Military Review

War, gold and pyramids. (part two). Snofru - pyramid builder

So you got to the pyramid of Djoser, you wanted to climb it, and ... they will immediately say that it is forbidden to do just that! And you can descend into the dungeon only with a guide and with a special permission. The fact is that there are only two rooms lit up, full of nasty bats, and you will need to descend to the depth of 26 meters. On the walls of the two chambers you will see a beautiful facing and ... that's all! There is no sarcophagus in it, and it wasn’t. The most interesting things from the tomb have long been taken! The wall reliefs are in the Cairo Museum, as is the statue of Djoser herself (42-th hall of the lower floor), and in the prayer room at the pyramid there is only a copy of it, and the door trims on which Djoser’s name is written are in Berlin. True, to walk in it is useful. To see roughly processed stones, “between which even the knife blade will not pass,” as adherents of antediluvian civilizations say, cracks in the ceiling and stones hanging overhead. Everything is rude, primitive, and nothing supernatural.

The pyramid in Medum

The pyramid of Sekhemkhet, the son of Djoser, is half a kilometer from the father’s pyramid and there is an excellent book about her “The Lost Pyramid” by M. Goneim, who himself unearthed it. But even more mysterious pyramids remained to the third dynasty, to which it is very difficult to get (they are in a closed zone), and besides, they are in the desert, and far from Saqqara. There is a completely mysterious pyramid in Sale, in the eastern part of the Fayum oasis. Moreover, it is clear that they are destroyed, but still it is the pyramids. There are as many as four small pyramids in El-Kul, just 3 kilometers from the Nile. The Belgians explored them in 1946 and 1949, but ... they still couldn’t find their entrances, and what’s inside them is still a mystery. And, by the way, who has money and desire, he, quite, can do it. After all, whose they are and what is hidden under them, no one knows! And besides, there are seven of them - that's enough for everyone!

War, gold and pyramids. (part two). Snofru - pyramid builder

Mysterious pyramid in Sale. South side. It is located on the mountain between Fayoum and Nile, 6 km north of the railway that connects the cities of Vast and Fayoum. The archaeologist Ludwig Borchardt found it in 1898. In the 1987 year, near it, the ruins of the altar and two steles were found, and for some reason, one of them was the cartouche of Pharaoh Snofru. The most important thing in it is that its sides are almost exactly oriented to four sides of the world, which has not been observed before.

Well, now we say goodbye to the pyramids of Pharaoh III dynasty and drive (by speedometer, 80 km from Cairo) to the village of Medum, from which only 3 km to the most unique pyramid in Egypt - Medum. She 4600 years, but the pyramid, it has little resemblance, rather, it is the basis of some ancient ... lighthouse.

A section of the pyramid in Medum: 1 - tiers filled with sand, 2 - presumably, the last tier of the pyramid, 3 - burial chamber, 4 - part of the towering over the sand.

In fact, however, this is the first "true" in Egypt, and not a step pyramid, which was built before it. But ... only the third and fourth steps remained of her, and all her facing from her collapsed, revealing the inner core. However, under sandy sediments, it is still preserved, and it can be used to determine its size, and even the estimated height. Which, presumably, could reach 118 meters at the base of an 144 x144 meter.

The entrance to the pyramid in Medum is located in its lowest open layer, about 20 meters above the ground. It was discovered in 1882 year. There was no sarcophagus in the burial chamber, only fragments of a wooden coffin, which, according to the style of production, belonged to the Ancient Kingdom, were found. The burial chamber is located just below the top of the pyramid.

Exit out.

Moreover, it is obvious that it began to be erected as a stepped one, but then the steps were laid with stone and faced. They even found a tile on which the ancient architect depicted her drawing with three and four steps. However, a written indication of which king ordered it to be built has not been found so far. It used to be thought that it belonged to Pharaoh Snofr - the first king of the IV dynasty, but now it is believed that Pharaoh Huni was its builder - the last king of the III dynasty and, possibly, Father Snofru, and he only ordered her to finish. Why so began to consider? But the fact is that then Snofru ordered to build two more pyramids for himself (!) In Dashur, and they are very different from Medum. That is, we can say that the first stage of the evolution of the construction of the pyramids was completed on it: starting with the stepped Djoser, it ended with the first "true", although only outside, the Snofra pyramid!

The internal plan of the Medum pyramid chambers

Pay attention to the false ceiling of the chamber. It is obvious that the Egyptians did not know while to make a real vault, and arranged ceilings "ladder".

The same false arches are also found in the Mayan pyramids and temples. By the way, the work is very rough.

That's how we came to the name of this pharaoh, who played in the Egyptian "pyramid building" a very important role, but for most people completely unknown. Therefore, we first tell a little about him, and then about his pyramids.

The “Palermo Stone” (about what it is, needs to be told separately) describes Snofru (2575's rule - 2551 BC) as the ruler of the active and militant. So, hike around 2595 BC. er to Nubia, south of the 1 th threshold, allowed 4000 captives of men to be brought, more 3000 women, and in addition 200000 bulls and rams. About four or six years later, 1100 people and 13100 cattle he captured in the country Tehena, that is, in modern Libya. Xnumx sent an expedition from 40 to the Phoenician port of Byblos, and they returned with a cargo of Lebanese cedar for the construction of temples and large ships. The Sinai Peninsula was colonized, rich in copper and turquoise. There is an image of Snofru, who strikes enemies, and where he is named "The winner of the barbarians." Well, it is clear that the copper mines were of economic and political importance for Egypt, so that one of the mines was given its name; and he was considered the patron god of these lands. Simultaneously, Snofru, who ruled 24 of the year, ended up in stories Egypt is also the greatest builder, and that absolutely unique pyramids were built in his reign.

In addition to the pyramids, mastabs are located next to them in Dashur. Here is one of them # 17.

Moreover, if there are no sarcophagi in the pyramids of Snofru, then it is in mastaba No. XXUMX!

In total, the three pyramids belong to the time of his reign: the Medumskaya tomb (perhaps the cenotaph is a “false” burial, or the “completion” of what Huni began), the Southern (“broken”) pyramid in Dashur, and here, to the north her - Northern ("Pink" or "Red") pyramid.

South or "broken pyramid" and its pyramid-companion.

Egyptologists could not figure out why Snofru decided to abandon the step-shaped pyramid, and ordered to make the side faces straight. However, both of his pyramids bear the imprint of searches, which obviously is worth looking at them. The fact is that the Southern Pyramid in Dakhshur is called “broken line”, and not without reason. Unlike other pyramids of the Old Kingdom, it has two entrances - on the north side and on the west. The entrances on the north side of the pyramids were made in the era of the Old Kingdom. But why the entrance was also needed in the west? There is no sarcophagus in it, but this is exactly the Snofru pyramid, since its name was found in it, and it was also found on a stele in the fence of the pyramid-companion - a very small pyramid built next to a large one.

View of the "broken pyramid" from the north-west corner.

The angle of inclination of its faces first has 50 degrees 41 minutes, but at 45 height it “breaks” and changes the inclination to 42 degrees 59 minutes to finish work quickly. Currently, its height is equal to 100 meters, but it could be higher with the initial inclination of the walls - 125 meters! It was suggested that the pyramid at Medum and the southern pyramid at Dashur were built almost simultaneously, and when the plating collapsed at the pyramid in Medum, the angle of inclination of the sides on the pyramid at Dashura was decided to be reduced, and when it was actually half built.

Schematic plan of the "broken pyramid".

Archaeologists managed to find out that the pyramid was rebuilt three times, as indicated by the location of stone blocks in it. They wanted, apparently, to make it more durable construction, but “it turned out as always,” that is, only worse. The pressure of the stone blocks on the inner chambers increased, which caused the appearance of cracks, which could lead to a collapse.

"Pink" or "Red Pyramid" Snofru.

At the first stage, the foundation was folded and about 12,70 meters of tunnels at the entrance (descending corridor) and approximately 11,60 meters of the corridor leading upward were made. At the second stage, the builders decided to reduce the angle of inclination to 54 °, and to do this, increase the length of each side of the pyramid base by as much as 15,70 m. The base length of the updated pyramid now became 188 m. Calculations show that 54 m, its height could be 188 m, and the volume - 129,4 m³. But here, at an altitude of 1,592,718,453 meters, construction suddenly stopped.

Schematic plan of the pyramid Snofru.

At the third stage of construction, a radical change was made in the slope of the upper - unfinished part of the pyramid - it was reduced to 42 degrees 59 minutes. Accordingly, the overall height of the pyramid is now also reduced to 105 m. Why so, there are two options, and both have their supporters and opponents. The first explanation is the simplest. Pharaoh died, and his heir ordered to quickly finish the pyramid. The explanation of the second is more complicated. It was built in the same way as the step pyramid at Saqqara, but its upper parts collapsed and ... the builders changed the angle of its faces to keep the lining better! It is believed that there is more evidence in the second hypothesis, since at the base of the pyramid there are too many debris that could fall only from above, because otherwise they would simply have no place to take. Well, yes, and then the king died, and did not begin to clean them.

Entrance to the pyramid.

The northern pyramid can rightly be called the first "true" pyramid in Egypt, because ... it really is a pyramid - without steps and kinks. Why is it called pink or red? This is due to the color of stone blocks in the rays of the setting sun, acquiring either pink or red. When it was built, its walls were covered with slabs of white limestone. But then the lining of the pyramid lost. And it was on several facing blocks found near the pyramid that they found the name Snofru, written in red paint. That is, it is clearly his pyramid.

Descend into the pyramid.

The passage from the first chamber to the second.

"False" (stepped) vault, and some fools on it, of course, signed.

The height is the third (!) Pyramid in Egypt, after the pyramids of Khufu and Khafre in Giza. Its dimensions are really very large: 218,5 on 221,5 meters, and height - 14,4 m. It has a very low slope of the walls - 43 degrees 36 minutes. As if the architects were afraid that if it was "cool", then ... it would fall apart. The volume of the pyramid is 1 694 000 m³. Perhaps both pyramids were built at the same time. And the verified slope of the “pink” pyramid was later used on the construction of the upper part of the “broken pyramid”. It is possible to enter inside through the entrance on the north side, which leads down into three interconnected cameras, each of which has a height of about 17 meters. All of them are accessible to tourists, but for this you need to go to Dashur!

Here on these stairs you need to climb into the burial chamber. If there was something there and thieves got here, then imagine how they, the poor, had to work hard to get there ?!

PS: On the catcher, they say, and the beast runs. We did not have time to prepare the first material about the pyramid of Djoser, as the press reported that the Egyptian Museum in Cairo exhibits the oldest papyrus, which describe the construction of the pyramids in Giza. Today, six of the 30 papyruses found in 2013 were exhibited in the area of ​​the small town of Wadi al-Jarf on the Red Sea. All of them belong to the era of Pharaoh Cheops or Khufu, and today they are the oldest texts known to science, which describe events that took place about 4500 years ago.

The southern side of the "Pink Pyramid". It is clearly seen that the angle of inclination is “not the same”.

The director of the Egyptian Museum, Tarek Taufik, stated that these papyrues absolutely clearly prove that they were built by the most ordinary people, and not at all by “gods” from Atlantis or equally mythical “aliens”. These documents tell in detail how and from where materials were delivered to the construction site and what fed the workers.

Pyramid facing blocks (north side).

So, one of the papyrus belonged to a senior official named Merrer. From the text it is clear that he was responsible for transporting the huge blocks to the pyramid of Cheops from the quarries in the south of the Sinai Peninsula. At first they were transported by sea, and afterwards - along the Nile and the channel specially dug for this. In addition, a three-month period of work is described in the papyrus of Merrer and daily reports on the delivery of building materials to the pyramid are given. So more, in fact, you can not argue about anything. Everything fell into place.
Articles from this series:
War, gold and pyramids. (part one) What was before the pyramids?
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  1. Retvizan
    Retvizan 24 August 2016 14: 36
    It was interesting to read. I do not agree that is primitive. This is millennia ago. It is still difficult to imagine such a thing at that level of civilization. Many peoples still have a stone age.
    There are many theories of origin. But it’s all strange to use so many large structures only for the coffin.
    There is no discovery of mystery-location, accuracy in orientation. In appearance, yes - the stones are rough, of course wind, sand (abrasive), water erosion over a millennium.
    It is a pity that mankind did not preserve the Alexandria, Carthage, and Constantinople libraries.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 24 August 2016 15: 57
      So their math / geometry was seriously developed,
      astronomy, star orientation ...
      From Ancient Egypt, through Greece, science and culture flowed
      to Europe.
    2. seos
      seos 20 January 2017 23: 09
      No one knows the exact dates ... for millennia or a century ... history is not an exact science ... who will come up with how it will be
  2. inpu
    inpu 24 August 2016 14: 54
    In Joser's pyramid, interest is not so much the pyramid, but its base and details. And the fact that it seems to be qualitatively divided into three parts is noteworthy:
    1. base - large megalithic masonry with almost no gaps and no binder
    2. middle layer - the construction is similar to the debris of the first layer already with some kind of binder solution
    3. the upper part - ordinary unfired bricks with a binder.
    I fully understand those people who assume that different layers were built by different people at different times.
    1. inpu
      inpu 24 August 2016 14: 57
      In general, it could be a variant of the mastaba, which later heaped up a bunch of bricks in the form of a pyramid.
  3. sabakina
    sabakina 24 August 2016 15: 20
    This is of course interesting, but I am tormented by the question: "Why are the blades self-sharpening inside the pyramid?" I'm not being mean, but ... Just wondering.
    1. Engineer
      Engineer 24 August 2016 16: 35
      because it’s a bike, and in bikes it’s not possible
      1. sabakina
        sabakina 24 August 2016 18: 23
        Engineer, the Yankees flew to the moon. This bike is ali how?
        1. parusnik
          parusnik 24 August 2016 19: 50
          In the 70s of the last century, a book was published in the USA where the author claims that flights to the moon bike ...
  4. Damir
    Damir 24 August 2016 16: 06

    something like this....
  5. Engineer
    Engineer 24 August 2016 16: 38
    Pay attention to the false ceiling of the chamber. It is obvious that the Egyptians did not know while to make a real vault, and arranged ceilings "ladder".

    It's pretty funny to read that. "They didn't know how." Can you imagine what mass of pyramid blocks above it this false vault holds? It is gigantic, and therefore the vault is such as to hold such a mass. This is an ingenious engineering solution.
    1. kalibr
      24 August 2016 17: 23
      It's not funny for me to write that. Because later they learned to make other vaults and abandoned the "ladder". Incomplete knowledge ... wrong conclusions!
  6. Andrey Sukharev
    Andrey Sukharev 24 August 2016 17: 50
    The article is beautiful, interesting, but I would like the authors to explain how the ancient Egyptians processed granite with copper tools. Iron then did not know! Yes, another question, how did they give the surfaces of stones a complex shape?
    1. sabakina
      sabakina 24 August 2016 18: 30
      Better ask yourself how the ancient Egyptians drove the stones together so that the knife blade could not crawl through?
      1. kalibr
        24 August 2016 22: 23
        Have you seen the photo? There is not only a blade, a finger crawls through. And where it does not pass, the stones are elementary "caked" from time to time.
        1. Andrey Sukharev
          Andrey Sukharev 25 August 2016 05: 51
          What do you say, granite blocks came together from time to time? Zzz ... That's not good!
          1. VEKT
            VEKT 1 October 2016 10: 45
            Not granite, but limestone.
    2. sabakina
      sabakina 24 August 2016 18: 30
      Better ask yourself how the ancient Egyptians drove the stones together so that the knife blade could not crawl through?
      1. Andrey Sukharev
        Andrey Sukharev 25 August 2016 05: 53
        So ask this question
    3. brn521
      brn521 25 August 2016 10: 39
      Assumptions are as follows. Copper tubes reinforced with corundum sand were used as drills. Ropes covered with the same sand created the equivalent of modern diamond-rolling machines. Surface treatment - grinding using the same sand. Removing large volumes of granite - shock method using diorite balls. All sorts of things, like obscure traces in quarries, elegantly carved diorite vases and design features of a part of the pyramids - cockroaches in the heads of the pharaohs, redundancy of the gratuitous labor force and unsurpassed properties of the same corundum sand.
      1. Andrey Sukharev
        Andrey Sukharev 25 August 2016 18: 13
        Reproduce this technical process, I think some bonus is provided to you
        1. Anglorussian
          Anglorussian 25 August 2016 21: 42
          It has already been reproduced. Drilling and manufacturing of a vase is in the pipe.
  7. parusnik
    parusnik 24 August 2016 20: 06
    Another interesting thing is why the pyramids .. Where did the knowledge come from? Specifically during the construction of the first pyramids .. And the knowledge is quite high .. From whom did they take it ...? ... Closed knowledge .. Academies, schools in ancient Egypt are not particularly noticed .. Only for dedicated ... priests .. Aztecs, Mayans, Incas .. well the pyramids were built and not frail .. Pyramids in China, if it is really pyramids ..
  8. Just a man
    Just a man 24 August 2016 20: 46
    Not a connoisseur of archeology. But I'm interested in some questions. As civilizations in Egypt and South America possessed the highest knowledge in the technologies of construction, architecture, processing of materials, suddenly, all of a sudden they forgot and returned to the cultivation of plow and the construction of huts made of clay and manure. The history of the development of mankind contradicts this very seriously.
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 24 August 2016 21: 03
      But there is no contradiction .. The war .. the Aztecs, the Incas conquered, the Mayans destroyed themselves in civil wars .. Egypt was also repeatedly attacked .. The conquerors first of all destroy the knowledge and identity of the conquered people ..
    2. kalibr
      24 August 2016 22: 25
      My neighbor in the country is a crane operator. He has no knowledge. But he works on the crane and skillfully "plows" in the country. I will not be, he will also plow, and use the word "philosophers" to call "very smart".
      1. Anglorussian
        Anglorussian 25 August 2016 01: 01
        It completely possesses. I once kneaded a crane operator in a night shift — he couldn’t climb a crane on a drunken bench — it’s not at all simple.
        1. kalibr
          28 August 2016 17: 14
          He has the knowledge and skills of a crane operator!
    3. ando_bor
      ando_bor 25 August 2016 16: 29
      The climate - in the Bronze Age, civilization was very developed, then ~ 1200 years BC global climatic changes took place - in fact the whole world died, many civilizations were clean, Egypt got off easily, the Nile, although it ceased to spill, still preserved the tenth part of the population’s survival .
      By many parameters of globalization, we returned to that level only a few centuries ago, but such shocks gave an impetus to the development of technology, the collapse of the Bronze Age forced people to switch to iron, and not because it is better, the surviving fragments of civilization left without sources of bronze (breaking trade ties , some territories were completely empty) they began to experiment with iron, it was also known in the Bronze Age, there were no good and cheap technologies, and it turned out that with the availability of technology it is better and cheaper than bronze.
    4. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 25 August 2016 17: 33
      "overnight everyone forgot and returned to the cultivation of the land with a plow and
      construction of huts from clay and manure "////

      Not overnight. The civilization of Ancient Egypt lasted for a phenomenally long time - 2,5 years. It took several conquests, climate change, and spontaneous events in succession to finally "bury" it.
  9. TOPchymBA
    TOPchymBA 25 August 2016 00: 17
    [/ quote] So more, in fact, you can not argue about anything. Everything fell into place. [Quote]

    Can then explain how this was done

    This is a fragment of a quartz sarcophagus.
    1. Mestny
      Mestny 25 August 2016 02: 31
      Well then! It is obvious to any adherent of official science that with the help of diorite balls and copper chisels. But what about the internal angles? - you ask? And they will confidently answer you - they just took smaller balls. (Then obviously even less, and so on to the smallest).
      And they will proudly demonstrate to you a hole in a stone drilled by enthusiasts of academic science, similar to those in ancient stones, shouting about undeniable evidence. Naturally exclusively with copper instruments.
      It's nonsense that no traces of copper could be found on the walls of the "real" holes. None of them will take the trouble to calculate how many such "holes" need to be drilled, for example, in granite to make one sarcophagus. All this is resolutely swept aside by the number of man-hours, of which the pharaoh, as you know, had an unlimited number (obviously, there was no need to plow, sow, or defend the homeland - only stones were chopped and polished by hand).
      "Pharaoh's name is written in paint!" - the author happily narrates. "So it was this Pharaoh who built the pyramid, undoubted evidence."
      ... Not far from my house there is a building of the Savings Bank, on the side wall the inscription "Pasha". I think it is obvious to all scientists - the building belongs to Pasha.
      And in the accounting department of Stroygarant LLC there are numerous certificates and documents that a team of builders brought slate, paint and cement to the building built in 1893 for a month.
      You understand that at last we have obtained evidence - this building was built by Stroygarant LLC.
      Regarding not only the knife’s blade, but the finger’s going to crawl through, one can say the following: there are some, there are others where you really can’t put the knife’s blade in really. The quality of surface treatment is also very different.
      There are pyramids built from "gn and sticks", that is, from clay and some kind of nondescript roughly processed pebbles, feasible for two workers. And there are really masterpieces of building technologies.
      Understand, adherents of science - modern stone processing experts are well aware of the ways - from machine to primitive. And they are well aware of the time costs when using any of them. Unlike professional historians and archaeologists who know about building technologies only from books written by their same colleagues.
      Well, modern engineers cannot come up with a sound explanation of the technology necessary for mass processing of stone with the right quality for an acceptable amount of time.
      And the main question is - why? Why did people living in thatched huts build such complex structures?
      Do not offer religion. This thing can "explain" anything at all, that is, nothing.
      1. Mestny
        Mestny 25 August 2016 02: 42
        And about the fragment of stone you brought in - you can really do this with the help of primitive tools. Spend N years on this work - it will probably work. Even for sure.
        And then, over the years, take a look at the stone slab the size of two human height, remember that such excavations need to be made another 50 pieces - and quietly die from grief. Well, or entrust the remaining work to modern historians.
        So more, in fact, you can not argue about anything. Everything fell into place. - the author writes.
        So no one argues with them. There is no technology for at least an approximate dating of the surface treatment of stone. Therefore, their entire official chronology is based on reading the surviving texts - it is not known with what authenticity they are written, and with what authenticity deciphered by Egyptologists.
      2. TOPchymBA
        TOPchymBA 25 August 2016 03: 17
        Why did people living in thatched huts build such complex structures?

        Well, don't you understand the pharaoh lives for 40-60 years, and the mummy will lie for millennia. Therefore, figs with him that he will live these years in the "barn" but the mummy will lie for thousands of years in the pyramid. wassat

        P.S. I know that mummies were not found in the pyramids.
        PSS At the expense of graffiti, the language was removed, I wanted to insert the corresponding picture in my comment, but I was too lazy. Hour killed in search of the previous one.
      3. guzik007
        guzik007 25 August 2016 09: 07
        Guys, it’s quite obvious that we are being bullied. It has long been proven that the Egyptian archaeologists, the owners dictate their own rules, and based on the Koran, where it is clearly written that the Almighty created the earth 6 thousand years ago, all European scientists citing strong evidence of the more ancient origin of the pyramids are driven into the neck, declaring persona non grata. In the first article I already gave a link to the book "Forbidden History" (for some reason I got a minus). Apparently from the narrow-minded. But in vain. The book contains the most serious arguments of techies who have been engaged in stone processing technologies all their lives. In the same place, in particular, it is said about the PRECISION precision of processing some sarcophagi against the background of many primitive products. Moreover, the processing accuracy is not inferior to modern machine tools, and sometimes even surpasses them. For example, the corners of the sarcophagus in the Cheops pyramid cannot be produced using modern technologies.
        The book is written in living language, with professional argumentation, in contrast to a pile of husks that heaped bookshelves.
      4. kalibr
        28 August 2016 17: 11
        Who told you that the Egyptians lived in thatched huts?
  10. Alexander Romanov
    Alexander Romanov 25 August 2016 04: 18
    Quote: kalibr
    Have you seen the photo? There is not only a blade, a finger crawls through. And where it does not pass, the stones are elementary "caked" from time to time.

    Stone caked in time wassat Better tell. What did they process granite, expanded clay, bazanite ?? ?
    1. guzik007
      guzik007 25 August 2016 08: 51
      Better tell me. What did they process granite, expanded clay, basanite
      -------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------
      KERAMZIT? Congenially: =)))
      1. Velizariy
        Velizariy 25 August 2016 09: 01
        How was quartzite treated?
    2. Ilya77
      Ilya77 25 August 2016 10: 51
      Where did you find all this, and even more so expanded clay? Only sarcophagi were granite; the pyramids themselves were built from soft limestone.
  11. brn521
    brn521 25 August 2016 12: 10
    Quote: Ilya77
    Only sarcophagi were granite; the pyramids themselves were built from soft limestone.

    This is for the technically advanced pyramids. Granite cladding and finishing elements. The stone is not very high quality. But still, it is more difficult to process limestone. It often has a layered structure. And in some places there are perfectly molded hieroglyphs, very deep, to the entire depth of the layer. Therefore, the theory of "plaster" also looks pretty decent. For example, as a method of utilization of by-products of shardiorite mining of stone blocks.
    1. Andrey Sukharev
      Andrey Sukharev 25 August 2016 18: 18
      Oh, these theorists ...
  12. Sreben
    Sreben 25 August 2016 12: 10
    At that time, people knew a lot, or they were other people (gods, aliens, or people themselves were aliens), which among us are no longer there. Lost knowledge and skills and maybe a tool? And if all this was done only by the power of thought? All these are rhetorical questions to which we are unlikely to find answers, at least not now. And such mysteries of the past are full throughout the earth.
  13. Andrey Sukharev
    Andrey Sukharev 26 August 2016 05: 45
    Quote: Anglorussian
    It has already been reproduced. Drilling and manufacturing of a vase is in the pipe.

    uh, no dear comrade! mass production took place in the pyramids. it was necessary not only to make a stone with a curved pattern, it was necessary to reproduce it in hundreds of exact copies! moreover, very quickly, like on a conveyor belt.
  14. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 28 August 2016 22: 22
    The article is of course written beautiful and interesting. I personally respect the authors as professional scientists with extensive experience. But as the saying goes, "Socrates is my friend - but the truth is dearer!" and therefore I want to ask the authors a number of questions:

    1). Official Egyptology for 200 years "on a blue eye" claims that during the life (!!!) of Pharaoh Sneferu, as many as three giant pyramids were built, EACH in scale of which is comparable to the pyramid of Cheops. Do you think THIS SCALE OF CONSTRUCTION WORKS is real for 3500 years ago?

    2). How can one explain the presence of two or four layers on some ancient Egyptian structures, VERY VARIOUS by APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES, and almost everywhere the most primitive ones - from above, inside (where there should be traces of the work of stupid savages) - there is often impeccable stone work.

    3). How can one explain the traces of MACHINING that remained on the stones of ancient Egyptian monuments? and how can one explain the unprecedented technological level of stone processing in Egypt that was lost?

    Here's an example - the ancient Egyptian temple in Sahur, supposedly carved by diorite balls and copper chisels, a heel for the gate is an absolute unity of style and the highest quality of machining is pink and gray GRANITE (by the way having different densities).
  15. AKKUL
    AKKUL 2 November 2016 22: 09
    We know that in fact we absolutely do not know anything.
  16. Evgenijus
    Evgenijus 22 December 2016 16: 44
    Very interesting stuff, thanks to the author!
    In one of the pyramids at Giza, I was. I went down, there was no breath, there was no ventilation. They crawled down confidently, but barely managed to get out on half-bent upwards. Zareks - more in these graves or foot!
  17. Farhat
    Farhat 29 June 2017 17: 48
    In fact, the pyramids are the ancient defensive structures of the pharaohs, there used to be mastaba. Shelter of the pharaoh, his family was a prerequisite for the development of the country, its integrity, there were many reasons. Even now, the supreme leaders of the shelter are required.
    This explains many hitherto incomprehensible moments. For example, why did Snofr and other leaders need to have several crypts and not be buried in any of them, why they built pyramids not far from the places of the kings, for which traps, labyrinths, long-term food up to the granaries, numerous jugs, etc. By all criteria, the pyramid is a 100% fortress. This is a stronghold for the pharaoh and loved ones - passive defense with a hidden entrance is not deaf, but reusable, and the mandatory walls are 10 meters high and 3 wide - active defense of the garrison, militia and personal guard until the main forces approach. Not a single mummy of the pharaoh was found in a hundred pyramids because they were buried only in hidden places (the valley of kings, etc.) The sarcophagi in the citadel were intended for the burial of the pharaoh during forced death during a long siege, but in none of them not a single ruler. Yes, and just silly to make such a crypt is not clear why. And the ancestors and descendants managed without pyramids perfectly. Yes, and the people would overthrow such arrogant rulers unambiguously, numerous uprisings on various occasions do not give any doubt. They stopped building the pyramids for a simple reason: the enemies have now become more numerous and the sudden raids were no longer limited, they didn’t come for a short time until the pharaoh’s army returned (there was nothing for it to do in the capital, it should contain itself, capturing neighboring countries, suppressing uprisings, etc. .p), but forever. In this case, no fortress will fulfill its function. Therefore, after the Hyksos, the need for them disappeared. All the mysteries of the Cheops pyramid are also explained by defense and construction technology. Other numerous megaliths also belong to the defensive structures of the ancients without a doubt. Dozens of evidence on my forum