Capitulation with reservations
2 September 1945 of the United States battleship Missouri signed the Unconditional Surrender Act of Japan. This was made possible thanks to the lightning-quick defeat of the Kwantung Army by Soviet troops with the participation of the Mongolian People's Republic. The main land force of Japan for one and a half weeks suffered a crushing defeat in the north of Korea and in northeast China. But it seems to be folded weapon Imperial troops were very useful in Southeast Asia (Southeast Asia) to our Western allies as metropolises.
Indonesia declared independence from Holland already 17 August, Vietnam from France - exactly 2 September, at the same time, the liberation movement in Malaya, Cambodia, Laos, Burma, Singapore, in the US-owned Philippines intensified. These territories, we recall, were occupied by Japan in 1940 – 1943.
By the end of August - the beginning of September 1945, North China (with the participation of the Mongolian People's Republic troops), South Sakhalin, the Kuril archipelago were also liberated. According to Churchill, “even the atomic bombings carried out by the United States did not lead to such a disastrous defeat of Japan. Under the influence of the Soviet factor, as well as Mongolia’s participation in the Soviet military campaign in the Far East, one after another, the territories in Southeast Asia began to declare independence. ” Already in August-September, the war with the “separatists” started by the West was actively involved by the non-disarmed for the most part and not withdrawn Japanese occupation forces. For the western allies of the USSR by the end of August 1945 did not even come close to “their” vast territories in Southeast Asia with a few exceptions (Burma, the Philippines, the eastern part of Indonesia). In general, at least 40 of thousands of Japanese soldiers and officers (including police units) with weapons attached to them, tried to sip the national liberation movement in the region along with the colonialists in the blood.
It is noteworthy that the Western armed forces almost did not oppose Japanese aggression in Southeast Asia (with the exception of US Army units in some parts of the Philippines). For example, the British Singapore and Hong Kong were surrendered to the Japanese without resistance. But the war for the restoration of the colonial status of the territories was carried out, as they say, with full dedication.
The founders of independent Vietnam and Indonesia, Ho Chi Minh and Sukarno, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, General de Gaulle, and even the commanders of Western forces in the region recognized that the unprecedentedly quick and strategically unique rout of the Kwantung Army literally stirred up the liberation movement. According to the Dutch Governor of Indonesia, van Mooc (October 1945), “no one, perhaps, could have expected that after the exhausting war with Germany, the USSR would deal with the Kwantung Army so quickly. This could not but inspire the local population of other territories to fight for independence. For the Japanese troops there have been inactive since mid-August, and the allies were still not close to many of these territories. Thus, the Netherlands’s troops began to arrive in the region only by mid-September, the British — a little earlier, the French — later the Dutch. ”
The colonial war unleashed by the French and British in Malaya (now Western Malaysia) and Indochina also involved some military units of Thailand, an ally of Japan at that time. By the way, France surrendered Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam to her without resistance, and Thailand soon included in its membership the western regions of both countries bordering it. But by mid-September 1945, Bangkok had given up the captured lands to the former "owners."
According to the available information, Chiang Kai-shek, Marshal Khorlogyn Choibalsan and Mahatma Gandhi, reasonably suspected the West that the main task for him even at the cost of military defeats in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific was to expand Japanese aggression in China and, if possible, send it to the USSR (incidentally - to ally him Mongolia). In any case, until 1944, the headquarters of China, where the main front of the land war with Japan was, was not a member of the joint Asian-Pacific committee of the military headquarters of the United Kingdom, United States, Australia and New Zealand. However, in this structure there was no De Gaulle "free France", although Indochina, the port area of Gaungzhouwan (near Hong Kong) and most of the southern and central Pacific islands were considered to belong to Paris ...
The colonial war of our ex-allies fought with particular cruelty. Killed, missing, injured over 4 millions of local residents, including many heroes of the anti-Japanese resistance. The USSR and China, of course, helped the peoples of the region in their struggle with the colonialists. It was only at the end of 1962 that the Western military and political attempts to restore the colonial order in Southeast Asia were put to the end: the part of Holland belonging to Papua New Guinea (West Irian) became Indonesian. But as a result of these wars, Vietnam was split up until the spring of 1975, the armed confrontation in Malaya lasted until the end of 50, in Indonesia - until 1953, in Indochina - until the middle of the same decade. The Philippines (in 1946, but the United States deployed military bases there) and Burma (in 1948) gained independence before others.
Nevertheless, the region remained under police supervision of the West. In 50 – 60-s, military-political blocs (SEATO, then ANZUK and ANZUS) were created in South-East Asia and Oceania to “contain” the USSR and the PRC, to combat the communist and anti-colonial movements.
In short, the defeat of the Kwantung Army and the subsequent surrender of Japan became, one might say, the starting point of a new and generally successful stage of the anti-colonial struggle of the peoples of Southeast Asia. But, we note, both in Europe and in the Asia-Pacific region, the West in the 30s - the beginning of the 40s - has been drawing almost one line: without putting up adequate resistance to the aggressors, push them away from the USSR. And later by all means and forces to try to restore colonial rule in Southeast Asia. These plans and wars were caused, firstly, by the region’s strategic role in supplying various raw materials (oil, manganese, rubber, precious metals and stones, non-ferrous metal ores, tropical wood) to the metropolis, and secondly, the most convenient sea routes they intersect precisely in this region, which is also the “soft underbelly” of China.
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