General's attack

22
In 1914, a unique combat phenomenon took place on the Russian front of the First World War. The “general” attack showed how close the command staff of the Russian army is to its soldiers.

This battle episode occurred during the Galich-Lviv operation - the first stage of the Galician battle (August 5 - September 13 1914 of the year) on the southern flank of the Russian-Austrian front. At Yangchin, a village on the Rotten Lipa River, 16 – 17 August, a battle unfolded between the 7 Army Corps of the 8 Army of the Russian South-Western Front and the troops of the 2 Austrian-Hungarian Army.



In the direction of Lviv

The troops of the 8 Army were assigned a key role in the supposed encirclement of the main forces of Austro-Hungarians in Galicia. The main blow was planned in the direction of Lviv.

General's attackOn August 16, the troops of the 8 Army at Rogatin joined the battle and, despite the reinforcement of the enemy with reserves, broke through the front and forced the enemy to begin withdrawing to Lviv. The 7 Army Corps was right-flank and advanced on the Rotten Lipa, keeping in touch with the left-flank Corps of the 3 Russian Army - the 10 Army.

The corps (commander - General of Infantry E.W. Eck) included: 13 (49-Brest, 50-Belostok, 51-Lithuanian and 52-th Vilno infantry regiments), 34 (133- Simferopol, 134-th Theodosia, 135-th Kerch-Yenikalsky and 136-th Taganrog Infantry Regiments) infantry divisions, 7-I artillery brigade and 12-th sapper battalion.

The opponents of the Russians were the 35 Infantry Division (commander - field marshal-lieutenant of the detachment of the Nyogowan) of the 12 Army Corps (included 50, 51, 62 and 63 th Infantry Regiments with reinforcement units) and 11 Infantry Division of the Infantry Division and 15 Infantry Regiments with reinforcement units and 55 Infantry Division of the Infantry Regiment with 58 Infantry Regiments with reinforcement units and 95 Infantry Division of the Infantry Division and XNUMX Infantry Regiments with reinforcement units and XNUMX Infantry Division of the Infantry Regiment with XNUMX Infantry Regiments with reinforcement units and XNUMX Infantry Division of the Infantry Division. Lt. A. Pokorny; included XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX and XNUMX infantry regiments, as well as the necessary reinforcement units from the army group of General Kevess von Kevessgaz infantry.

The divisions of the Russian 7 Army Corps solved the most crucial task - the success of the Battle of Rotten Lime depended on their actions.

On August 16, the task set by the corps commander to the units of the 34 Infantry Division sounded like this: to seize both banks of the river near the village of Yanchin. The 136 Infantry Regiment of the Taganrog Regiment advanced on the height of 301 and to the south, the 134 Infantry Regiment of Theodosia regiment moved behind its left flank, the 133 Infantry Regiment of Simferopol was in reserve. The Yangchin District was fired upon by enemy artillery, including heavy ones. But the Russian guns silenced her. Part of the division stubbornly moved forward. The commander of the 1 Brigade of the 34 Division, Major General E. Ya. Kotyuzhinsky, personally led the attack - and the rifle chains of the Kerch-Yenikalsky Regiment, supported by the soldiers of the 36 Infantry Orlovsky Regiment, forced the river, with a bayonet, beat the Austrians out of two lines.

On the night of August 17, the Austrians launched a vigorous counteroffensive - they reopened Brzhuchowice and the surrounding heights, strengthened and mounted machine guns. In the morning of 17, the 13 Infantry Division was to attack Bržuchowice, and the 34 Infantry Division was to force the Rotten Lipa and help the 13 Division to capture the village.

Russian infantry attacked with strong artillery support. The front-line officer conveyed his impressions in this way: “Artillery contributed a lot to the success. One of the enemy's batteries, which stood against Yangchin, our two literally pecked. She remained in place. "

133-th Simferopol, 134-th Theodosia, 135-th Kerch-Yenikalsky infantry regiments overthrew the enemy - and the 134-th regiment captured the left flank of the Austrians. In the morning, the 1 Battalion of the 133 Infantry Regiment, under the personal supervision of the division commander, moved to the right bank of the Rotten Linden and, moving along the slope of a mountain planted with potatoes, struck the flank and rear of the Austrian trenches on the southern outskirts of Bržuchowice.

An adversary wrote about the failure of his 35 Infantry Division: “The enemy coverage from the south was getting stronger. At 10, the retreat of the entire 35 Infantry Division began in the morning; the infantry otchylila for their artillery, leaving in the hands of the enemy 11 cannons and 5 howitzers. About 3 hours of the day managed to cling to the edge of the forest at Ostolovice, thereby preventing a rout. ”

The Russian eyewitness spoke about the outcome of the victorious day: “Following the success of the 34 division, the enemy front was overturned north and south of Yangchin. Everything rushed forward, like a stream, breaking through a dam. The enemy hastily began to retreat in difficult conditions during the day under our onslaught, suffering huge losses. ”

Commanders - under the bullets

The 7 Army Corps had a brilliant commanding staff. It is enough to mention the corps commander - General of Infantry E. V. Ekka, the hero of the Russian-Japanese war, later twice the Cavalier of St. George (Order of St. George 4 degree he received for the battles near Lviv in 1914-m, and 3 -th degree - for operation on Ikve in 1915-m), the owner of St. George weapons and such a rare military award, as the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky with swords and diamond signs. In the battles of Yanchin, he effectively led the actions of the entrusted corps, combining bypass and frontal attack. So, 16 of August was applied covering the maneuver during the 34 Infantry Division offensive on the Blotnya-Yanchin highway: the order of the corps commander instructed to attack Yanchin on the left of the highway, trying to bypass the left flank of the Austrians, acting non-stop. 17 August Eck ordered the 34 Infantry Division to support the 13 Infantry Division, bypassing the enemy’s right flank. The corps commander demanded that subordinates apply a maneuver, act on the flank, and vigorously pursue the enemy.

The fighting near Yanchin is unique in the massive fighting impulse of the senior commanders of the 34 Infantry Division. 17 August generals and colonels, risking their lives, led the frontal attack of the battalions. The participant of the battle wrote: “The beginning of the brilliant success of the 7 Corps was laid by the next glorious episode of the heroic behavior of the senior commanders who had enticed the troops by their example. Through the wide swampy valley from Yangchin, the road and the ferry passed only along a long gati, which was fiercely fired upon. Then the chief of the 34 Division, Lieutenant-General Batashev, the commander of the brigade, Major-General at the school, the commanders of the 135 battalions of the Kerch-Yenikalsky regiment, Colonels Faydysh and Ragozin, the commander of the 133 battalion of the Simferopol regiment, Lieutenant Colonel of the Grace, and the Rogozin battalion of the 1000 battalion of the Simferopol regiment, Lieutenant Colonel of the Grace, and the Rogozin battalion of the 50 battalion of the Simferopol Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel of the Graduate Grant, and the Rogozin battalion of the XNUMX battalion of the Simferopol Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel of the Graduate Graduate of the Graduate of the Graduate of the Graduate of the Graduate of the Simferopol; ! Forward!". Seeing their superiors ahead, as one, the chains of Simferopol and Kerch-Yenikalians rose and uncontrollably moved forward. They walked about a mile through the swamp and into the ford through the Rotten Lime, reached the enemy’s position and broke into it. The Austrians in the captured area were mostly captured, more than XNUMX people, with the banner of the Austrian XNUMX regiment and a lot of machine guns. ”

It is significant that in the course of this attack the losses of the Russian units in the lower ranks were small, but the “general’s” strike group suffered significant damage: Lieutenant General N. M. Batashev was wounded in the forehead (and after the dressing continued the attack), Lieutenant Colonel M.F Avetchin - bleed into the neck (having tightened a wound with a handkerchief, also remained in the ranks), Colonel Ragozin was killed. Interestingly, the bullet spared Colonel N. A. Faydysh - after breaking through the visor of his cap, he didn’t even scratch him.

The soldiers of the 34 Infantry Division were delighted with the valiant behavior of their top commanders and nicknamed the Yangchin attack “Generals' Fight”. This episode once again demonstrated the significance of the personal example of the commander, and in the conditions of a war unseen until now.

The winged 34 Infantry Division captured Austrian 20 guns during the fighting near Yanchyn. In total, 7 Army Corps lost 16 – 17 August battles killed - 6 officers and 144 lower ranks, wounded - generals, 22 officers, 941 lower ranks; 60 people are missing.

On August 21, Russian troops took Lvov, and on August 22, Galich, which brilliantly completed the Galich-Lviv operation. The strategic importance of this operation is that it has seriously changed the situation in the southwestern strategic direction, and also had a serious influence on the course of military operations in France, where the Entente troops at that time suffered one setback after another.

And the most important for the outcome of the operation on Rotten Lipa, and hence the entire Galich-Lviv operation, was the heroic attack of the commanders of the 7-second army corps near Yanchin.
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  1. PKK
    +21
    August 28 2016
    This is the EXPLOIT, when the hands of our soldiers rise and strength and aspirations are added in the attack, and the hands of the enemies drop and the enemy runs without resistance.Thanks MENYAYLU, the essence of the EXPLODION suggested.
    1. +11
      August 28 2016
      This is the history of Russia that must be taught in schools, not liberal-Westernist! hi
  2. +19
    August 28 2016
    Respect to the author. Most members of the forum were generally unaware of this event, I am not an exception, and the fact deserves to be included in Russian history textbooks, at least as a half-page mention of the event.
    1. +16
      August 28 2016
      If, in a history textbook, half a page is mentioned about all the exploits of Russian soldiers, then a fifty-volume edition should be published.
    2. 0
      July 24 2017
      this is west of Vinnitsa, the basis for demanding the creation of New Russia and the Kiev Federal District. as part of the Russian Federation
  3. +12
    August 28 2016
    It is not up to the generals to attack. Except in cases of immediate threat in the event of a headquarters attack. The general must lead the division (regiment, corps, etc.), but not the company at all. The general lowers himself to the level of lieutenant. It turns out that the general does not trust his lieutenants. A personal example is certainly beautiful, but not productive.
  4. +9
    August 28 2016
    Russian personnel officers went on the attack always ahead of the chain. As a rule, with a cigarette in his teeth, patting a branch on his boot, demonstrating complete contempt for death. Unfortunately, this bravado led to huge losses of personnel officers, which naturally affected the controllability and coherence of units and units. At the end of World War I, personnel officers were on the 4-5 regiment. Of course, there were those who sat in the rear, but there were an insignificant minority.
    1. +5
      August 28 2016
      captain
      "Russian personnel officers went on the attack always ahead of the chain. As a rule, with a cigarette in his teeth, patting a branch on his boot, demonstrating complete contempt for death. To our bitter regret, this bravado led to huge losses of career officers, which naturally affected the controllability and coherence of subunits and units "...

      Beautiful ... ZnAkovo ... However - further - you yourself answered the absurdity of such behavior ...

      By the way, about the "generals' attacks" ...
      At a certain period, the generals and colonels entering the line of fire, ahead of the soldiers, paid off ... At least, at that time, with the existing weapons ... Now this will not work ..
      1. +2
        August 28 2016
        Quote: weksha50
        At least - at that time, with existing weapons ...

        Under the machine guns? I think that already the PMV has become a turning point.
  5. avt
    +6
    August 28 2016
    Quote: Bombay Sapphire
    Alas, there were cases when the headquarters were a hundred miles from the front line.
    Hence the communication problems and difficulties with the operational leadership of the troops.

    And Stalin, according to the memoirs of Khrushchev, who saw Chaplin’s film about Hitler, was planning an operation around the globe at a rate in Moscow. wassat Well this is the question of
    Quote: Bombay Sapphire
    reasons for the tragedy of the 41st year

    Quote: PKK
    This is a feat

    When the generals do and did such a “feat” AFTER the Napoleonic wars, this generally speaks of a complete inadequacy of the position held and not only an inability to lead a battle, but generally to command the entrusted unit.
    Quote: captain
    Russian personnel officers went on the attack always ahead of the chain. As a rule, with a cigarette in his teeth, patting a branch on his boot, demonstrating complete contempt for death.

    They reminded me of one episode - the commander, I think, "Dolphin" of the first, when giving the order to dive, smoked a cigarette before closing the hatch. Then, in his absence, his substitute officer also gave the order to dive and lit a cigarette, but he did not have time to close the hatch. then the truth was raised .... with the dead, like. Now, if someone on the side would have heard the performance of "Varyag", this is also
    Quote: PKK
    The essence of the feat.
    and naturally contempt of death ?????
    1. 0
      August 29 2016
      Quote: avt
      They reminded me of one episode - the commander, I think "Dolphin" of the first, when giving the order to dive, smoked a cigarette before closing the hatch. Then, in his absence, his substitute officer also gave the order to dive and lit a cigarette, but he did not have time to close the hatch

      There are two versions of that catastrophe, EMNIP.
      According to the first, the deck hatch opened for a standard air bleeding procedure swept a wave from a tug passing by.
      According to the second, Lieutenant Cherkasov, who led the dive in the absence of Beklemishev, did not take into account the overload of the submarine with additional l / s, as a result of which, on this unfortunate day, she sank faster than the cigarette smoked. In addition, Cherkasov did not personally control the closing of the hatch (he went down to the living deck). As a result, the standard procedure for closing the hatch in conditions of overloading the submarine led to the fact that the hatch did not have time to close and water poured into it.
    2. 0
      July 24 2017
      When the generals perform such a feat “AFTER the Napoleonic Wars, this generally speaks of a complete official inconsistency


      --- They wanted to remember youth? Viagra was not then?
  6. +4
    August 28 2016
    -Yes, tired of all these "victorious historical reports" ... -And where are the results of all these "heroic victories" ..?
    -But how great and destructive were the actions of some Russian generals ...
    -Here is one vivid and tragic example of "that time" ...
    -This is when a scoundrel and a coward-Tsarist General N.P.Bobyr surrendered the Novogeorgievsk fortress to the Germans, or rather, not even a fortress, but an entire fortified area of ​​more than 200 square kilometers, which, in addition to the citadel, included 33 powerful reinforced concrete forts with numerous artillery.
    -Moreover, the Germans had 10 times less artillery !!! than the Russians and the Germans didn’t have shells at all ... and the Germans had nothing to shoot ... -And the German positions attacked the Russian, mostly Lander (militia) poorly armed and heavily inferior to the Russian troops in German units. ..
    - Then 23 generals, 1200 officers and more than 83 thousand soldiers surrendered to the Germans ... -Moreover, all the fortifications, weapons and ammunition were transferred to the Germans intact ... -In Novogeorgievsk, the Germans got 1204 guns and more than a million ( !) shells to them.
    -They then, with great joy, took advantage of all this ...
    -And what strategic significance did this fortified region have for Russia ... -Maybe because of this betrayal Russia lost the war then ..
    1. +2
      August 28 2016
      Quote olena:
      This is when a scoundrel and a coward, the Tsarist General N.P.Bobyr surrendered the Novogeorgievsk fortress to the Germans

      Traitors are great power.
      Genghis Khan also said: - To take the fortress, you need a traitor.
      And then no additional hundreds or thousands of assaults are needed. The traitor at the right time will give information, indicate a weak spot, open the gate and even one will negate all the efforts of the defenders of the fortress.
      Of course, Genghis Khan was not the first to guess about the "benefits" of traitors, but he was not the last one who used and uses them.
      And if the traitor is also a general, then the damage to the defenders of the fortress will be multiple. A striking example is Hero of the Soviet Union, Army General Pavlov, though he was not alone. But Bobryr was also probably not alone, but with a team of traitors.
  7. PKK
    0
    August 28 2016
    Quote: avt
    This is a feat

    When the generals do and did such a "feat" AFTER the Napoleonic wars, this generally speaks of a complete inadequacy of the position held and not only an inability to lead a battle, but generally to command the entrusted units

    What do you do among the military, among the people? The foundation of us is RUSSIAN, there has always been a feat, for this you need to be at the highest level of comradeship, you outsiders are deprived of this.
    1. +2
      August 29 2016
      The result of this feat is a decline in the quality of the officer corps of the Russian army due to the rapid knocking out of trained officers in such attacks.

      The war does not end with one attack. And after 2-3 such attacks, the division will suffer huge losses - because the captains who replaced the colonels simply do not have the necessary experience.
  8. +1
    August 29 2016
    They write that the army commissar of the XNUMXst rank (level of general of the army) Mehlis LZ also fled if he accidentally found himself on the front line in the location of the company, which was prepared to attack, and Lev Zakharovich also went on the attack with them, and did not wave to them following the handle from the trench.
  9. +1
    August 29 2016
    Quote: Ivan Tartugay
    They write that the army commissar of the XNUMXst rank (level of general of the army) Mehlis LZ also fled if he accidentally found himself on the front line in the location of the company, which was prepared to attack, and Lev Zakharovich also went on the attack with them, and did not wave to them following the handle from the trench.


    It helped a lot. Especially in the Crimea helped.
    1. +1
      August 29 2016
      With Mehlis, LZ is not as simple as with an army general. There is an additional circumstance, he is an army commissioner, political worker, this imposes additional requirements on his personal behavior both in battle and in everyday life. Therefore, it is difficult to decide correctly whether he did what went with the company on the attack or incorrectly, but when the company prepared for the attack and by chance the commissar was at its location, then simply stand aside or speak slogans to the fighters so that they would beat the enemy without sparing their lives, it seems inappropriate .
      He probably decided that if it happened, after all, the units were not agreed upon with the army commissar, it would be better if he went on the attack with the fighters and engaged in political work after he stayed alive.
  10. 0
    August 31 2016
    Lord, what a disgusting homeless person in the photo in the article. At the beginning of the century they all looked like disguised homeless people, that generals, that admirals.
  11. +16
    January 4 2017
    Thanks for the great article. There is a place for feat in any rank

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