is not the same thing.

            [quote = Svist] The Khazars were of the Mongol type [/ quote]
            Look at the Jews from Ethiopia (we have more than 80 thousand of them). so they are blacks in general. But in this case they are Jews. The Khazars were not native Jews. They all converted to Judaism. By the way, like subbotniks (if I heard what it is), here they are recorded by the Jews and have the right to repatriation to Israel.
            [quote] Yoshi Kurakin

            In September 1997 Israel was thrilled by the news of the death in the enemy rear of a combat group of Israeli naval special forces. Israeli paratroopers who landed on the Lebanese coast, were ambushed and took an unequal battle with much superior enemy forces. The soldiers of the naval special forces fought to the last drop of blood, and an example for them was the commander - Lt. Col. Yosi Kurakin, who had completely fulfilled his officer duty.

            Where does the combat Israeli officer get such a Russian surname? I immediately recall an old noble family that left such a noticeable mark in Russian history. The family of Lieutenant Colonel Yosi Kurakin occupies no less glorious place in the history of the formation of the Jewish state.

            [quote] At the end of the nineteenth century, the peasant of the village of Solodniki, Astrakhan province, Agafon Kurakin, who belonged to subbotniks, together with his followers decided to switch to the Jewish faith. Together with his wife and twelve children, he went to Vilna, where he studied in yeshiva. After passing the giyur, he took the name Abraham in 1898. as part of a large group of Jewish settlers, the first builders of the Jewish state arrived in Eretz Yisrael [/ quote]
            The representative of the fifth generation of the Kurakin, Yoshi, was born in 1964 in the family of naval special forces officer Arie Kurakin. The boy always had before his eyes an example of his father - a participant in many desperate courageous military operations, and therefore there was no problem for him to choose a profession for life. At school, Yoshi was engaged in martial arts, was fond of rugby and windsurfing. In the 10th grade, he completed a training course for a combat swimmer at the Gadna naval base. In 1983 he was drafted into the army and was selected in the naval commandos. Yoshi's army career was developing successfully: officer courses, platoon command, naval special forces company, constant participation in combat operations behind enemy lines ... The characteristics of the command noted his qualities such as personal courage, strong commanding character, authority among his subordinates, professionalism and initiative . In 1995, Yoshi Kurakin received the rank of lieutenant colonel and headed the division of naval commandos, with which he went into battle more than once. September 24, 1997, Lt. Col. Yosi Kurakin with his soldiers went into the last battle behind enemy lines ...
            The Kurakin family has long taken deep roots in the land of Israel; more than a thousand descendants of Abraham Kurakin live throughout the country. May 4, 2003, the day of the 55th anniversary of the state of Israel, the honorary right to light a jubilee torch on Mount Herzl in Jerusalem, along with President of the State Moshe Katsav, was entrusted to Nevo Kurakin, eight-year-old son of Yosi ... [/ quote]
            1. 0
              26 January 2012 22: 07
              I apologize for the reservation, I was in a hurry. I had to take my grandchildren from training. On the way, I realized that I had incorrectly expressed my thought, but .... I meant that the Khazars professed Judaism, and at this time, this religion is the mono religion of the Jews. By virtue of this, a Jew, in our time, is a Jew. But this does not mean that it was in the past, right? Who are the Khazars? Unlike the Bulgars, who transferred their name to the Slavic population of ancient Thrace (present-day Bulgaria) and thereby retained their name to this day, the Khazars disappeared from the world map many centuries ago, and their fate is still not clear. There is reason to say that three ethnic groups participated in the formation of the Khazar ethnic group: the Khazars-Turks themselves, who came from the depths of Asia; the Ugrians-Savirs, who previously prevailed in the eastern Caucasus, and some groups of Iranians in the western Caspian region (massagets, etc.). And if the early Khazars were characterized by a predominance of the Mongoloid racial type, then the Khazars of the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries. already had a different appearance with a clear predominance of the Caucasian racial type. It's not me so smart, digging up the network. I doubt that anyone needs to falsify their history. In the USSR, they did not go away and even did not separate from Israel, and therefore I have no reason not to believe this. wink
          2. polukazak1
            0
            26 January 2012 21: 36
            Dear Svist, I heard about this version (Nogais are descendants of the Khazars) How do you think is it worth faithful Muslims to say that they are descendants of the Jews ?? And who will tell them that in my eyes ??? I would like to see this eccentric smile
            1. 0
              26 January 2012 22: 15
              Quote: polukazak1
              Dear Svist, I heard about this version (Nogais are descendants of the Khazars) How do you think is it worth faithful Muslims to say that they are descendants of the Jews ??

              I explained my reservation about the Jews. And where did you see that I mentioned Nagays and Jews in one context? If you have evidence that the Nagai people are the Khazars, then you will bring your word to historical science, dear. smile
              1. 0
                26 January 2012 22: 46
                Quote: Svist
                What do you think, is it worth faithful Muslims to say that they are descendants of the Jews ??

                PS Have you heard that before the coming of the Prophet Muhammad and Jesus Christ, other religions existed?
  3. +2
    26 January 2012 10: 48
    I believe that it is unlikely when they will find the deep roots of the Caucasian war of the 19th century. It is even more erroneous to look for the right and the guilty in that war - they simply are not there. The confrontation between the Russians and the highlanders was based on a certain mental basis, mutual misunderstanding and rejection of different ways of life and types of behavior. Well, the mountaineers could not understand why it was impossible to raid the lowland territories if they were one of the foundations of their economic structure. But the Cossacks and the Russians could not allow it - but this is only one of the parties to the conflict. In addition, the expansion of the empire in the Caucasus coincided with the process of a certain proto-state formation on the territory of Chechnya and Dagestan, which resulted in the creation of an imamat. And this is the period, as L. Gumilyov would say, of the passionary upsurge of the people, which Yermolov’s receivers had to observe. As a result, we got a military conflict for almost 50 years.
  4. polukazak1
    +1
    26 January 2012 20: 03
    You know, I live just in the Caucasus, ancestors — who are Cossacks, who are men. They don’t like why? They explain (Circassians, for example, they have more ethnic groups than I — Abazins, Abkhazians, Kabardins, Circassians) that we are not invaders . There were generals who destroyed them, or rather who fought with them. Do the Cossacks form a Burka, a hat from what kind of people ?? What do you think, if there is even some truth (for crimes), how should a proud people behave ???? -they were a strong adversary. They didn’t serve anyone under duress and didn’t serve. They should be friends with them. My ancestors, for example p, all the best of their culture were taken, and Circassians-take of our traditions all the luchshee.Vo Anyway, if your friend (Circassian) -on the rest of your life.
    1. ab
      ab
      +1
      26 January 2012 20: 25
      Quote: polukazak1
      Friendship with them is necessary. My ancestors, for example, took all the best from their culture, and the Circassians themselves took all the best from our traditions. In any case, if he is your friend (Circassian) for the rest of his life.

      The Circassians fled from the war; they were slaughtered in whole villages. Through Turkey, part reached Israel. I have been to their several villages
      They live wonderful. Many serve in military units (despite the fact that they are Muslims), many have grown. citizenship.


      Kfar Kama and Rihania began to develop since the 50s. XX century In 1950, a municipal council was created in Kfar Kama. Gradually, the villages were connected to the water supply system, electric and telephone networks. In 1984, Kfar Kama was awarded the first national prize as the cleanest village in the country. In the village were also established: a polyclinic and a hospital, a nursery, a school, a culture center, a bank, a sports center, a football and indoor basketball stadiums. In Rihania, a municipal council, a school, a medical and cultural center, and others were created.

      The employment sphere of residents of both Circassian villages is heterogeneous: workers, employees of law enforcement agencies (army, police, security companies) and administrative institutions, teachers, farmers, and others. The proportion of working women is more than half (mainly educators and teachers). In the 80-90s. XX century some women in Rihania worked at a textile factory, but she was transferred to another place. In general, the standard of living of both villages corresponds to the general Israeli.

      Residents of Kfar Kama and Rihania are fluent in their native Adyghe language (Shapsug and Abadzekh dialects), which is the language of everyday communication of representatives of all generations. Also speak Arabic and Hebrew. The introduction of the Adyghe language as an object in the school curriculum in 1976 was of great importance. The Adyghe language is studied from grade 6 on textbooks compiled from textbooks of the Republic of Adygea. Teachers of the Adyghe language were trained in Adygea and Kabardino-Balkaria.

      The first elementary school in Kfar Kama was established back in the 90s. XIX century Some villagers have been educated at Al-Azhar University in Cairo and Istanbul University. Since 1977, teaching in the schools of the Circassian villages was carried out according to the Arabic program in the Arabic language. Then the schools were transferred to the Jewish general education system, in Hebrew, which provides young people with more opportunities for admission to colleges and universities of the country and further employment. Arabic and English are studied as foreign languages. In Kfar Kama there is a primary (up to 6th grade) and incomplete secondary (up to 9th grade) school, in Rihania there is an elementary school. Pupils of these schools complete their education in schools in neighboring towns. Schools in the Circassian villages are equipped with modern libraries, computer classes, audio and video equipment, etc.

      In 1959, relations were established with representatives of the historical homeland. Textbooks of the Adyghe language, records of Adyghe songs and music began to be sent to Kfar Kama. In 1965, the Circassian magazine began to appear in Kfar Kama in Hebrew and Adyghe. It published materials for the study of the Adyghe language, a chronicle of events in the historical homeland, information about the life of the Circassians in other countries, village news, etc. A group of the Circassian folk dance was also formed. In July 1990, a group of Israeli Circassians first visited their historical homeland - Adygea and Kabardino-Balkaria. In subsequent years, residents of both villages began to visit their historic homeland.

      In 1991, the Nafna Society was established in Kfar Kama, the goal of which is to preserve the Circassian cultural heritage and strengthen ties with its historical homeland. In 1993, by decision of the Israeli government, the Circassian Institute for the Study of the Caucasian Peoples (with a branch in Kfar Kama) was founded in Rihania. The Institute is engaged in the study of the Circassian (Adyghe) language and history, provides advanced training for teachers of the Adyghe language, etc.

      According to Russian Caucasus experts, Israeli Circassians preserved their ethnic culture and, especially, their native language, better than Circassians living in other foreign countries. [5] [6]

      there is much to learn
      1. polukazak1
        +2
        26 January 2012 21: 10
        You know, dear-ab. Cherkuesses, like we are Russians, are divided people. We are not alone. Whoever lives on the land called his MOTHERLAND, no matter what, has the right to speak on behalf of its inhabitants, it does not matter-RUSSIAN, he is the so-called CHERKESS Newspapers all sorts of lousy where do you take these articles I do not read one by one a simple reason, "Why should I read a journalist, not necessarily Russian on the issue of my homeland, which most likely was not in my area. So. My native land is Stavropol. I, my grandfather, great-grandfather, great-great-grandfather came to the 4th generation. here, settled, lived and I still live. We lived in different ways - even for some reason we fought. But I repeat, starting from my great-grandfather, our peoples had no enmity, there were only common problems. And if the slogan "separate the Caucasus from Russia" still exists, then first of all ask us -Russian living in the Caucasus. Can we say "separate Moskvobad from Russia"

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