Military Review

Forgotten Time Godunov

18
Forgotten Time Godunov1598 year was the beginning of the reign of Boris Godunov - the first Russian tsar, who was elected to the throne by his subjects, and not received by inheritance, or seized by force. Moscow celebrated the arrival of the autocrat in a cheese week, thanks to God for the bestowed sovereign. Godunov was especially trusted and respected by widowed Irina and Patriarch Job, so it was easier for him to entrench others at the pinnacle of power and win such a changeable love of the people. The father of the educated and educated Fyodor and Ksenia, a respected husband, a cunning and intelligent politician - Boris, was needed by Russia in this difficult and crucial time.


Painful and weak-willed Fedor had long been the guardian of Godunov and was an obedient puppet in the hands of the powerful Boris, therefore after his death the choice fell on him. The roots of the Godunovs come from a non-native kind that rose in the period of the oprichnina, which allowed the future king to avoid disgrace and repression of Ivan the Terrible.

The enlightened autocrat struggled with drunkenness, strictly prohibiting the free sale of alcohol, which caused outrage among Muscovites. Earlier, Ivan the Fourth and his son Fyodor attempted to limit the pernicious addiction, but all of them were unsuccessful. Boris was actively engaged in enlightenment among his subjects, and even sent an approximate German Kramer to search for teachers and professors. The sovereign paid special attention to preparing his son and raising his daughter. Fedor Godunov, according to contemporaries, had the best teachers and grew up in an atmosphere of enlightenment. From his youth he was preparing to become the sovereign of Russia, and could be a worthy autocrat. Tsarevna Xenia was notable for her special beauty and sharp mind and was considered an enviable bride, even for European lords.

Entertaining historical a fact is Godunov’s attempt to install lighting on Moscow streets. For the solemn meeting of the European ambassadors on the orders of the king along the roads, bonfires were lit, which were controlled by special people. Then the autocrat obliged every evening to light candles and lamps and install them on the windows so that they illuminate the streets. The last decree regarding urban lighting was a document imposing on homeowners the obligation to install lights. From that moment, the streets of the poor differed from the elite in the number of pillars with oil-based lighting devices.

However, the quiet reign and love of the people were not long granted to Boris by fate. The accession to the throne itself was accompanied by a mysterious and inexplicable accident with Tsarevich Dmitry. Some historians are inclined to believe that the death of a child was violent, and King Boris initiated the killing, while others, on the contrary, point out that such an obvious crime to Godunov was not profitable. Numerous facts indicate that the last of the heirs was simply dealt with, and there are suspicions that it was precisely opponents of Godunov who did this in order to accuse him of a terrible crime. The first news about the beginning of the “ferment of minds” was the condemnation of the former comrade-in-arms of Belsky on the report of the tsar's confidants. Then Boris eliminated his closest rivals to the state throne, including the Romanov family, which later played no small role in the elections to the Zemsky Sobor. But the persecutions of Godunov differed sharply from the measures of Ivan the Terrible. Executions and torture were quite rare, and the king removed most of his opponents and dangerous rivals to monasteries, exiles and prisons. Most of them survived Godunov. Reviews of the chroniclers of the atrocities of Tsar Boris no more than an exaggeration, as documents are found that testify to the high level of content of the disgraced nobility. Removing some from the government, Boris inevitably attracted other, even more dangerous competitors, who became his destroyers at the end of the board. For example, the Shuisky then referred to remote corners of the country, then again attracted by the king to the closest circle. Godunov did not pay attention to such an old family as Mstislavsky, did not notice the cunning of Schelkalov and other representatives of the nobility.

Since 1601, a terrible famine broke out in the country, which made the people grumble at the tsar and the boyars. People who so passionately loved and honored Godunov remembered the tragedy in Uglich again. Popular anger, skillfully fueled by manipulations of interested nobility, grew, turning former trust in Godunov into fierce hatred. The situation was artificially aggravated by the actions of some merchants and boyars, who were buying bread, hiding it in their barns for sale at higher prices. Ordinary people died, more and more cannibalism occurred, and in the markets they sold pastries with human meat. Staying in hotels was very dangerous, as their hosts practiced killing their guests for the sake of making dinner. During this period, horses, cats, dogs and rats were eaten, a huge number of children died at the hands of their parents, who were distraught from hunger.

By the decree of Godunov, money from the treasury was allocated for burial, and state bread was distributed, but the crisis was growing, and people's love was finally lost. Only in 1603, the cost of bread began to approach the real one, and the consequences of the horror that befell the country smoothed out.

However, hunger did not pass without a trace. Rising uprisings and unrest began to break out everywhere. The interested elite cultivated in the people the thought that misfortune was a punishment for the people for the sovereign's atrocities. One of the most serious is the movement led by Cotton, whose forces were defeated by the tsarist troops led by Basmanov. An ominous omen of the terrible turmoil and the Polish-Swedish occupation was the appearance of a comet in the sky in 1604, which the astrologers immediately ranked as terrible signs. One can relate to omens in different ways, but one cannot deny the fact that 1604 the year was the moment when the Falsite 1 entered the political arena, which brought much misery and suffering to the Russian lands.

Godunov, being a clever and rational man, ordered at the very first news of the miraculously surviving prince from Uglich to conduct a detailed investigation of his origin. Today, historians hold different points of view on the identity of the first impostor. According to the official theory, the False Dmitry 1 was just a runaway monk Gregory Otrepiev. But there are specialists who say that this man really could have been a prince. In any case, Godunov tried to complete the investigation of the case as soon as possible, since he did not intend to share power with either an impostor or a real heir.

The death of Tsar Boris is also shrouded in mystery and darkness. Karamzin, for example, believes that his followers poisoned the autocrat, although the people were only told that the sovereign had died. There have been attempts on the part of the approximate to explain such a sudden demise of the king by suicide, but this does not seem to be true. Given the character of Godunov, he would hardly have refused further confrontation and struggle for power, leaving his beloved children to pieces and not securing them.
Boris Godunov. Tsarsky Shurin or Tsar?

After the death of Ivan the Terrible and the accession of the Russian throne of Fyodor, the son-in-law of Tsar Boris Godunov became the real ruler of Russia.
Fourteen years of the reign of Godunov are described in the annals as one of the most peaceful and prosperous periods of our stories.

Author:
18 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Ascetic
    Ascetic 20 January 2012 08: 29 New
    +6
    Enlightened autocrat struggled with drunkenness, strictly banning the free sale of alcohol, which caused outrage among Muscovites. Earlier, attempts to limit addiction were made by Ivan the fourth and his son Fedor, but all of them were unsuccessful.

    drinking was completely not characteristic of our ancestors. Before the baptism of Rus, the Slavs had only three reasons to raise a hop into the hop: after the birth of a child, in honor of the victory over the enemy and during the funeral. In those days in Russia there was no vodka and many other unhealthy drinks. Rusichi drank mead (fermented and refined honey), which only strengthened their health. Only honored guests were treated with wine in Russia: they poured one, less often two tiny glasses and savored them for a long time. In addition, the wine was revered as a remedy for various ailments.
    But how did vodka appear in Russia? After all, many mistakenly consider it a Russian "invention." Vodka appeared in Russia only five centuries ago. It was brought in by Genoese merchants in 1428. The Russians had nothing to do with her “invention”. This "honor" belongs to the Arabs. Moreover, immediately after the Russians met vodka, it was banned. During the powerful rise of Russia in the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries, the Russians were the most sober nation in the world.
    Even foreigners who were in Russia at that time noted that a sober lifestyle is a national trait of our ancestors. Russians began to drink vodka only in the middle of the 14th century, when, by the will of Ivan the Terrible, the first “tsar's tavern” was opened in the Mother See. True, at first its fortress was not at all what it is now, only XNUMX degrees. I also note that until the end of the XNUMXth century, vodka and other alcoholic beverages in Russia could only be bought in drinking houses. And only a very narrow stratum of the population drank, since drinking alcohol was allowed only in the tavern itself, and it was indecent to go there.

    So there was no question of any indignation of Muscovites Again this myth is duplicated. Dissatisfaction caused him half measures to combat the crisis (hunger and crop failure). Godunov is a modern Gorbachev (surnames are even similar). The result of his reign is the collapse of the country, the occupation of Moscow and unrest.
    1. Sokol peruna
      Sokol peruna 20 January 2012 09: 35 New
      +6
      Drunkenness and tobacco smoking were introduced everywhere by the great vigilant of the gates to the Moscow kingdom, the first rooster. Before him, drinking in Russia was considered a vice.
  2. Victor
    Victor 20 January 2012 10: 12 New
    +2
    Timelessness erases many people from the memory of the people, Godunov is a special person, not much is really known about him, but his memory is very vivid. Mysterious personality.
  3. core
    core 20 January 2012 10: 40 New
    +7
    in this time period only Ivan the Terrible could resist power, who was not afraid to shed someone else's and his blood for the sake of the state. Godunov is more likely to be compared by Nicholas II. Godunov’s power fell under the pressure of a natural cataclysm. and our western (brothers Poles) and the local fifth column skillfully took advantage of the situation. but the story is fair. no one took advantage of the victory over Tsar Boris. EVERYBODY DIED. and even Muscovites then raked in full for the betrayal of their sovereign and country. I look at the current situation and I understand that Muscovites are not RUSSIANS, again they are ready to give the country.
    1. Ascetic
      Ascetic 20 January 2012 12: 02 New
      +5
      The national and ethnic composition of Moscow is as follows:
      Russians - 31%
      Azerbaijanis - 14%
      Tatars, Bashkirs, Chuvashs - 10%
      Ukrainians - 8%
      Armenians - 5%
      Tajiks, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz - 5%
      Koreans, Chinese, Vietnamese - 5%
      Chechens, Dagestanis, Ingushs - 4%
      Belarusians - 3%
      Georgians - 3%
      Moldavians - 3%
      gypsies - 3%
      Jews - 2%
      other peoples - 4%
      More than 11 million people live in Moscow, including Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians, and all together - 4.620.000. In the capital of the State of Russia, Ukrainians, Belarusians and Russians are a national minority!
      Source of information: RBC magazine (No. 11, 2007, p. 42)
      1. core
        core 20 January 2012 17: 04 New
        +1
        damn looked into the water. felt. something is wrong in the capital of our country. BUT still Tatars, Bashkirs, Chuvashs - 10% are not strangers to us, relatives. fellow
      2. Insurgent
        Insurgent 20 January 2012 17: 30 New
        0
        In London, too, there are fewer English than blacks
      3. Ascetic
        Ascetic 20 January 2012 17: 47 New
        +5
        According to a recent survey by sociologists of the Public Opinion Foundation, 27% of city residents are newcomers. And who are Muscovites? At least those who can count 3-4 generations of their ancestors who lived in Moscow. It is clear that there are very few such people. It turns out that many of the prejudices on their account are the opinion of our compatriots who recently settled in the capital or do not live in it at all. Let's look at the list of the most popular claims against Muscovites.
        Muscovites do not know how to workBut Moscow is not a city of workers, it is a city of managers, a city of official people, a city of managers. This category of people really does not know how to work, it knows how to lead. Therefore, always, when it came to the workforce, about workers as such, they were searched and were outside the capital. In this sense, migrant workers in Moscow are not a sign of our time, it is a sign of Moscow for all time.
        Muscovites are inhospitable. But real, welcoming hospitality implies the equality of host and guest. As applied to Muscovites, such equality is impossible.
        Their status as owners is always higher than the status of guests, who are almost always out of place (especially often coming), and it is not clear what to do with them. In any case, they have to endure. There is no time for hospitality.
        Muscovites are careful. Yes, Muscovites are cautious and I am even suspicious, how suspicious are people who have property and live next to those who do not have this property. They always suspect their surroundings, they are always on their guard, they always feel the threat of an attempt on their property
        Muscovites are pachyderms. And this is true. “Moscow Does Not Believe in Tears” is no longer a quote from the film, but a universal version of psychological defense against those applicants who first try to pity, then fool. This is an integral part of the "symptom complex of a Muscovite" - characteristic features for many residents of the capital. For example, a cold as a symptom complex is expressed in a runny nose, hoarseness, fever, muscle pain and weakness. Thick skin, impenetrability, impossibility to take on pity - this is what can be called "Muscovites do not believe in tears."
        Muscovites are snobs. Of course, snobs, who else! This is the quality of Muscovites by birthright. They were already born on the pedestal. Hence, the look down on them so characteristic of them. Only among themselves are they equal. If you are not lucky enough to be born a Muscovite, then no qualities and achievements will be able to equate you with those "born under ruby ​​stars."
        Behind MKAD Russia begins
        "Muscovites" call it ZAMKADYE and its inhabitants ZAMKADYSHI with the capital
        in the city of Muhosk. That is why the "swamp" moods and belief in liberal values ​​are so strong among the most sniffed merchandiser (who does not know Russian peddler). Money + career = enjoying show-offs to the grave is the main meaning of life. If you live on a salary or a pension, you are a sucker and a loser, you do not know how to adapt to the situation. And we work in the sweat of our brow in offices, we promote Western brands and we don’t care about Russia, The main thing is show-off and again show-off: Lexus, penthouses (in Russian attic), a sheep with the face of a barbie doll on the suction, a condescending, contemptuous look at everything that does not concern itself a loved one. Here is such a nutritious plankton for traitor liberals.
        1. Ascetic
          Ascetic 20 January 2012 18: 05 New
          +2
          And now about the so-called "ordinary" Muscovites who still remain
          but they were "pushed" to the periphery of Moscow life by migrants and nouveau riches of various bottling.
          If you look at the society living in Moscow - “from the inside”, then you can see a huge stratification ... The rich and the poor and the poor live in Moscow ... Moreover, not only “their own” ... A lot of rich, who left their regions and bought apartments in Moscow. In the regions, they have only business left - a pump that allows them to live comfortably ... Picking their fellow countrymen, they provoke them to hate .... Muscovites. The working people come to Moscow to look for big money ... Works in services, including construction sites ... They’re building houses in Moscow ... And for whom? Yes, mainly for visitors ... Because an ordinary Muscovite simply does not have money for such apartments ... Often it turns out that representatives of the Central Asian republics build apartments for representatives of the Caucasian republics in Moscow (or cottages in the Moscow region) ... The question arises - and where does our Moscow here in their “warm” commodity-money relations? But these children of mountains and sands (and not only them!) form a negative opinion of Muscovites among the inhabitants of the country ... Swearing - "ROOT MOSCOW." Every now and then hissing is heard: “No matter what the Muscovite is, it’s radical!” ... And all because the visitors began to call themselves that very name ... Well - he arrived. Well, he lived in Moscow for 5-10-20 years, and that’s all - he began to call himself indigenous. The fact is that they not only hate a Muscovite - they also envy him! The destitute, robbed, cornered by overwork and unbearable living conditions of Russia ... In my opinion, someone launched a monstrous information war ... After all, it is clear that public anger is ripening in society! .. By all means, interested circles want to divert them from the true goal - from dishonestly acquired capital - and direct them on the wrong path ... It’s better to come up with a bogey "aside" ... Raising the Jewish theme is irrelevant ... Estates - also. But territorial origin - it is! The people need to show the goal - the source of all its hardships ... And - please, here's the goal for you - MOSCOW
          An extract from a confession of a native Muscovite that I found on the internet, since I myself am not one, was born in Krasnoyarsk, I have been living 5 km from the Moscow Ring Road for 10 years.
          1. knight 77
            knight 77 20 January 2012 20: 05 New
            0
            the main thing is to be moral and reasonable by a man and a Muscovite you are root or not root, what difference does not increase from this mind
        2. core
          core 20 January 2012 18: 27 New
          0
          HARDLY ABOUT MUSCOVITES, or not?
        3. knight 77
          knight 77 20 January 2012 19: 58 New
          0
          the fish rots from the head
      4. rexby63
        rexby63 21 January 2012 10: 05 New
        0
        Most are not. And the fairy tale about Babylon is not such a fairy tale
  4. alatau_09
    alatau_09 20 January 2012 11: 21 New
    +1
    For his time, Tsar Godunov was progressive and enlightened, but not understood and therefore devoted ...
  5. bretwald
    bretwald 20 January 2012 15: 18 New
    +1
    I must say the truth that in those days in Muscovy they drank very moderately and worked a lot, all sources confirm this, read the notes of Jacques Margeret, but I draw your attention to it rose during the oprichnina, then many of the Tatars rose instead of the old glorious boyars, Boris is one of them and such a dirty inconsistency created a confusion so-called, although the horde is not ridiculous, but when the Slavs attacked Muscovy, then confusion ... I quote the prophetic words of your Moscow poet - "having sipped the Tatar region to your heart's content, you will call it Rus ..."
  6. Strabo
    Strabo 20 January 2012 17: 36 New
    0
    Yes, interesting facts, especially about street lighting .. So such an intelligent king was very disadvantageous to someone. It is a pity that the cause of death has not been established. Most likely a crime.
    1. core
      core 20 January 2012 18: 29 New
      0
      poisoned, stupidly boyarly.
  7. predator
    predator 20 January 2012 22: 25 New
    0
    Tatars, Bashkirs, Chuvashs - 10%, who can’t sit at home, and in Siberia how many%? roam around the wide world! et seckandar!
  8. rexby63
    rexby63 21 January 2012 10: 02 New
    0
    Recently watched a movie by Mirzoyev. Sukhanov, of course, is incomparable. But the actors were not interested in the film, although they were at their best, namely, the director’s idea was to draw an analogy between the beginning of troubled times and our current realities. If the director’s idea is taken as the basis, it turns out that the Troubles have not yet begun, and will begin only with Putin’s potential defeat in the upcoming elections. Imagine what will begin
  9. Torus
    Torus 22 January 2012 12: 06 New
    +1
    At that time, in the presence of feudal nobility, the so-called. "great families" - Rurik, Gedeminovich, and the same old Moscow columnar nobility, it was unthinkable to imagine that they would all accept the fact that they would be ruled by an "artistic" boyar descended from the Tatar prince Chet.

    No wonder they travul him.

    ... they say that one of the nobles, Bogdan Belsky, who was at his mercy, gave him the drink prescribed by Dr. Johan Eyloff, throwing poison into him at the time when he offered the king, why he died in speed; whether it was so, only God knows


    However, one cannot but admit that Godunov was a rather active and progressive person.

    Boris Godunov patronized talented builders and architects. Church and city construction was carried out on a grand scale. At the initiative of Godunov, the construction of fortresses began in the Wild Field - the steppe outskirts of Russia. In 1585, the Voronezh fortress was built, in 1586 - Livny. In 1592, the city of Yelets was restored. In the 1596 year, the city of Belgorod was built on the Donets, to the south in the 1600 year Tsarev-Borisov was built. To ensure the safety of the waterway from Kazan to Astrakhan, cities were built on the Volga - Samara (1586), Tsaritsyn (1589), Saratov (1590). Settlement and development of lands emptied during the yoke began south of Ryazan (the territory of the present Lipetsk region). In Siberia in the 1604 year the city of Tomsk was founded.

    In the period from 1596 to 1602, one of the most grandiose architectural structures of pre-Petrine Rus was built - the Smolensk fortress wall, which later became known as the “stone necklace of the Russian Land”. The fortress was built on the initiative of Godunov to protect the western borders of Russia from Poland.

    With him, unprecedented innovations entered Moscow's life, for example, a water supply system was built in the Kremlin, through which water was pumped from the Moskva River by powerful pumps through the underground to the Konyushenny Dvor. New fortifications were also built. In 1584-91, under the leadership of the architect Fedor Savelyev, nicknamed the Horse [2], the walls of the White City were erected for a length of 9 km (they encircled the area enclosed within the modern Boulevard Ring). The walls and 29 towers of the White City were built of limestone, bricked and plastered. In 1592, on the site of the modern Garden Ring, another line of fortifications was built, wooden and earthen, nicknamed for the speed of construction by Skorodom.


    In foreign policy, Godunov proved to be a talented diplomat. On 18 on May 1595 in Tyavzin (near Ivangorod) a peace treaty was concluded that concluded the Russo-Swedish war of 1590 - 1593. Godunov managed to take advantage of the difficult domestic political situation in Sweden, and Russia, according to the agreement, received Ivangorod, Yam, Koporye and Korela. Thus, Russia regained all the lands transferred to Sweden as a result of the unsuccessful Livonian war.


    Perhaps he would be a wonderful and active monarch, if he were not so unlucky ...
    Could rumors about the murder of Tsarevich Dmitry on his orders be true? God is not a fraer ...