Who is the last for the Falklands
Latin American fleets are equipped with foreign-built ships. However, they are designed or upgraded in accordance with the specific requirements of the naval command of each particular country. This and interesting to compare.
Analysis of the fleet combat composition allows us to single out four countries that have more or less modern frigates in service: Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, and Chile. It would be interesting to consider the frigates of Mexico - the most important US ally in the region, but ships of this class are represented by obsolete types of American construction of the second post-war generation, which were transferred without significant modernization in the early 90's. They obviously do not meet the requirements of the time.
To compare the results with previously obtained, we will rely on the same methodology.
Who what can and has
Let's start with the Brazilian type "Niteroi". Four ships built in England at the shipyard "Vper-Thornikroft" and two at the Arsenal de Marin in Rio de Janeiro. Full displacement - about 3800 tons. The power of a two-shaft diesel-gas turbine unit - 74 000 horsepower provides the maximum speed of 30 units - decent for this class. The sailing range is more than 6100 miles of economic moves in 17 nodes. Seaworthiness allows you to operate in the ocean zone. The strike missile armament is represented by four Exocset missiles MM-38 (firing range - up to 40 km, warhead - 165 kg) in two PUs with two containers each. The main air defense system is the Albatross air defense system with an eight-barreled launcher for eight missiles with a range of up to 35 kilometers (ammunition load - 24 missiles). The ship can also use two universal 114-mm AU Мk 8 and double-barreled 40-mm AU "Trinity" company "Bofors". The antisubmarine armament complex includes two three-tube 324-mm TA STW5-1 for small anti-submarine torpedoes Мk46 (six in total) and one rotary double-barreled 375-mm rocket bomber made by Bofors (ammunition kit - 54 RSL). Previously, four-six anti-submarine armaments included Branik PLRK (Ikara version for Brazil) with 10 anti-submarine missiles with Mk46 torpedoes, but this complex was removed during the upgrade, replacing the second 114-mm AU Mk8. The ship’s electronic armament includes a surveillance radar for detecting airborne and surface targets RAN 20 S (3L), two radar fire control systems RTN 30X. To search for submarines, the ship has a GAS ED0 610E Mod1 with a hook antenna. EW facilities are represented by SDR-2 / 7 or Cutless В-1В. The ship’s armament is integrated into the CAAIS 400 BIUS. The picture is completed by the Super Lynx helicopter Мk21.
The Brazilian frigate is different from other ships of the same class with powerful universal artillery. This suggests that the Brazilian Navy command considers strikes at land targets in the coastal zone and light surface forces that do not have missile weapons as one of its most important tasks. Anti-submarine capabilities are quite satisfactory. In any case, they correspond to the frigates of other countries. The limited firing range of the Exocset anti-ship missiles is quite sufficient for strikes against ships with or without obsolete anti-ship missiles. A small ammunition of these anti-ship missiles shows that the task of combating surface forces is not the main one. The ship has a very effective air defense system. However, the ammunition of the air defense system indicates that the command of the Brazilian Navy believes that it is unlikely that strikes of these aircraft with sufficiently powerful air strikes should be carried out on these ships.
Judging by the tactical and technical data of the frigate, it is focused on the fight against the underwater and partly air enemy. And in the confrontation with surface forces, it is able to withstand only a technologically weak adversary. But the range of the "Niteroi" suggests that Brazilians are considering the possibility of its use in remote areas of the seas and oceans, where the enemy may be quite modern warships. Admittedly, the frigate’s weapons system no longer fully meets modern requirements.
Ships of the type "Almirante Brown" formally belong to the class of destroyers. However, they were designed according to the tactical and technical requirements of the Argentine Navy in Germany based on MEKO type frigates. That is, in fact, these are exactly frigates both in terms of displacement and composition of armaments. Therefore, there is every reason to consider them in this class - they are clearly not competitors to modern destroyers. The ship’s total displacement is 3360 tons. The power plant with 36 000 horsepower provides speeds of more than 30 knots. Maximum range - 4500 miles with 18 nodes. Shock weapon the ship includes eight anti-ship missiles MM40 “Exoset” in two four-container launchers. The main air defense system is the Albatros air defense system with one eight-container installation and the ammunition load of 24 Aspid SAMs with a firing range of up to 35 kilometers. To combat submarines, the ship has two three-pipe 324-mm SLTs for small-sized torpedoes with a decent ammunition load of 18 units. The artillery of the ship includes one 127-mm AU OTO Melara and two 40-mm double-barreled AU Breda / Bofors. The advantage of the ship - developed aviation armament, including two Sea Links.
Comparison with the Brazilian “classmate” indicates that Almirante Brown has superior capabilities to combat surface targets due to the increased firing range of the anti-ship missiles and double their number in the salvo (however, striking modern ships with the latest anti-ship missiles will be very problematic) . Their air defense weapons are about equivalent. In the antisubmarine attitude, the “Argentine” is superior to the “Brazilian” due to two helicopters.
Thus, only anti-submarine capabilities of Almirante and, in part, anti-aircraft weapons meet modern requirements. As well as the "Brazilian", he is only able to handle the relatively technologically backward surface enemy. That is, this anti-submarine ship with very limited capabilities for solving other tasks, capable of operating primarily in the cover zone of fighter aircraft.
Of the more or less modern frigates of the Venezuelan Navy, only the type “Advanced Lupo” can be called. These are Italian-built ships that have been modernized. Full displacement - more than 2500 tons. Powerful power plant provides high maximum speed - 35 nodes. The economic range (18 nodes) is more than 4000 miles. For strikes against surface targets, the ship has eight Mk2 anti-ship missiles, the Teseo Mk2 complex, which makes it possible to hit surface targets at a distance of 180 kilometers. In this case, the rocket has a fairly powerful warhead - 210 kilograms. The air defense system of the ship is almost identical to the two previously discussed. This is primarily the Albatross air defense system with one eight-container installation and 24 ammunition missile "Asp" with a range of up to 35 kilometers, supplemented by two automatic double-barreled 40-mm AU Breda. Universal artillery - one 127-mm AU OTO Melara. There are two 324-mm three-tube TAs for small A244. The main elements of electronic weapons are the SPS-774 surveillance radar and the American-made SQS-29 airborne radar. The ship has a BIUS and EW facilities. Aviation armament is presented by the anti-submarine helicopter Agusta AB212, which also solves the problem of over-the-horizon designation for the ship’s anti-ship missiles.
Analysis of the composition of weapons suggests that it is more versatile in its capabilities warship than the Brazilian and Argentine. Having retained approximately equal opportunities with two other frigates examined to combat the underwater and air enemy, it has a significant superiority in anti-ship armament. Thus, Venezuelan frigates are capable of solving a wide range of tasks. However, if there is a serious air threat, these ships will also have to limit their area of use to areas covered by fighter aircraft.
Chilean frigates - the former Dutch type "Jacob van Hemskerk", modernized. Full displacement - 3750 tons. The power plant provides maximum speed in 30 nodes. Cruising range of the economic course (16 nodes) - 4700 miles. Anti-ship missile weapons are represented by eight Harpoon anti-ship missiles in two four-container launchers. It is unlikely that the United States has supplied or will supply this country pursuing an independent policy with the latest modifications of the rocket. Therefore, the firing range lies within 130 kilometers. The main air defense system is an air defense missile system with one eight-container installation and an 24 SAM missile RIM-162 with a firing range of up to 50 kilometers. In addition, naval artillery is used for air defense tasks - universal 76-mm AO OTO Melara Compact Mk100 and small-caliber anti-aircraft: one 30-mm Signaal SGE-30 Goalkeeper, two 20-mm Oerlikon. To defeat submarines, the ship has two two-pipe 324-mm TA Mk32 with four small-sized torpedoes Mk46 mod5. The aircraft’s armament is represented by the Lynx anti-submarine helicopter. To detect airborne targets, the frigate has a Signaal LW08 radar. The search for submarines can be carried out using the Signaal PHS-36 under the hook line and the Thomson Anaconda DSBV 61 towed.
Analysis of the composition of the ship’s armament indicates its focus on solving mainly escort tasks, primarily PLO and air defense. He is well armed and to combat surface targets. However, the composition of its anti-submarine equipment is relatively weak, which is compensated by powerful search tools, in particular towed GUS. The ammunition missile system is not sufficient to repel large, repeated air raids.
Who what if
In order to correctly compare classmates, it is necessary to evaluate their capabilities in the likely conditions of combat use, taking into account the characteristics of the destination. We will consider two variants of conditions: the actions of the compared ships in an armed conflict against a weak naval enemy and in the war against a high-tech, powerful navy.
In general, these ships will have to solve the following main tasks, according to which we will compare them: the destruction of groups of surface ships (KUG, KPUG and submarines), the reflection of air attack weapons, the striking of ground targets.
When we talk about local war, we mean a conflict outside the territorial waters of the country, probably related to the support of friendly forces or the legitimate government of another state, as well as participation in peacekeeping and humanitarian operations. In such circumstances, the distribution of the importance of tasks is about the same. Accordingly, the weight coefficients of their significance can be assessed identically to how it was done in relation to other frigates under consideration: destruction of groups of surface ships and boats - 0,3, submarines - 0,15, reflection of SVN - 0,4, strikes against ground targets of the enemy in the operational depth - 0,1, on objects of antiamphibious defense - 0,05.
In wars with the threat of the country's territory and against the naval forces, which are equal in terms of technology or superior in quantitative and qualitative terms, the frigates will solve different tasks and their weighting coefficients are individual. In the diagram, they are presented taking into account the characteristics of the combat mission of the ships.
Estimate the capabilities of the frigates to solve typical problems. The first is the destruction of groups of surface ships and boats. All the frigates examined, including those with the Harpoon and Outot anti-ship missiles, will have to enter the zone of reach of the enemy’s weapons in order to enter the salvo position. The most difficult will be the "Brazilian" and especially the "Argentine", having in service "Exochet" with a range of 70 and 40 kilometers. In the latter case, the risk that the enemy will preempt in a volley and will not allow a rapprochement is extremely great. Is that the intelligence system of the enemy is not effective enough.
Missile attacks on ground targets can not cause any of the ships in question. As applied to the suppression of the antiamphibious defense system, as before, we have in mind one company support station on the shore. In the same context, we will assess the task of defeating ground objects with the support of the actions of troops in the coastal direction. Brazilian Niteroi, which has two 114-mm AUs, has the greatest capabilities here. The Argentine Almirante Brown and the Venezuelan Usov look good. Lupo "with their 127-mm AU. Chilean “Jacob van Hemskerk” features with 76-mm AU are significantly lower.
Evaluation of frigates in the fight against submarines is carried out according to the criterion of the probability of detecting and destroying an enemy submarine in a given area as part of a typical GTC of three frigates. As before, in order to ensure the comparability of results, we imply the same hydrological conditions, when the main factor determining the search performance of a CPUG becomes the energy range of a submarine’s detection of the ship’s sonar system. Chilean "Jacob van Hemskerk" has the best search capabilities. However, the means of destruction of submarines are noticeably weaker than those of other ships, which is partly compensated by the PLO helicopter. Other frigates have less effective means of searching for submarines, but at the same time there are great opportunities for their defeat. It should be borne in mind that of the three Almirante Brown KOPUGs capable of receiving two PLO helicopters, it is likely that they will also attract these machines for the initial search for submarines, significantly increasing the efficiency of solving the problem.
We assess the capabilities of hitting air targets by the ability of an order consisting of three guarding frigates and one core ship (for example, a cruiser with five air defense striking potential) to repulse a typical air attack missile attack in 24 anti-ship missiles with a volley of three minutes. And although with reference to fleets Latin American countries, the use of such a criterion is not entirely correct, it makes sense to dwell on it in this case. As an indicator of efficiency, the probability of maintaining the combat capability of the warrant core ship is taken. The results of the estimated calculation of the combat capabilities of the matched ships are shown in the diagram.
Integral measure of compliance: the Brazilian "Niteroya" - 0,21 in relation to local wars and 0,27 in the war with a serious sea opponent. The Argentine Almirante Brown has 0,23 and 0,31, respectively. Venezuelan "Mustache. Lupo "has values 0,24 and 0,27. The degree of compliance with the tasks of the Chilean "Jacob van Hemskerk" - 0,25 and 0,23.
The analysis shows that all the considered ships are approximately equivalent in their degree of compliance with the likely nature of combat use - their differences from each other do not exceed 16 – 24 percent. This is quite natural if we consider that all of them were built at about the same time in Western European shipyards - in 70 and 80-s, taking into account the requirements of a single NATO military-technical policy. The ongoing modernization, although based on the specific requirements of the customer, nevertheless relied again on the unified approaches and standards of NATO in the field of arms exports.
Nevertheless, there are differences. To the greatest extent correspond to the probable tasks in local conflicts Chilean "Jacob van Hemskerk", due to its definite advantage in the field of air defense. This is understandable - in similar conflicts, as experience has shown, it is the enemy's internal attack system that can become the main threat.
In wars with a serious sea adversary (with a regional power or one of the global centers of power, which for Latin America can only be made by the United States, recreating its 4 fleet in the South Atlantic), the superiority of Argentina’s Almirante Brown is obviously due to a more balanced the ratio of air defense and air defense systems, the main threat to the Navy of Latin American countries in such conflicts.
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