Kurmashivtsi. Feat Tatar underground
Hitler's ideologists hoped to undermine the power of the Soviet Union, emphasizing the incitement of interethnic contradictions. It was for this purpose that the support of nationalist and anti-Soviet organizations created by representatives of the peoples of Central Asia, the North Caucasus, the Transcaucasus, the Volga region, the Baltic States and other regions of the USSR was carried out. Initially, the Tatar nationalists were on the side of the Hitlerites, including those who had lived in Europe in exile since the post-revolutionary years. However, it was impossible to rely solely on political emigrants - firstly, there were few of them, and secondly, most of them were middle-aged people who did not have combat experience, or even elementary military training. Therefore, from the very beginning of the war, “Idel-Ural”, as well as similar formations of other peoples of the USSR, began to be completed at the expense of defectors and prisoners of war who made the decision to go over to the side of the enemy. The battalion commanders and companies were Germans - regular officers of the Wehrmacht. Each battalion or company commander had a deputy — a representative of the main nationality of the unit. As for the platoon level commanders and branch commanders, they were all representatives of the main nationalities of their units. The German command did not particularly trust the Tatar legionnaires, as the Volga subunits were entrusted with the glory of the most "unreliable" among other national units created as part of the Wehrmacht. And this was a great merit of the underground group, which will be discussed below.
By the time the Great Patriotic War began, Ginan Nurievich Kurmashev was just 22 of the year. But, despite his young age, by this time Kurmashev had already managed not only to graduate from the Paranygin Pedagogical College, but also to work as a teacher of mathematics and geography, and even as a school principal in the Aktyubinsk region. Kurmashev arrived there to escape from possible reprisals - in 1937, he was expelled from the Komsomol on a charge of kulak origin. However, in the Aktyubinsk region, Kurmashev managed to get a school, and in 1939, a twenty-year-old young man was drafted into the army. There, Kurmashev, as a person with secondary special pedagogical education, was trained in the school of junior commanders and received the rank of lieutenant. He participated in the Soviet-Finnish war. When the Great Patriotic War began, Ginan Kurmashev at the head of the reconnaissance group was abandoned to the rear of the enemy, but was captured. In the POW camp in Deblin (Poland), Gaynan Kurmashev joined the Idel-Ural legion. Almost immediately, he began to form an underground organization in which, although he was the youngest participant in age, he took a leadership position.
The underground group Kurmasheva set its goal to carry out work on the internal decomposition of the Legion. The propaganda of the underground workers was supposed to stimulate sabotage and insubordination on the part of the legionnaires, uprisings in the legion, the transition to the side of "their own". It is safe to say that this task Kurmasheva and his comrades was able to do. So, 14 February 1943, the 825 th Volga-Tatar battalion of the Idel-Ural Legion went to the front to fight the partisans. Legionnaires were transferred to Vitebsk, and then to the village of Gralevo. Here, representatives of the underground workers who worked in the battalion managed to get in touch with the local Belarusian partisan movement. Already February 22, just a week after being sent to the front, almost at full strength, the battalion went over to the side of the Belarusian partisans. Approximately 500-600 legionnaires moved into various partisan units and then successfully fought with the Nazis. It was the first major victory of the underground workers Ginan Kurmashev. After the uprising in the 825 battalion, the command decided not to send the 1943 battalion formed in January, 826, to the front, but the Nazi generals trusted Tatar legionaries less and less to carry out their security service to the Netherlands.
- soldiers of the Legion "Idel-Ural"
Another Tatar battalion, 827, was created on February 10 of the year 1943, and soon it was transferred to the west of Ukraine. Here, the Tatar legionnaires had to fight against the partisan detachments of the famous Kovpak. But repeated Belarusian story. Legionnaires deserted in large numbers from the battalion and passed on to the partisans. Hitler's counterintelligence, who were already on the alert, managed to uncover the preparation of the uprising, but two platoons of the battalion headquarters company managed to escape to the partisan detachment. However, the senior lieutenant Miftahov, who led the preparation of the uprising, the Nazis managed to grab and soon executed. After that, the 827 th battalion was transferred to France, but even there the Tatar legionaries preferred to go over to the side of local resistance. The command of the Wehrmacht, in the end, was forced to withdraw from the territory of Western Ukraine and units 828 th battalion. Here the same picture was observed - constant escapes to the partisans, low discipline, unwillingness to obey German commanders.
The Kurmashev group included a number of former prisoners of war of Tatar nationality. Gaynan Kurmashev himself was responsible for the creation of new combat fives in the underground organization and for the overall coordination of their activities. Akhmet Simaev, who worked as a speaker at Vineta radio station, received information for an underground group and prepared leaflets. In the Soviet Union, Simaev, who was born in 1915, was a poet, worked in the newspaper’s editorial office, and after the start of the war and was drafted into the army he became a radio operator - a paratrooper. During a regular throwing into the rear of the enemy, Simaev was taken prisoner, but there he was not taken aback - he joined the Idel-Ural legion, where he already contacted underground fighters.
Zinnat Khasanov (pictured), a former singer-propagandist, actually distributed underground leaflets and was responsible for communication between the Yedlynsky and Berlin underground groups. Before the war, Zinnat Khasanov, who was born in 1915 and graduated from the college of Soviet trade, worked as a commodity specialist, and after being drafted into the army and graduated from junior commanders' school, he was promoted to lieutenant and commanded a company. Once captured, Khasanov joined the Idel-Ural legion, where he soon joined an underground organization and took over the printing and distribution of leaflets. In case of success of the planned uprising, Khasanov was to become the commander of the third Volga-Tatar battalion.
Akhat Atnashev distributed leaflets in battalions and prepared legionnaires for the transition to the side of the partisan movement. In the editorial office of the Idel-Ural newspaper, Abdullah Alish worked, who managed not only to establish the printing of anti-fascist proclamations, but also to communicate with the Bulgarian anti-fascists and workers who were exported from the USSR to work in Germany. Abdullah Alish (Abdullah Alishev) before the war was a well-known poet. He was born in 1908 year, worked as an editor of the Tatar Radio Committee. Like other comrades in misfortune, he was captured in Germany and there already contacted the underground workers.
Perhaps the most famous member of the underground Kurmashev group later in the Soviet Union was the poet Musa Jalil. In fact, his name was Musa Mustafovich Zalilov (or Dzhalilov). He was one of the most senior members of an underground organization. Musa Jalil was born in 1906 year and before the revolution he studied at the Husainiya Madrasa in Orenburg. After the revolution, Musa joined the Komsomol, participated in the Civil War as part of the Red Army, studied at the Tatar Institute of Public Education, and then entered the literary department of the ethnological faculty of Moscow State University in 1927. Since the faculty was soon reorganized, Musa graduated from the literary faculty of MSU in 1931 year. By the way, while studying at the university, Jalil lived in the same room with Varlam Shalamov, who was then studying at the law faculty.
After graduating from university, Musa Jalil worked in the editorial offices of various children's magazines published in the Tatar language of the Komsomol Central Committee. In 1933, he was appointed head of the literature and art department of the Tatar newspaper Kommunist. In 1939-1941 Musa Jalil worked as executive secretary of the Writers' Union of the Tatar ASSR. When the Great Patriotic War began, Musa Zalilov was drafted into the Red Army. The poet fought on the Leningrad and Volkhov fronts with the rank of senior political officer (this rank corresponded to the rank of captain). 26 June 1942 of the year during the Luban offensive operation Musa Jalil was seriously wounded in the chest and captured by the Nazis. So began the last and most dramatic page of his life - two years as part of the underground group Kurmashev. Musa Jalil joined the Idel-Ural legion and, as a person with literary education and a poet's talent, he was appointed to be responsible for cultural and educational work in the ranks of legionnaires. This appointment Jalil used for their own purposes. He contacted the underground workers and became one of the most active members of the underground group. As an agitator engaged in propaganda work in the ranks of prisoners of war - ethnic Tatars and Bashkirs, Jalil got the opportunity to visit prisoner of war camps. There he established contacts with other anti-fascists and recruited new members of the underground.
In August, 1943, after the uprisings and mass transitions to the side of the Soviet troops in the Idel-Ural units on the Eastern Front, several propagandists and soldiers of the Legion, including Musa Jalil, were arrested. Specially provoked provocateurs helped to uncover the activities of the underground group - Hitler's counterintelligence agents had long suspected that an underground anti-fascist organization was operating among the Tatar legionaries. The arrested underground fighters were thrown into a terrible Moabit prison, where such prominent political prisoners of the Hitler regime, such as the leader of the Communist Party of Germany Ernst Telman and the leader of the Bulgarian Communists Georgi Dimitrov, were in custody.
The investigation into the “Kurmashev group” lasted six months. In February 1944, it was completed, and all the arrested members of the underground group were charged with "helping the enemy" and "military betrayal." 12 February, the Second Imperial Court rendered the death penalty to the eleven members of the underground organization, Hamas, Ala, Jalil, Abdullah Alisha 1944 August 25, they were all executed on the guillotine. The first to be executed was the head of the underground, Ginan Kurmashev, followed by his ten comrades.
The feat of the Tatar underground workers did not immediately become known in the Soviet Union. For a long time, Kurmashev, Dzhalil and their comrades were considered traitors - still, after all, they formally went over to the side of the enemy, served in the collaborationist formation “Idel-Ural”, and not only served, they were engaged in propaganda activities. In Musa Jalil, in particular, in 1946, a search case was opened - at that time the Soviet counterintelligence agents did not know about the tragic end of the poet and his comrades in the underground organization. However, the situation gradually began to clear up, and prisoners of war played a major role in this. So, in the same 1946 year, Tatar Nigmat Teregulov, who was in captivity by the Nazis, brought a notebook with 60 verses of Musa Dzhalil to the Union of Writers of Tatarstan. In 1947, the second notebook was found - a Belgian member of the resistance movement Belgian Andre Timmermans brought it to the Soviet consulate in Belgium. During the war years he was sitting in a terrible Moabite prison - together with Musa Jalil.
The poems of Musa Jalil, written during the imprisonment in the Moabit prison, fell into the hands of the Soviet poet Konstantin Simonov, who started publishing them, as well as removing the charges of treason from Musa Jalil. It was Konstantin Simonov who in 1953 published an article about Musa Jalil, after which the rehabilitation of the bright name of the Soviet patriot began. In the end, in 1956, Musa Jalil was posthumously awarded the country's highest award - the Golden Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union. In 1957, he was posthumously awarded the Lenin Prize - for the collection of poems "Moabite Notebook." However, the other participants of the underground organization created by Guinan Kurmashev were never reported. The tragic history of the Tatar anti-fascists of the Idel-Ural legion remained unknown to the wide Soviet public. Only 5 of May 1990 of the year, USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev signed a decree awarding all members of the Kurmashev group with the Order of the Patriotic War I degree posthumously.
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