Military Review

Day of the employee of the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation. Long way to police ranks

51
November 10 celebrate their professional holiday employees of the Russian internal affairs bodies. This significant date has its roots in the not so long Soviet past. It was in the Soviet Union that the professional holiday of law enforcement was established - the Day of the Soviet Militia. According to a special decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR from 26 September 1962, it was celebrated on November 10 every year in honor of the resolution of the People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs A.I. Rykov “On the Workers' Police”, adopted on October 28 (November 10) 1917 of the year, immediately after the October Revolution.


For almost a hundred years of existence of the Soviet, and then the Russian law enforcement agencies, they have repeatedly undergone major changes. Changed the organizational structure, departmental affiliation, methods of activity. Of course, there were changes in the rank system of employees. We will tell about it in more detail.

As is known, there were no special ranks in the tsarist police, similar to the modern special ranks of the Russian police or the special ranks of the Soviet militia. The tsarist police officers had civilian ranks established in the Russian Empire, but they wore shoulder straps that corresponded to army shoulder straps, except that they were already - the width of a police uniform was three-quarters of the width of an army shoulder strap. At the same time, if an army officer went to the police, he retained his military rank and continued to wear army shoulder straps.

As for the lower ranks of the tsarist police, the policemen, they were staffed from demobilized soldiers and non-commissioned officers, therefore they were divided into three categories. Soldiers and corporals who entered the police service became junior salaries, junior non-commissioned officers became middle-level salaries, and senior noncommissiones became junior salaries of senior salaries. On the pursuit of a policeman he wore such a number of lycheku, which corresponded to his military rank in the army, and belonging to the category of policemen was determined by the number of gombohek on a twisted shoulder cord. For example, the city's lower salary, demobilized from the army in the rank of corporal, wore one tarp on a pursuit and one jacket on a cord. Demobilized sergeant-officers, who belonged to the city chief salary, were usually appointed assistant attendants. In turn, police officers in the Tsarist police held a special position - they did not belong to the lower ranks, but they did not belong to the class ranks, although, according to the law, they enjoyed the privileges of 14 grade officers. On the uniform, police guards wore epaulettes with a longitudinal galloon - as sub-ensigns of the pre-revolutionary army or the foremen of the Soviet army and police.

After the October Revolution 1917, the ranks were abolished. Accordingly, the newly created law enforcement system of the country remained without a developed system of ranks. For a long time, Soviet police officers had only positions — a police officer, a senior police officer, a security officer, and so on. The situation changed in the middle of the 1930-s, when the Soviet leadership came to the conclusion that it was necessary to streamline both the army and the police hierarchy. In the police, ranks appeared after the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army and state security agencies.

Day of the employee of the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation. Long way to police ranks


26 April 1936 was adopted by a special Resolution of the USSR Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR, and 5 of May 1936 was announced by a special order of the USSR People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs No. 157. In accordance with this order, special ranks of commanding and privates were introduced in the Soviet police. They differed significantly from military ranks established in the Red Army. Although many special ranks were consonant with military ranks, in the police they bore a different load - for example, the rank of police sergeant belonged to the commanding staff and corresponded to the rank of lieutenant of the Red Army.

Thus, in 1936, special ranks appeared in the Soviet militia. The rank hierarchy looked like this (incrementally): 1) police officer, 2) senior police officer, 3) separated police commander, 4) police commander, 5) police sergeant, 6) police sergeant, 7) junior police lieutenant, police, 8) police sergeant, 9) , 10) Senior Police Lt., 11) Police Captain, 12) Police Major, 13) Senior Police Major, 14) Police Inspector, 15) Police Director, 15) Chief Police Officer. 1936 June 208 of the year the order of the NKVD of the USSR No. 5 was adopted, in accordance with which new buttonholes and new insignia were introduced for the rank-and-file and commanding personnel of the worker-peasant militia. Buttonholes were sewn on the collar of an overcoat, cloak, tunic or tunic and had the shape of a parallelogram. The buttonhole length along with the edging was ten centimeters, the width - 2,5 centimeters, the width of the edging - XNUMX millimeters.



3 July 1936 of the USSR Central Election Commission approved the “Provision on service to be the head of the Workers 'and Peasants' Militia of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the USSR”. In accordance with it, terms of service, order of dismissal and many other important aspects were established. According to this decree, all special ranks were assigned to the commanding staff of the workers 'and peasants' militia, starting with the police sergeant and above. The terms of stay in each title and the procedure for their assignment were established. Thus, the terms of being a police sergeant, a junior police lieutenant, a police lieutenant and a senior police lieutenant were three years each, the police captain was four years, and the police major was five years. As for the ranks, the senior militia major, the police inspector, the police director and the chief police officer, for them the terms of service were not set and assigned them individually. Early assignment of titles was provided only for great success in service or special merit.

Thus, the highest rank in the workers 'and peasants' militia of the USSR in 1936-1943. remained the title of "chief police director." In terms of rank, this special rank corresponded to the ranks of the Commissioner of State Security of the 1st rank in the NKVD state security organs, the commander of the 1st rank in the Red Army and the flagship fleet 1st rank in the RKKF. However, for the entire period of the existence of this title, it was never awarded to any of the representatives of the top leadership of the workers and peasants of the USSR police. Below the title of “chief director” was the title of “director of police”. It corresponded to the 2nd rank State Security Commissioner in the NKVD, the 2nd rank commander in the Red Army and the flagship of the 2nd rank fleet in the Red Army. For the whole history the existence of the title was conferred on four employees of the workers' and peasants' militia — Nikolay Bachinsky, head of the workers' and peasants' militia department of the NKVD of the Ukrainian SSR, Leonid Vulia, head of the Moscow workers' and peasants' militia department, Sergei Markaryan, and the deputy head of the NKVD chief of the workers' and peasant militia of the USSR, Sergei Markaruyan, and the head of the NKVD of the USSR, Sergey Markaruyan, and the deputy head of the NKVD of the Workers' and Peasants' militia of the USSR The Main Directorate of Workers 'and Peasants' Militia of the NKVD of the USSR, Dmitry Usov By the way, all four in 1937-1939. were shot.

Next in descending "general" rank in the workers' and peasant militia in 1936-1943. there was the title of “police inspector”, corresponding to the rank of state security commissioner of the 3 rank in the state security organs of the NKVD, comcor in the Red Army and the flagship of the 1 rank in the RKKF. In the entire history of its existence, seven people carried its titles - heads of departments and divisions of the Main Directorate of Workers 'and Peasants' Militia of the NKVD of the USSR.

Below the police inspector went the title of "senior police major," corresponding to the army commander, naval flagship 2 rank and senior state security major. This title was assigned more actively than the title of director and police inspector - for the period from 1936 to 1943. it was assigned to 31 by an employee of the worker-peasant militia. The title of “police major” corresponded to the titles of the state security major in the NKVD, the brigade commander in the Red Army and the captain of the 1 rank in the RKKF. The title of "police captain" corresponded to the titles of captain of state security, lieutenant colonel of the Red Army and captain of the 2 rank of the RKKF. The title of "senior police lieutenant" corresponded to the rank of senior lieutenant of state security, the major of the Red Army and the captain of the 3 rank of the RKKF. The title of "police lieutenant" corresponded to the rank of state security lieutenant, captain of the Red Army and lieutenant commander of RKKF. The title of "junior police lieutenant" corresponded to the titles of junior lieutenant of state security, senior lieutenant of the Red Army and senior lieutenant of the RKKF. The title of “police sergeant”, the youngest in the commanding staff of the RKM, corresponded to the rank of sergeant of state security and lieutenant of the Red Army and RKKF.

In 1943, the Soviet leadership came to the conclusion that it was necessary to change the existing ranks system in the internal affairs and state security bodies, bringing it closer to the army rank system. 9 February 1943 issued a Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR "On the introduction of new insignia for personnel of the NKVD organs and troops" and "On the titles of the commanding officers of the NKVD and the police". The following special ranks were established in the police, closer to the army and more relevant to them than the previous ranks. However, the differences still remained.

So, after 1943, the following rank system (ascending) was introduced in the Soviet militia: 1) police officer, 2) senior police officer, 3) junior police sergeant, 4) police sergeant, 5) senior police sergeant, 6) police officer, 7) junior police lieutenant, 8) police lieutenant, 9) police senior lieutenant, 10) police captain, 11) police major, 12) police lieutenant colonel, 13) police colonel, 14) police commissioner 3, launch, 15 militia colonel, 2) police colonel, 16) police police 1, 3,2) police lieutenant, 1) police colonel, 1) police commissioner XNUMX. , XNUMX) Police Commissioner XNUMX Rank. Thus, only the titles of “policeman” and “senior policeman”, as well as the highest ranks - police commissioners of XNUMX and XNUMX ranks, remained strictly “police”. The highest rank in the militia became the title of “Commissioner of the XNUMX rank of police”, corresponding to the army colonel-general.

The first rank of police commissioner of the 1 rank was awarded 4 March 1943 to the head of the Main Police Department of the NKVD of the USSR Alexander Galkin. He also turned out to be the only person who bore this highest police rank during the entire time of his existence. By the way, the ranks of police commissioners have existed for thirty years - up to 1973 of the year.

23 October 1973 was issued a Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, which provided for the reform of the system of special ranks in the police. Thanks to this decree, confusion and discrepancy between police special ranks and military ranks were virtually eliminated. After 1973, special ranks in the Soviet police were (ascending): 1) private militia, 2) junior police sergeant, 3) police sergeant, 4) police police sergeant, 5) police officer, 6) junior police lieutenant, 7 ) police lieutenant, 8) police senior lieutenant, 9) police captain, 10) police major, 11) police lieutenant colonel, 12) police colonel, 13) police major general, 14) police lieutenant general.

Police Commissioners 2-th and 3-th ranks, thus, were given the rank of lieutenant-general and major general police. Also in the internal affairs bodies parallel special ranks of the internal service were introduced. But, unlike special police titles, in the internal service the title “Colonel General of the Internal Service” was provided. Thus, the title of “Colonel-General of Internal Service” after 1973, turned out to be the highest special title in the system of internal affairs.

The latest change in the ranks system of the Soviet internal affairs agencies was the introduction of special titles "ensign of internal service" and "senior ensign of internal service" in accordance with USSR law of May 17 of 1991. As you know, even 1 January 1972 in the Soviet Army was introduced to the military rank of "ensign", and in the Soviet Navy - "midshipman". 12 January 1981 was also introduced the title of "senior warrant officer" and "senior midshipman." Since the servicemen of the Internal Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR wore military ranks, the ensigns, and then the senior warrant officers, appeared in the MIA of the USSR. Interestingly, the warrant officers and senior warrant officers who served in special motorized police units, which were a component of the internal troops, but served as a patrol and inspection service, were forced to wear epaulets of police officers when they went on patrol, as The “senior police officer" did not yet exist. The title of "ensign of the police" and "senior ensign of the police" were introduced to the police after the collapse of the Soviet Union - December 23 1992. The same decree introduced the highest title of “Colonel General of Police”, which was absent from the Soviet police.

After renaming the police to the police that followed in 2011, all special police titles were transformed into special police titles. In modern Russia, a more senior general than a colonel-general of police has also emerged, a special rank is the police general of the Russian Federation. It is assigned only to the Minister of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation. In 2011-2014 General of the Police of the Russian Federation wore a shoulder strap with four stars, resembling the shoulder strap of an army general, and from 2014 he wears a shoulder strap with one big star. The only general of the police of the Russian Federation (not to be confused with the generals of the police of the Russian Federation in the Federal Drug Control Service) in the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation is the acting Minister of Internal Affairs of Russia Vladimir Kolokoltsev.
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  1. major071
    major071 10 November 2016 06: 34 New
    26
    10 November, employees, pensioners and veterans of the Ministry of Internal Affairs celebrate MILITARY DAY! Happy holiday, friends! drinks
    1. Cat
      Cat 10 November 2016 15: 15 New
      +4
      Dear colleagues, I sincerely wish you good weather at home, patience and understanding in the service, and most importantly health to you and your loved ones !!!
      Gip, gip - hurray !!!
  2. Masya masya
    Masya masya 10 November 2016 06: 53 New
    18

    Happy Holidays! love
  3. thinker
    thinker 10 November 2016 06: 56 New
    18
    Happy holiday born of the revolution! drinks
    1. Vovan 73
      Vovan 73 10 November 2016 10: 06 New
      +7
      Remove the emblem of the king. We are born REVOLUTION
  4. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 10 November 2016 07: 10 New
    11
    Real Police - and I know them and they are! Happy Holiday! Good Service !!!
    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist 10 November 2016 08: 54 New
      +6
      Militia-police, the main thing is not in the name, but in who these People are.
      Happy holiday, soldiers of law and order!
  5. Spartanez300
    Spartanez300 10 November 2016 07: 42 New
    10
    Congratulations on the professional holiday of Chekists, police and police !!!
  6. parusnik
    parusnik 10 November 2016 07: 51 New
    10
    Thank you Ilya .... On Holiday, Police Day for all employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and separately for pensioners and veterans of the OP of the city of Leningrad and the Leningrad Region, the OPKSM of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region and the 17th Department of the Kalinin Department of Internal Affairs of the Central Internal Affairs Directorate of St. Petersburg ..!
    1. ruskih
      ruskih 10 November 2016 10: 31 New
      +7
      Alexey, I congratulate you on Police Day !!! love Health and happiness to you and your loved ones.
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 10 November 2016 11: 51 New
        +3
        Thank you ... I really appreciate it ... hi
  7. alexej123
    alexej123 10 November 2016 08: 49 New
    +6
    I join in all the congratulations. And on my own behalf - Happy Holiday!
  8. Tanya
    Tanya 10 November 2016 08: 57 New
    +8
    Happy holiday to all employees and veterans of the Ministry of Internal Affairs!
    Health to you and your loved ones, happiness, good luck and good mood!

  9. unknown
    unknown 10 November 2016 09: 32 New
    10
    The main thing is not in the name?
    What do you call the ship ...

    I don’t know which, probably very smart, man decided to rename the police to the police.
    And did not think about the meaning ...
    Police, as a rule, traditionally derive from the supposedly "ancient Greek" "policy" - the city. Then, the policeman is a policeman. All is correct. All ?
    The population of any country lives not only in cities. And who will guard in the towns, villages, villages? Urban?
    Oddly enough, but there are countries where everything is in order with meaning.
    For example, France. In the cities, the police. In other settlements, the gendarmerie. The situation is similar in the USA, where sheriffs operate outside large settlements.
    By the way, in tsarist Russia this was an order: along with the police, there was a gendarmerie.
    Police - withdraw from Latin, the army is not regular, the militia.
    In fact, the meaning of these words is closer than it seems.
    Both "poly" and "miles" are "many", for example: multivitamins, a million. But the word "police" is more universal, and the word "police" has a more limited interpretation, gravitating to the concept of "city".
    In general, as in Chernomyrdin: "They wanted the best, but it turned out ..."

    It is strange that after the scandal with Serdyukov, Putin’s godfather, no one suggested replacing the word “army”. For example, on the "army".
    1. Sergej1972
      Sergej1972 10 November 2016 12: 58 New
      +3
      Sheriffs are also in large cities of the USA. In some, the sheriff has several thousand employees. And in many US states and municipalities, the institution of sheriffs was generally abandoned.)
      In many countries, the police operate in rural areas.
  10. Yurich
    Yurich 10 November 2016 09: 38 New
    +7
    All employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and veterans of the holiday!
  11. Mikado
    Mikado 10 November 2016 09: 47 New
    12
    Friends, employees, happy holiday! soldier Well, I’ll allow myself a glass today, for you, for my previous service drinks
    1. ruskih
      ruskih 10 November 2016 10: 20 New
      10
      Nikolay, congratulations on Police Day! love Health, success and good mood. drinks
      Happy holiday love comrade policemen!
  12. vladimirvn
    vladimirvn 10 November 2016 09: 49 New
    +9
    For honest cops! For people of duty and conscience, my toast! drinks
  13. Vovan 73
    Vovan 73 10 November 2016 10: 03 New
    14
    Entering the Higher Military Aviation Engineering School at one time ... ... I did not think that fate would be thrown into riot police. BUT .... threw it on business trips, fought, so this holiday is now mine. And therefore, Happy Holidays Comrades, Militiamen.
    1. GLUHOI
      GLUHOI 10 November 2016 10: 27 New
      +9
      And I'm 20 years in riot police !!! Police ... Police ... Rosgvardeytsy))) Happy Holidays !!! Good luck All the best!!!
      1. GLUHOI
        GLUHOI 10 November 2016 10: 29 New
        +6
        And they fought and got injured ... for the "Tsar and the Fatherland"! Once again, Happy Holiday!
  14. creak
    creak 10 November 2016 10: 31 New
    +6
    At the end of the article, the author calls us - "not to be confused with police generals in the Federal Drug Control Service - it’s difficult to confuse, because the Drug Control and the police generals, respectively, have long been gone there, and its functions are carried out by the corresponding department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs ..
    Happy holiday servants ...
  15. romaniron
    romaniron 10 November 2016 10: 42 New
    +6
    The article is certainly good, but not complete, the writer forgot to mention the change in the shapes and insignia of buttonholes in 1936-1939 using stars and gaps on the buttonholes. For some reason, the title of the candidate for the title wore one gap and then one dice on the buttonholes is not mentioned in the article.
    If we are writing an article about insignia, then do not skip entire periods in history! I'm not talking about the presence of insignia among the police and in the period of the 20s, they were !!!
    In general, of course, comrades, of course! All success in service and health in retirement))). Happy Police Day!
    1. Cat
      Cat 10 November 2016 15: 11 New
      +4
      Come on. Today is a holiday, in connection with which we forgive the author for his mistakes.
      The same Nurgaliev bore the rank of army general.
      All a happy holiday !!!
      1. Sergej1972
        Sergej1972 10 November 2016 18: 22 New
        +1
        The rank of police general was first awarded to Kolokoltsev. Nurgaliev comes from the state security organs. Currently, state security workers have military, rather than special, ranks. He has the military rank of army general.
    2. alexej123
      alexej123 10 November 2016 22: 39 New
      +1
      Per form. I was lucky, I studied with experienced "bison". Sometimes, behind a "glass of tea," they used to ask me: "Young, but do you know what color of the band was before on our uniform cap?" Well, in his youth blurted out "Blue". Immediately I grabbed the “fatherly slap:“ Not blue, but Cornflower blue! ”Once again with a holiday! I want to note the second half of the employees and their family. Your patience and you too have a well-deserved Holiday!
  16. RuslanNN
    RuslanNN 10 November 2016 11: 23 New
    +4
    Happy holiday to all current employees and veterans !!!, Success, health and good luck in this difficult matter. Will remember those who gave their lives in the fight against evil. Work, brothers!
    1. user3970
      user3970 10 November 2016 11: 57 New
      +6
      Happy holiday, police!
      1. Sergej1972
        Sergej1972 10 November 2016 12: 59 New
        +1
        This photo, it seems, was taken in Turkmenistan in the days of the USSR? Or I'm wrong?
        1. Andrey77
          Andrey77 10 November 2016 13: 58 New
          +1
          Moreover, the car rooms are pre-reform. Or the USSR or Photoshop.
          1. Andrey77
            Andrey77 10 November 2016 13: 59 New
            +1
            Photoshop =)))
      2. Sergej1972
        Sergej1972 10 November 2016 22: 46 New
        +2
        Found! Photo of late Soviet times. Police major Mullo Nurov, the famous incorruptible traffic policeman from Tajikistan, Dushanbe. Man-legend. I was mistaken when I wrote that he was from Turkmenistan. Here is information about him.http: //news.tj/ru/node/139295
        Unfortunately, he was killed in December 1992 ...
        But the license plate is incomprehensible. Most likely, really Photoshop.
  17. corporal
    corporal 10 November 2016 11: 49 New
    +4
    Happy holiday colleagues! drinks
    We wish you good health and good luck !!!
  18. Free Cossack
    Free Cossack 10 November 2016 12: 04 New
    +7
    I congratulate all the current police officers and former (although there are no former) police officers on the Holiday! All health and all the best. drinks
  19. aszzz888
    aszzz888 10 November 2016 12: 51 New
    +5
    Thanks to the author, unfolded the article!
    Veterans, employees with a holiday!
    There are no former! drinks
    1. user3970
      user3970 10 November 2016 12: 57 New
      +2
      Happy police, gentlemen, cops!
  20. den-protector
    den-protector 10 November 2016 13: 17 New
    +6
    Congratulations to all involved on Police Day! All the best! But, frankly, I don’t really relate to the compromised name “police” or to the faceless “internal affairs bodies”.
  21. iury.vorgul
    iury.vorgul 10 November 2016 15: 01 New
    +5
    All colleagues with a holiday - MILITARY DAY !!!!!!!!!!!!!!
  22. bbss
    bbss 10 November 2016 15: 20 New
    +5
    Happy Holidays, colleagues!
  23. Cat
    Cat 10 November 2016 15: 22 New
    +3
    Everyone who has a warm heart, a cold head and clean hands with a holiday !!!
    Gip, gip - hurray !!!
  24. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 10 November 2016 16: 53 New
    +6
    Good Service!
  25. den-protector
    den-protector 10 November 2016 17: 43 New
    +2
    It’s a pity only the police were renamed to the police. Like, it will be better, but some kind of crap came out. People run from there. After all, they knew what attitude a considerable part of the people had to the word police. As Winnie-the-Pooh used to say: "This is ... well ... for good reason ...".
  26. Dart2027
    Dart2027 10 November 2016 19: 36 New
    +1
    Not too festive, but that too.
    http://www.spbdnevnik.ru/news/2016-11-08/ikh-sluz
    hba-i-opasna-i-trudna /
  27. FIREMAN
    FIREMAN 10 November 2016 22: 19 New
    +4
    I cordially congratulate all colleagues on this significant date! Happiness, health, good luck, family well-being and mutual understanding! soldier
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 11 November 2016 11: 59 New
      +1
      Happy holiday, Russians !!!! There are acquaintances, young families, where both ----- husband and wife --- police. And small children ---- also want to be police.
  28. Comrade
    Comrade 11 November 2016 03: 59 New
    +3
    Great article, thanks!
    1. user3970
      user3970 11 November 2016 08: 09 New
      +2
      Happy holiday, gentlemen, policemen.
  29. jjj
    jjj 11 November 2016 10: 56 New
    0
    By naval rank - midshipman. It did not appear in the year 1972. It existed. On shoulder straps and carters - a wide galun along. The rank of midshipman corresponded to the rank of foreman in land. And in 1972 the midshipmen were equated with ensigns, stars appeared on epaulettes without gaps. And in the fleet, as a replacement, a new rank appeared - the main ship foreman. Here is the line: sailor - senior sailor - foreman of 2 article - foreman of 1 article - chief foreman - chief ship foreman. The same series of ranks was also given to the Marine Regions of the KGB Border Troops
    1. creak
      creak 11 November 2016 15: 03 New
      0
      Quote: jjj
      By naval rank - midshipman. It did not appear in 1972. It existed


      It existed in the Russian Empire - midshipman - this is the first officer rank in the fleet.
  30. runway
    runway 15 February 2017 10: 48 New
    0
    Want to deal with the police? Me not!
    Not because I like to break the law, but because the system is too rotten. When large police chiefs are imprisoned, one wonders, and then what subordinates do they pick for themselves? And when they are needed, for some reason they are never there.