Military Review

The project of the aerospace system "Blizzard"

44
In recent years, the development of private companies operating in the aerospace industry has attracted the special interest of specialists and the general public. A number of foreign organizations of this kind have already presented several different developments of different classes with differing characteristics. Similar organizations work in our country. To date, some new developments in this area are presented. Thus, the company "Lin Industrial" was presented the project of the aerospace system "Blizzard".


The project of the Vyuga aerospace system (ACS) was developed by the Moscow company Lin Industrial, working with the assistance of the Skolkovo Foundation, at the request of an unnamed customer. The aim of the project was to elaborate the shape of a reusable two-stage system designed for putting people and various cargoes into orbit. At the same time, due to the limited capacity of the system, the implementation of various scientific studies, etc. is considered as the main task. In addition, the military use of the system for the purposes of reconnaissance or as a carrier of high-precision weapons.

In the proposed form of the system "Blizzard" has a number of characteristic advantages. It provides full reusability of all system components, the use of an existing aircraft carrier, the ability to output the load into orbits in a wide range of inclinations, as well as environmental safety. In addition, the use of an aircraft carrier allows you to launch payloads from various regions of the planet, including taking off from the territory of the client country.


General view of the ACS "Blizzard" before takeoff


The project AKS "Blizzard" implies the use of a complex consisting of three main components. The main element that ensures the performance of the rest is a carrier aircraft with a set of fasteners for transporting the remaining equipment. It is also proposed to use the first stage with rocket engines, which is responsible for the acceleration of the so-called. orbital treads. The latter is an apparatus capable of flying both in the atmosphere and beyond. All elements of the Blizzard complex should be able to return to the base.

According to the development organization, the creation of the VKS “Vyuga” began with a study of the existing possibilities and the determination of the parameters of the required equipment. Thus, the payload of the complex was determined at the level of 450 kg, brought to a low earth load. It is noted that similar parameters of carrying capacity have technological satellites such as "Photon". Further, taking into account the calculations for the various elements of the complex, the range of potential carriers of the system was determined.

The An-124 “Ruslan” and An-225 “Mriya” military transport aircraft were decided to be abandoned due to excessive load-carrying characteristics. The missile Tu-160 did not fit due to the small number of existing machines of this type. As a result, only M-55X “Geophysics”, MiG-31 and IL-76 aircraft were considered. Further calculations showed that Geophysics and MiG-31 can not be used as a sparking aircraft of the aerospace system. These aircraft have a high practical ceiling, but they have insufficient payload. When using them, the Blizzard payload could not exceed 50-60 kg, which did not correspond to the initial calculations.


Scheme of the complex assembly


Thus, the IL-76 military transport aircraft was the only suitable carrier of the system. However, in this case, not all design features allowed using the equipment without any modifications. Calculations showed that for transportation and launch of the acceleration and orbital stages the aircraft needs to strengthen the structure and install some new equipment. Such improvements made it possible to most fully realize the existing advantages in the form of high payload, and also to compensate for the existing loss in altitude compared to other potential carriers.

The project "Blizzard" in its current form provides for the modernization of the IL-76 using some new units. In the central part of the aircraft's cargo compartment, it is proposed to mount a special support farm, redistributing the weight of the rocket systems to the aircraft power elements. This product is an openwork design with a length of 12,9 m, a width of 3,3 m and a height of 2,7 m with protruding elements in the upper part, displayed outside the fuselage. Initially, the farm was proposed to be made of carbon fiber, but later, for reasons of strength, the project was changed. Now the product should consist of titanium elements with a diameter of 85 mm. In this case, the weight of the truss is 6,2 t. Perhaps some relief of the structure by reducing the thickness of the parts of the lower part of the truss.

After installing the farm on the plane on the upper surface of its fuselage there are several nodes for docking with the first stage of the rocket system. With their help, it is proposed to associate the aircraft carrier with other elements of the complex. Fastenings must have control systems that ensure the discharge of missile systems at the required moment.

According to the results of preliminary design work and research using computer modeling, the designers of Lin Industrial created the overall appearance of the first stage of the Blizzard ACS. This product should be a relatively large aircraft with a rocket engine, designed to accelerate the orbital stage after separation from the aircraft-propeller. Such methods of application have led to the need to work out some of the design features. In particular, it was necessary to develop a wing and a stabilizer, designed to lead the missile system from the aircraft carrier after separation.


The design of the farm, proposed for installation on the accelerator


A rather simple construction of the first stage is proposed. All major units of this technology should be mounted on an elongated truss, which is the basis of the design. On the upper part of the farm, it is proposed to mount tanks for fuel and oxidizer, behind which the engine should be placed. In this case, the rear tank, in contrast to the front one, should have a more complex shape, necessary for the correct placement of the orbital stage. At the bottom of the truss there are mounting for planes. In view of the expected mechanical and thermal loads, the first stage should receive thermal protection of the lower part of the fuselage.

For flight in the atmosphere immediately after separation from the carrier and during landing, the first step of the "Blizzard" should use a set of different planes. In the central part of the fuselage, it is proposed to mount a low wing. Also developed two-tail tail with stabilizers of relatively small size. Inside the airframe it is proposed to mount the landing gear needed to return the first stage to the required airfield.

By now, it has been reported that the appearance of one of the main elements of the first stage - the oxidizer tank - has been formed. This product had high requirements for strength, volume, tightness and other parameters, up to the need to maximize the production of filled fluid. Given these requirements and the characteristics of liquid oxygen, the overall design of the tank was determined. The cylindrical side surface of the tank must be made of carbon fiber with an epoxy binder, and also receive an internal coating in the form of a film PMF-352. The latter is necessary to reduce the negative effects of low-temperature oxidant on composite parts. Frames and bottoms glued to the composite part are proposed to be made of an aluminum-magnesium alloy. Inside the tank should be installed partitions, dampers, pipelines and other necessary parts.

The project of the aerospace system "Blizzard"
General view of the first stage


In the tail section of the first stage it is proposed to mount a single-chamber liquid-propellant rocket engine with the required characteristics. The power plant using kerosene and liquid oxygen should show the flow rate of gases at the level of 3,4 km / s, which will achieve the required thrust parameters. Estimated speed of the first stage - about 4720 m / s.

With a total length of 17,45 m, the first stage of the ACS “Blizzard” should have a dry weight of 3,94 t, a full starting one - 30,4 t. At the same time, most of the starting weight falls on fuel: 7050 kg of fuel and 19210 kg of oxidizer.

To the rear fuselage of the first stage is proposed to mount the so-called. orbital stage, designed to transport the payload and its output to the desired trajectory / orbit. The characteristic features of the operation of such technology led to the formation of an unusual type of stage. The orbital “Blizzard” stage should have a streamlined shape of the external aggregates of the glider with an ogival upper part of the head fairing and a section of the tail block close to the oval. The bottom with heat-protective coating should have a slightly curved shape.

In the upper part of the orbital stage body it is proposed to place a parachute compartment, a compartment of control equipment, behind which there must be a large volume to accommodate the payload. Under these compartments provide space for the installation of spherical and cylindrical tanks for the fuel components. The tail part of the body is given under the engine. In the upper part of the fuselage can be installed hatch doors, designed for installation of the payload in the case of the stage, as well as to bring it outside when performing various works. In particular, this hatch can be used to deploy solar panels when using the device in an orbital configuration.


Description of the first stage


In its current form, the project "Blizzard" implies the construction of an orbital stage with a length of 5505 mm, a width of 2604 mm and a height of 1,5 m. The dry mass of the orbital stage is 950 kg. Payload - 450 kg. Together with the fuel and oxidizer supply, the apparatus should weigh 4,8 t. At the same time, kerosene, according to calculations, accounts for 914 kg, for oxidizer - 2486 kg. Product speed must reach 4183 m / s.

The principles of using the Vyuga aerospace system look quite simple and allow you to output the payload to the desired trajectory or low reference orbit with the minimum necessary expenses. In preparation for the task, the required payload should be installed in the cargo compartment of the orbital stage. Then this device is placed on the first stage, and the entire system is assembled on the anchorage of the aircraft. After filling the tanks of both steps with kerosene and liquid oxygen, AKS “Vyuga” can begin work.

The first stage of the system requires the proper operation of the crew of the aircraft carrier. IL-76 with elements of "Blizzard" on the fuselage should rise to an altitude of 10 km and with the necessary course go to the launch area of ​​the rocket system. Further, it is proposed to carry out an uncoupling, after which the first stage should move away from the carrier and include a cruising liquid engine. The carrier aircraft, in turn, gets the opportunity to return to its aerodrome. Further flight is made by steps independently and using our own control systems.

The first stage has a reserve of fuel necessary for the engine to operate for 185 seconds. During this time, the acceleration of the orbital stage with a rise to a predetermined height. With the help of the first stage, the ACS “Blizzard” should rise to an altitude of 96 km and bring the orbital stage to the required trajectory. After the fuel is produced, the orbital stage is reset. The orbital stage continues to move along a given trajectory, while the first must go into planning and head for the landing pad. Decreasing and slowing down the speed, the first step should ultimately land using the existing chassis using the “airplane” method. After landing, the stage can undergo the necessary maintenance, which allows it to be used again.


General view of the orbital stage


The orbital stage after separation must include its own engine and carry out the exit to a given orbit. With full payload, the engine can be operated for 334 seconds with ascent into orbit 200 km altitude. After entering the orbit with the required parameters, the payload in the form of scientific equipment or other equipment can begin its work. After completing the tasks, the orbital stage can return to Earth.

For de-orbiting, it is proposed to use a braking impulse that takes the orbital step to the landing trajectory. With the help of thermal protection and a streamlined body shape, the stage without risks enters the dense layers of the atmosphere and enters the landing area. At a given height, it is proposed to open the parachute, which is responsible for the soft landing of the device. Landing "on an aircraft" is not provided for technical and operational reasons. After landing, specialists can begin work with a payload. In addition, it is planned to carry out maintenance of the orbital stage, followed by preparation for a new flight.

A similar algorithm for using the ACS "Blizzard" is proposed for use for scientific purposes. In addition, the possibility of using such equipment in the interests of the armed forces is being considered. In this case, the aerospace system, instead of the orbital stage, can receive combat equipment with the required characteristics. However, the exact parameters of this version of the complex have not yet been determined. At the moment, only the possibility of creating a combat version of "Blizzard" is being considered and possible areas of its application are determined.

The combat version of the AKS "Blizzard" can be the carrier of a shock system or means of intercepting enemy space vehicles. In the latter case, high efficiency of combat work can be obtained, provided the possibility of a fairly simple withdrawal of combat equipment into orbits with various parameters. However, the implementation of such ideas may be associated with some difficulties. First of all, difficulties must be associated with limitations on the mass of the payload. Even a complete replacement of the orbital stage by a special combat system will not allow the creation of a product weighing more than a few tons.


Orbital stage, bottom view, bottom not shown. The white case is marked in blue, the fuel tanks in blue, the engine in red, the parachute compartment in orange, the payload compartment in gray.


The proposed architecture of the aerospace system provides some advantages over other complexes of similar purpose. The main advantages of the project "Blizzard" that can give a significant positive economic effect are the use of the existing aircraft carrier (nevertheless, in need of significant modifications), as well as returning rocket stages. The possibility of multiple use of the first and orbital stages imposes specific requirements on their design, primarily on the characteristics of the engines, but can lead to a noticeable decrease in the cost of individual launches.

The second characteristic advantage of the project is the lack of “binding” to existing space centers. Any aerodrome capable of receiving IL-76 transport aircraft and having a certain set of equipment for working with rocket systems can actually become the launching pad for the AKS "Blizzard". Due to this, the output of the payload to the orbit can be carried out from almost anywhere in the world. As a result, a relatively simple output of the payload to the orbit with the required inclination is provided.

According to reports, at present the project of the aerospace system "Blizzard" from the company "Lin Industrial" remains at the stage of preliminary studies. The general features of the project have been identified, but the technical documentation has not yet been developed. There is information according to which the preliminary version of the project "Blizzard" did not receive the approval of the customer who initiated its development, and, as a result, was left without funding. According to the developer’s estimates, financing for the first stage of research work requires funding in the amount of 3,2 million rubles. Further work will require new investments. At the same time, estimates of the time and financial costs required for the completion of the project are not yet specified.

It should be noted that the project AKS "Blizzard" is not the first such domestic development of its class. Work in this direction in our country started back in the sixties of the last century and was carried out by several organizations led by OKB-155. The aim of the project "Spiral" was the creation of a complex capable of using a hypersonic accelerating plane, a booster block and the so-called. orbital plane to put into orbit a payload. Ready complex "Spiral" could be used for various purposes, primarily in the military.


The scheme of use of the aerospace system "Blizzard"


From the late sixties to the mid-seventies, several prototypes of advanced equipment were built, used in various tests. In particular, the devices of the BOR series made several suborbital and orbital flights. For testing in the atmosphere used the MiG-105.11. After the completion of testing, the work on the Spiral project was discontinued. The customer considered a more promising new project "Energy-Buran". Some prototypes built under the Spiral program later became museum exhibits.

Since the early eighties, NPO Molniya has been developing the project Multipurpose Aerospace Systems (MAKS). It was proposed to include an An-225 carrier aircraft and an orbital aircraft with an additional fuel tank as part of this system. Depending on the configuration, the MAKS complex could deliver the payload to the 7 or 18 orbit. Both automatic cargo and manned versions of the system were considered.

Due to the problems of the early nineties, work on the MAKS project was discontinued. Only in 2012, there were reports of a possible resumption of work and the creation of a modern version of the complex. In addition, the possibility of refining an existing project using other aircraft, etc. was mentioned. As far as we know, in the intervening time, no particular success was achieved in the course of the renewed MAKS project.

With the help of the private rocket-space company Lin Industrial, a new version of a promising aerospace complex is being created that is capable of solving various problems of a scientific and other nature. To date, the overall look of the system has been worked out and its main features, characteristics, etc. have been determined. However, the work can not move forward yet due to lack of funding. Whether the developer company finds an investor and whether it can bring an interesting project to practical implementation - time will tell. If the project AKS “Vyuga” succeeds in reaching at least tests with the orbital stage being put into space, this will be a great success for the entire national space industry, both public and private. However, this success is still far away: the project still needs a long continuation of development.


On the materials of the sites:
https://spacelin.ru/
http://tvzvezda.ru/
http://vpk.name/
https://rg.ru/
http://testpilot.ru/

Page AKS "Blizzard" on the developer's site:
https://spacelin.ru/proekty/aerokosmicheskaya-sistema-vyuga/
Author:
Photos used:
"Ling Industrial" / Spacelin.ru
44 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Leto
    Leto 24 August 2016 07: 45 New
    18
    The project of the aerospace system "Blizzard"

    The wrong name, more correctly "Snowstorm", more reflects the meaning of the project ...
    1. Alexey Sommer
      Alexey Sommer 26 August 2016 10: 14 New
      0
      Uh ...
      Why did you decide so?
      1. The stranger
        The stranger 22 December 2016 21: 30 New
        +1
        Yes, because "cosmos" and "small private owners" in one sentence are only suitable at the beginning of a joke.
        "Large private trader" by the way - there too.
        The life of one person is not enough for a quick acquaintance only with the headings of the documents that determine the requirements for aircraft, not to mention the KLA. A bunch of these is a nightmare for any space program of a superpower. With an unlimited budget and staff of several million people.
        No, it’s good if there are enthusiasts from amateur performances. You just need to look after them. In particular, to provide such bombing projects with adult leaders and reviewers. And it’s too noticeable as the bespectacled computer experts from high school students and freshmen read the Internet, and decided that they knew all the Secrets of the Grand Free Charge. Now they will be laughed at, and their hands will drop. It's a pity.
        In short - TNTM need to be revived.
    2. Alexey Sommer
      Alexey Sommer 26 August 2016 10: 14 New
      0
      Uh ...
      Why did you decide so?
  2. Connie
    Connie 24 August 2016 07: 49 New
    11
    Launching from the back, and even with a single-wing aircraft is a bad idea.

    the text with the choice of aircraft is worthy of alternatehistory ...
    1. serega.fedotov
      serega.fedotov 24 August 2016 09: 12 New
      +2
      It says "Aircraft needs to be finalized," by the way, starting the keel does not really hinder, first disengaging, then taking the first stage to a safe distance, and only after that starting the engine.
      The problem of one keel is in the twists that the detachable apparatus will create, when transporting the “Buran” and the steps of “energy” this problem was solved with two keels separated for the swirl zone!
      1. abrakadabre
        abrakadabre 24 August 2016 10: 39 New
        +9
        The problem is just the keel. In order to relieve the load on the ascending path shown in the PROJECT, one of two is required:
        1. Or a powerful impulse of ejection-diversion of a multi-ton load upwards for the projection of the keel.
        2. Either the impulse of the marching load engines, which will allow, during separation and breeding, not to lose the speed starting to the starting load and leave the carrier ahead to go into orbit. At the same time, the carrier must immediately go down at the moment of disengagement in order to prevent damage by the jet stream of the load motors.


        In the first case, the momentum value will be excessive for the structural strength of both the carrier and the load itself. Indeed, at this moment, the engines work only with the carrier. And he, after disengagement, seems to be trying to overtake the orbital stage. The load must be managed to be raised above the keel chasing it in a very short time. And this is a very large momentum of shooting. given the multi-ton mass of the system being shot.
        In the second case, the start of the load motors instantly destroys the tail of the carrier with a jet stream. It is precisely for the possibility of launching marching engines of the orbital stage, when it is located on top of the carrier, on such systems that the spaced keel is assumed to be including. But that is in serious projects.

        This I take only the moment of undocking. And there is also a negative effect of such a load arrangement on the aerodynamics of the docked system. Specifically for the flow and efficiency of the keel, in a jet of turbulence generated by the load. This is another fundamental reason for using a spaced keel for a carrier.
        1. serega.fedotov
          serega.fedotov 24 August 2016 10: 52 New
          +1
          The keel in the zone of turbulence will not work for sure! And on undocking, remember the mechanism for removing an air bomb beyond the screw limit of 40 years, an elementary thing
        2. Mooh
          Mooh 24 August 2016 12: 20 New
          +2
          The carrier will do a barrel before shooting the device laughing
        3. N100
          N100 13 December 2016 00: 27 New
          0
          The load must be managed to be raised above the keel chasing it in a very short time. And this is a very large momentum of shooting. given the multi-ton mass of the system being shot.


          And this is the smallest of the shortcomings of this system, because universality in the choice of height is primarily important. For example, the old man Proton, or the new Angara system, is able to put any satellites into any orbit.
          Proceeding from this, any sense of using this system in civilian and military applications is generally lost. Apparently, someone is either trying to substitute Rogozin, or is firmly sitting on his ears, and not only with this garbage, but also with meaningless moon and Martian projects, the return of which on modern chemical engines will be zero in the next 30 years.
    2. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      Andrei from Chelyabinsk 24 August 2016 22: 04 New
      0
      Quote: Connie
      the text with the choice of aircraft is worthy of alternatehistory ...

      Don’t offend the site! laughing There, they would peel this project very quickly :)))
  3. svp67
    svp67 24 August 2016 07: 51 New
    15
    Hooray!!!!! A new breakthrough ... The participation in this Skolkovo project is just alarming, and given how many sensible new space projects have already been buried ... apparently not in vain.
    And the question is not a specialist, maybe someone will explain to me why before when designing such systems, it was planned to use diversity plumage on a carrier aircraft, even by remaking the base aircraft, but the authors of this project do not bother with this ...
    1. Engineer
      Engineer 24 August 2016 08: 52 New
      +6
      This is not a jerk, but a kid. Drawing a farm and something there in solidworks and placing it on the back of an IL-76 right behind its huge keel. Even a schoolchild will notice that in this case, a rocket can be shot only with a powerful impulse up, which will simply lead to its destruction.
      1. Falcon5555
        Falcon5555 24 August 2016 18: 07 New
        +2
        Why shoot? An airplane can make a slide, and then down, that's all. Well, that is, start the climb as far as the transporter can, and go down with a negative overload. At that moment, just let go of this rocket, and it’s business. Wait a second for another, until they separate and then turn on its digitor. It is only necessary to calculate that the rocket does not catch on the tip of the keel. Probably at the moment of uncoupling, it is necessary to reduce the engine power to a minimum so that both the plane and the rocket fly in energy. I do not approve of such feints, but it is possible so as not to build specials. plane.
        1. Vlad.by
          Vlad.by 25 August 2016 13: 02 New
          +3
          And what does not suit the output circuit from the transport compartment of the carrier? Hemorrhoids with the opening of the transport ramp and the withdrawal of the apparatus’s body can be overcome, in any case, no more than shooting and withdrawing from the back. but at the same time there are additional advantages - where, as the best aerodynamics, acceleration speed, carrier fuel consumption ...
          Moreover, all this has been repeatedly sucked up by different design bureaus and no unsolvable problems were found.
        2. atakan
          atakan 28 August 2016 02: 42 New
          0
          An airplane can make a slide, and then down, that's all.

          That is, once at a time it is not necessary.
          A twist, there, an air hole or a malfunction at the moment of the "hill".
          1. Connie
            Connie 28 August 2016 02: 48 New
            0
            The Americans with the D-21 on top of the SR-71 “tried” a couple of times and didn’t do that anymore.
      2. N100
        N100 13 December 2016 00: 31 New
        0
        This is not a jerk, but a kid.


        To a point, the scam on nano-blasters apparently the Chubais team is working .....
        Still, the world would be surprised for their own money, and not for the budget ones.
    2. Filxnumx
      Filxnumx 27 August 2016 21: 04 New
      0
      Apparently because they have positive experience: the Americans dropped the flight analogue of the Shuttle from the back of the Boeing without any alteration of the tail of the carrier aircraft.
    3. PSih2097
      PSih2097 22 December 2016 10: 24 New
      0
      Quote: svp67

      it remains for Ukraine to squeeze Mriya ... laughing
  4. FID
    FID 24 August 2016 09: 03 New
    +9
    I like optimism about: ".... can become almost any airport ..." Are there many of them in modern Russia? It is not indicated how long the runway should be for taking off the aircraft, but long, heavy strips have been counted off once or twice. For the Skolkovo, this obviously does not matter, they would give money ...
    1. Srgsoap
      Srgsoap 24 August 2016 16: 36 New
      +1
      Greetings to Sergey. I haven’t been here for a long time. What is true is true. And indeed complete nonsense. Yes, and maybe you know how VAF is doing? The site was updated, in general I can not figure it out. Thank you
      1. FID
        FID 24 August 2016 16: 53 New
        +2
        Everything is fine with the VAF, lives, walks the dog ... He doesn't like it lately, rarely, rarely ...
        1. xtur
          xtur 29 August 2016 12: 50 New
          +2
          > He doesn’t like it lately, rarely, rarely ...

          it’s a personal matter, of course, but if people like VAF don’t come here, the site will inevitably turn into a site of mostly emotional communication

          I don’t pretend to be insight, but I don’t feel the administration’s course for routine, and the people are who they are - open, emotional, categorical :-)
  5. engineer74
    engineer74 24 August 2016 09: 17 New
    +9
    Mdya ... Only the farm is "worked out" in detail! laughing To boil such crap from a titanium round log is the height of Skolkov's engineering idea! wassat In the "project", apparently, only managers ...
  6. abrakadabre
    abrakadabre 24 August 2016 12: 24 New
    +3
    Quote: serega.fedotov
    And on undocking, remember the mechanism for withdrawing an aerial bomb beyond the screw limit of a 40-year-old thing

    In the 40s, bombs darted up over an airplane on an ascending trajectory? And the bombs were BEFORE the propellers ?! Am I missing something in this life?
    belay
    1. svp67
      svp67 24 August 2016 12: 30 New
      +1
      You just don’t understand each other. The mechanism for removing bombs when diving from under the propeller disk was used on dive bombers
      1. abrakadabre
        abrakadabre 25 August 2016 09: 24 New
        0
        In the same place (for dive bombers) there wasn’t like a mechanism for removing bombs for projection of propellers, but an automatic withdrawal of an aircraft from a dive immediately after the bombs were dropped. It seems that the dive bombers did not fly with separated bombs in a straight maximum time? Or no?
  7. Tishka
    Tishka 24 August 2016 12: 32 New
    +4
    What do they understand when designing these reusable steps! Roscosmos, ours is everything, from the Royal Seven, not a step, but its people are in business, and you can safely cut the loot! And the “Angara” with alteration to kerosene, and with the continuation of the work, can be converted to hydrogen, and the Vostochny spaceport, how much money was mastered right away, in your pocket! And here, some reusable steps, and even returned to the airport, complete nonsense! Better take-off runway, LII Gromov sell, and to hell with them, with these tests, but how heavy the pocket!
  8. nov_tech.vrn
    nov_tech.vrn 24 August 2016 14: 20 New
    0
    there are a lot of "stupid" questions at once why 450 kilograms ?, a very strange argument like a photon, somewhere semt-eight, the argument in favor of the IL-76 is no less controversial, the carrying capacity of IL-76 is 42 tons, IL-96 is 65 tons, Tu-204 - 20 tons, we look further, the farm is plus, 1 step is plus, the second step is 40,54 tons, plus the external suspension worsens the aerodynamic characteristics, but how does it actually fly, low low?
    1. Tektor
      Tektor 24 August 2016 19: 17 New
      0
      If you offer versions, then I like this one most of all. The carrier aircraft Tu-160M2 with a forked V-shaped tail unit starts with a tank on the hump. In flight, it interfaces with a separately starting orbital module, which has a pair of turbojet engines, like the Be-200. Docking in 2 stages: 1 landing gear of the aircraft-orbital apparatus fall into cone-guiding catchers, which, having accepted and fixing the load after completely turning off its engines, lower the apparatus in the second step until it is smoothly connected to the tank ... The cones of the catchers telescope, almost freeing the chassis of an orbital plane. Further, the turbojet engine of an orbital aircraft is covered with dissecting caps to reduce drag. Tu-160M2 accelerates with a climb. It would be nice to dial 2 Mach and 20 km ... Well, then - like Lightning-1 or Blizzards.
      1. abrakadabre
        abrakadabre 25 August 2016 09: 26 New
        +9
        Why what there. Let the whole apparatus be assembled from spare parts right in flight and the tanks from the flying refueling tank filled with cryogenic contents ...
        Why trifle?
        wassat
        1. Tektor
          Tektor 25 August 2016 18: 25 New
          +2
          The thought is grandiose! I support! After docking - partial refueling of the tank with the second component of fuel from the flying tanker. This will be the safest option for docking ...
  9. Bayonet
    Bayonet 24 August 2016 17: 01 New
    +1
    At the slightest failure, the keel will break apart precisely and with the whole kirdyk system! Need a special carrier aircraft. "Partners" went this way. The aircraft, having risen to a height of about 10 kilometers, will launch a specialized launch vehicle at high altitude, which will avoid significant fuel costs for launching from the surface of the Earth. It was originally planned that the Stratolaunch system would be able to launch satellites weighing a little more than 6 tons, placing them in orbit at an altitude of 180 to 2000 kilometers from the Earth’s surface. However, the company’s management has recently revised its plans and the design of the aircraft has been amended to launch Dream Chaser spacecraft into space. They were going to test this year.
    [media = http: //i.dailymail.co.uk/i/gif/2015/02/Stratolaunch-opt.gif]
  10. Rosinmn
    Rosinmn 24 August 2016 23: 51 New
    +2
    Maybe someone will explain to me. Let the aircraft accelerate the carrier to a very high speed of 330 m / s. (1000 km / h). And the final speed we need is the first space - 7 km per second. Those. the plane will add only 1/20 of the required speed to the rocket. Or 1/400 of the necessary energy. The plane will add only 0,25% of the required energy to the rocket.
    Even if a supersonic aircraft accelerates a rocket to 3 speeds of sound, up to 1 km per second. This will give only 2% of the required energy. It is clear that it is no longer necessary to disperse 2% of the fuel and fuel economy will be much more than 2%. Is there really so much fuel economy compared to a conventional by-bike start that all these difficulties will be justified?
    Every time before the election, people start talking about unprecedented space projects. Now, it seems, Putin is not being chosen anywhere ...
  11. Nitarius
    Nitarius 25 August 2016 07: 25 New
    +1
    the purpose is not clear ... People ride ..that yes!
    Satellites to Orbit .. well, so the savings and cost should be adequate!
    Tasks need to be set .. under what?
    But then it is necessary to collect from them for the next flight! what is the difficulty then?
  12. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 25 August 2016 09: 27 New
    0
    mini-max. Maybe naknets will do it "in iron"?
  13. Nicola Bari
    Nicola Bari 25 August 2016 11: 19 New
    0
    Some kind of non-living system is obtained, starting with the fact that the aircraft is single-winged. Indeed, how many alternatereality ...

    The worst thing is that there is not a single specific task for which all this is thought up. Not a "blizzard", but a "snowstorm", as was correctly noted above.
  14. loaln
    loaln 25 August 2016 19: 28 New
    +4
    At first glance - castrated Buran. If you look closely, the legal "drain" over the hillock of what remains of it. Moreover, Skolkovo is involved in this.
    And so - a bubble. But it will burst silently and imperceptibly. Traces are not needed.
  15. Niccola Mack
    Niccola Mack 31 August 2016 10: 34 New
    +1
    Since Soviet times, such projects have had whole libraries!
    Everything looked simple and affordable.
    And now beautiful pictures with output schemes are periodically published - as in a children's book.
    They only forget to draw a swan, a crayfish and a pike with cables.
    Maybe already run something real with some prospects for use!
  16. past
    past 14 November 2016 02: 27 New
    +1
    What a circle of "skillful hands" at the Palace of Pioneers! Hastily painted models in solidarity or compass and inarticulate diagrams do not immediately add seriousness to the “project”! An epic start from a remade transporter is a separate pearl, but with the word “Skolkovo” for some reason the idea immediately arises of a team of “effective” managers who, under already taken and spent completely on wrong investments, feeling bad in the eyes of the investor, urgently they find a sophomore and this temporary participant in the “project” is the only one who honestly worked out the money spent on him in the form of a box of beer and 4 buckets with sharp wings from KFS in 2 hours.
    1. past
      past 14 November 2016 02: 31 New
      0
      Yes .. judging by the 3D chart, this is precisely a compass with minimal visualization on a weak computer ...
  17. vka
    vka 26 January 2018 06: 52 New
    0
    good ideas but impossible in our realities
    because while they hang up bureaucrats from Roskosmos on pillars they will not start !!!
  18. Guru
    Guru 9 February 2018 12: 27 New
    0
    Full blizzard! _ The clever man clearly wrote :) But answer the author, when your blizzard turns on the engines, the tail of the IL-76 does not melt! Dreamers