Tactical missile system 9K52 "Luna-M"

15
In 1960, the tactical missile system 2K6 "Luna" was adopted for armament of the rocket troops and artillery. It differed from its predecessors by its high performance, and was also built in a large series, which made it possible to transfer several hundred complexes to the troops. Soon after the adoption of the new model, it was decided to begin the development of the next modification of the missile system. The new project received the designation 9K52 "Luna-M".

A decree of the USSR Council of Ministers on the development of a promising missile system, which is a further development of the existing systems, was issued in mid-March 1961. The development of the project as a whole was entrusted to NII-1 (now the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering), who had experience in creating tactical missile systems. The technical assignment stipulated the development of a single-stage ballistic missile without control systems capable of hitting targets at ranges up to 65 km. It was necessary to take into account the possibility of using combat units of several types. Also it was necessary to develop two versions of the self-propelled launcher with different types of chassis and, as a consequence, different characteristics.

The main objective of the project, which received the designation "Luna-M", was to increase the basic tactical and technical characteristics in comparison with the existing technology. In addition, it was proposed by some means or other to improve the operational characteristics of the complex, as well as to reduce its composition. Thus, the 9P113 wheeled self-propelled launcher was proposed to be equipped with its own crane for working with missiles. This made it possible not to include in the rocket complex a transport-charging vehicle or a self-propelled crane, having managed only by relatively simple transporters. Some other ideas and solutions aimed at improving the general characteristics were also proposed.

Tactical missile system 9K52 "Luna-M"
Preparing complex 9K52 "Luna-M" to launch a rocket. Photo Rbase.new-factoria.ru


During the design work, employees of several organizations of the defense industry developed several variants of the launcher at once. However, not all of them reached the serial production and operation in the army. Initially, self-propelled units were created on a wheeled and tracked chassis, and later more ambitious proposals appeared, such as a lightweight system suitable for transportation aviation.

Through the efforts of several enterprises responsible for the supply of certain units, a self-propelled launcher 9P113 was developed. The basis for this machine was the four-wheeled chassis ZIL-135LM. The chassis had a 8 x8 wheel formula with steered front and rear wheels. Used two engines ZIL-357Я power 180 hp The car had two sets of transmissions, each of which was responsible for transmitting engine torque to the wheels of its side. There was an independent torsion bar suspension with additional hydraulic shock absorbers on the front and rear axles. With its own mass 10,5 t chassis ZIL-135LM could carry 10-ton cargo.

A set of special units was mounted on the chassis cargo area. Provision was made for mounting the launcher, crane, etc. In addition, a stabilization system was developed in the form of four screw jacks. A pair of such devices was placed behind the front wheels, two more - on the back of the car. Due to the limited sector of horizontal guidance, the crew cabin received windshield protection.


Scheme self-propelled launcher 9P113. 1 - crew cabin; 2 - rocket; 3 - jack; 4 - ladder; 5 - box with equipment; 6 - engine compartment; 7 - crane boom; 8 - platform for calculation when loading a rocket; 9 is a platform for calculating on hover. Figure Shirokorad AB "Domestic mortars and rocket artillery"


Above the rear axle of the chassis, it was proposed to mount a slewing support device for the rocket. It was made in the form of a platform with the ability to rotate in a horizontal plane at a small angle. On the platform, a swinging unit was hinged, the main part of which was the beam guide for the rocket. The length of the guide was 9,97 m. It was possible to rotate in the horizontal plane by 7 ° to the right and left of the neutral position. The vertical pointing angle varied from + 15 ° to + 65 °.

On the right side of the chassis, behind the third axle of the chassis, was placed the turntable of a crane. Even at the stage of preliminary study of the appearance of the missile complex, it was proposed to abandon the use of the transport-charging vehicle in favor of a simpler transport one. In accordance with this proposal, the loading of the missiles on the launcher was to be carried out by the own crane of the combat vehicle. Because of this, the 9P113 machine received a crane with hydraulic actuators. The load capacity of this device reached 2,6 t. Control was exercised from the console located next to the crane itself.

The length of the self-propelled launcher 9P113 was 10,7 m, width - 2,8 m, height with a rocket - 3,35 m. The own weight of the machine was 14,89 kg. After loading the launcher, this parameter increased to 17,56 T. The wheeled combat vehicle could reach speeds of up to 60 km / h on the highway. On rough terrain, the maximum speed was limited to 40 km / h. Power reserve - 650 km. An important feature of the wheel chassis was the softness of the course. Unlike tracked vehicles of previous missile systems, 9P113 did not create excessive overloads that affected the rocket being transported and limited the speed of travel. Among other things, it allowed in practice to realize all the possibilities associated with the characteristics of mobility.


9P113 machine in the stowed position. Photo Rbase.new-factoria.ru


As in previous projects, ballistic missiles should not have control systems. For this reason, the self-propelled launcher received a set of equipment necessary to perform the crosstalk. With the help of onboard equipment, the crew had to determine its own location, as well as calculate the pointing angles of the launcher. Most of the operations to prepare the machine for shooting was carried out using the remote.

To manage the machine 9P113 was a crew of five. On the march the crew was in the cockpit, in preparation for shooting or reloading the launcher - in their workplaces. Preparing for launch after arriving at the firing position required 10 minutes. Overloading the rocket from the transport vehicle to the launcher required an 1 hour.

Until a certain time, the possibility of creating a self-propelled launcher based on a caterpillar chassis for the 9K52 Luna-M complex was considered. A similar machine, which received the designation Br-237 and 9P112, was developed by the Volgograd plant "Barricades". The project provided for the use of a chassis borrowed from a floating tank PT-76 and recycled accordingly. At the site of the combat and engine compartment of the tank, it was proposed to place a roof of low height, on which the systems for mounting the launcher were located. The design of the latter was similar to that used in the project 9P113. The development of the tracked combat vehicle project continued until 1964. After that, the prototype was tested at the training ground, where it could not show noticeable advantages over alternative developments. As a result, work on the Br-237 / 9P112 was curtailed due to the lack of prospects.


Launcher in combat position. Photo of Wikimedia Commons


Another interesting carrier of Luna-M rockets was supposed to be the 9PXNNXX light machine. This project proposed to use a light biaxial chassis with a set of necessary equipment. Such architecture of the launcher allowed the 114P9 object to be transported by existing types of helicopters. Due to significant differences from the base system, the complex based on the 114P9 launcher received its own designation 114K9 "Luna-MV". In the future, this system even managed to reach trial operation.

To collaborate with 9P113, the 9Т29 transport vehicle was developed. It was based on the chassis ZIL-135LM and had a fairly simple equipment necessary to perform its main task. On the cargo platform of the chassis there was a farm with bindings for the transport of three missiles with mounted warheads. The missiles were located on the bindings openly, but if necessary, could be closed with an awning. Due to the presence of a crane on a machine with a launcher, it was decided to abandon the use of such devices as part of 9Т29. The vehicle was driven by a crew of two.

It was proposed to control the operation of the 9K52 rocket complexes "Luna-M" with the help of the mobile command post 1В111. It was a box body with a set of communications equipment, mounted on one of the serial car chassis. Characteristics allowed the command post to move along the roads and off-road with other equipment of the complex.


Tracked self-propelled launcher Br-237 / 9П112. Figure Shirokorad AB "Domestic mortars and rocket artillery"


Weapon complex "Luna-M" was supposed to be a solid single-stage unguided ballistic missile 9М21. The project proposed the use of a unified rocket unit, to which the head units with combat equipment of several types could be docked. Unlike the missiles of the previous complexes, products with different types of warheads were considered modifications of the base rocket and were given corresponding designations.

The early modifications 9М21 rockets had a length of 8,96 m with a case diameter of 544 mm and a span of the stabilizer 1,7 m. A cylindrical body of large elongation with a conical head fairing and an X-shaped tail stabilizer was used. The rocket was divided into three main parts: the head with the warhead, the engine compartment of rotation, and the main engine. It was also envisaged the use of a starting engine, discharged after the departure from the guide.

All rocket engines used solid fuel with a total weight of 1080 kg. With the help of the starting engine, it was proposed to carry out the initial acceleration of the rocket, after which the sustainer was engaged. In addition, immediately after the descent from the guide, the rotation engine was turned on, the task of which was to spin the product around its axis. This engine had a central cylindrical combustion chamber and four exhaust pipes placed on the housing at an angle to the axis of the product. After the rotation of the engine fuel, stabilization was carried out using tail stabilizers.


Transport machine 9Т29. Photo of Wikimedia Commons


For the 9М21 rocket, several types of warheads with various types of equipment were developed. Continuing the development of ideas embodied in previous projects, the authors of the project created modifications of the rocket with the designations 9М21Б and 9М21Б1, equipped with nuclear warheads. It was proposed to undermine the explosion at a given height using a radio altimeter. The power of the explosion reached 250 kt.

The 9М21Ф rocket received a high-explosive-cumulative warhead with a 200-kg charge. Such a product made it possible to hit the enemy's manpower and equipment with a shock wave and splinters. In addition, the cumulative jet could pierce concrete fortifications. The 9M21F rocket received a high-explosive fragmentation warhead, and the 9M21K was carrying cluster equipment with fragmentation submunitions. There was an 42 element with 1,7 kg of explosive in each.

Agitation, chemical and several training combat units were also developed. For storage and transportation, the head parts of 9М21 missiles of all modifications were completed with special containers. In addition, special combat units after loading the rocket on the launcher had to be closed with special covers with a temperature control system.


Museum sample 9Т29, view from a different angle. Photo of Wikimedia Commons


Depending on the type of the head part, the length of the rocket could increase to 9,4 m. The mass of ammunition varied from 2432 to 2486 kg. The weight of the head parts ranged from 420 to 457 kg. The existing solid-fuel engine allowed the rocket to reach speeds of up to 1200 m / s, depending on the starting weight and the type of the warhead. The minimum shooting distance with such flight parameters was 12 km, the maximum - 65 km. QUO at the maximum range reached 2 km.

By the end of the sixties, during the development of the Luna-M complex, the 9М21-1 rocket was created. It differed a different body design with less weight. In addition, several other features have been improved. Despite all the changes, the product retained full compatibility with existing warheads.

Extensive experience in creating unguided missiles allowed NII-1 to complete the design of the main components of a promising complex in just a few months. Already in December 1961, the first launch of a prototype of the 9М21 rocket with a weight simulator of a warhead took place. In these tests, due to the lack of the required technology, a stationary launcher was used. Self-propelled machinery with the required equipment appeared only in the 1964 year, when it passed its first tests. According to the results of the first inspections, it was decided to abandon the further development of the tracked armored vehicle in favor of the wheeled 9P113. In addition, the tests led to the approval of the project 9K53 with the subsequent acceptance of such equipment in trial operation.


Self-propelled launcher 9P114, developed for the complex 9K53 "Luna-MV". Photo Militaryrussia.ru


The absence of serious problems during the tests allowed us to quickly complete all the necessary checks. In 1964, the newest tactical missile system 9K52 "Luna-M" was recommended for use, and soon this recommendation was consolidated by official order. Soon the mass production of complexes was launched, to which several different enterprises were attracted. For example, the ZIL-135LM chassis produced the Bryansk Automobile Plant, and the special equipment was made by the Barrikady enterprise. The latter also carried out the final assembly of self-propelled vehicles.

The organizational structure of the units, armed with new type of complexes, was defined as follows. Two launchers 9P113 and one transport machine 9Т29 boiled down to a battery. Two batteries made up the division. In different periods of operation, the batteries of the Luna-M complexes were distributed between tank and motorized rifle divisions. Interestingly, in the early stages of operation, rocket troops lacked transport vehicles. Because of this, rockets were transported on existing semi-trailers created for the previous complexes.

In 1966, the Council of Ministers decision appeared, in accordance with which the development of the 9K52М Luna-3 project was started. The main objective of this project was to improve the accuracy of shooting. The fulfillment of the task was to be carried out with the help of special deflectable aerodynamic plates. According to calculations, such equipment made it possible to bring the QUO to 500 m. In addition, by increasing the stock of fuel and some other systems, it was proposed to bring the firing range to 75 km. Some changes to the rocket design, in comparison with the base 9М21, have led to the need to upgrade the launcher. The result of this work was the appearance of the 9P113М combat vehicle, capable of using missiles of all existing types.


Complex "Luna-M" in the army. Photo of Wikimedia Commons


In 1968, the testing of the renewed Luna-3 complex began. Almost 50 new missile launches were carried out, which did not show the required accuracy characteristics. In some cases, the deviation from the target exceeded several kilometers. According to the test results, the further development of the 9K52М Luna-3 complex was discontinued. At the same time, work began on promising systems with guided missiles. In the future, this led to the emergence of the Tochka complex, which uses missiles with a complete guidance system based on inertial equipment.

In 1968, the Soviet industry mastered the production of a modification of the missile complex intended for deliveries to foreign countries. The 9K52TS complex (“tropical, dry”) had some differences related to the intended operating conditions. In addition, he could not use 9М21 missiles with special combat units. Only high-explosive fragmentation warheads were allowed for sale abroad.

The serial production of Luna-M tactical missile systems began in 1964 and lasted until 1972. According to domestic sources, a total of troops received about 500 self-propelled launchers and a corresponding number of transport vehicles. According to foreign data, by the mid-eighties (that is, a decade and a half after the completion of production), the Soviet Union had 750 launchers 9P113. Probably, foreign assessments were noticeably overestimated for one reason or another.


The launch of the rocket 9М21. Photo Militaryrussia.ru


Not earlier than the beginning of the seventies, Luna-M missile systems began to be delivered to foreign customers. For a long time, similar equipment in various quantities was transferred to Algeria, Afghanistan, Yemen, North Korea, Egypt, Iraq, Poland, Romania and other friendly states. In most cases, deliveries did not exceed 15-20 machines, but some contracts involved the delivery of a larger number of equipment. For example, Libya had up to 48 launchers of the 9K52TS complex, and Poland had 52 machines.

For several decades of operation, missile systems of some states took part in various military operations. Interestingly, Soviet rocket forces and artillery used only one 9М21 rocket in a combat situation - in 1988 in Afghanistan. The use of rockets by other armies was noticeably larger, but a limited number of vehicles did not allow for any outstanding results.

Due to complete moral obsolescence, tactical missile systems with unguided weapons are gradually being decommissioned. For example, by the beginning of the current decade, no more than 16 launchers "Luna-M" remained in the Russian armed forces. Some other countries, primarily European ones, have by now completely abandoned obsolete weapons and have written off them as superfluous. Now the main operators of such technology remain countries that are unable to fully re-equip their rocket forces.


Iraqi machines 9P113 complex 9K52TS, abandoned during the retreat. 24 April 2003 g. Photo by Wikimedia Commons


Already in the second half of the seventies, Soviet missile forces and artillery began to master the latest operational-tactical missile systems "Tochka", equipped with guided weapons. Such equipment had great advantages over all previously developed systems, because of which their further operation had no meaning. The Soviet Union began rearmament, gradually abandoning unguided missile systems. Tactical missile system 9K52 "Luna-M" was the last domestic production system of this class, using unguided missiles. In addition, he stayed in stories as the most massive of such a complex, as well as the most successful model of equipment in terms of export volumes.

Even without taking into account the mass production, export performance and duration of service, the Luna-M complex can be considered the most successful domestic development of its class. Having gained considerable experience in the creation of unguided rockets with a range of up to several tens of kilometers, as well as self-propelled vehicles for their use, Soviet designers were able to obtain the highest possible characteristics. However, further attempts to improve equipment and weapons did not yield the expected results, which led to the start of work on guided missiles. However, after the start of deliveries of new systems, the 9K52 "Luna-M" systems retained their place in the military and helped maintain combat capability at the required level.


Based on:
http://rbase.new-factoria.ru/
http://kap-yar.ru/
https://drive2.ru/
http://militaryrussia.ru/blog/topic-192.html
Shirokorad A.B. Atomic ram of the twentieth century. - M., Veche, 2005.
Shirokorad A.B. Domestic mortars and rocket artillery. - Mn., Harvest, 2000.
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  1. 0
    August 19 2016
    Net weight of the car was 14,89 kg.

    Probably tons?
    1. +1
      August 20 2016
      It’s a pity that they didn’t write anything about military use.
  2. PKK
    +6
    August 19 2016
    The complex is very competent and respects. It’s easier to serve such a technique. The cabin is spacious, and the crew in five calculation numbers, allowed in minutes of calm to spread preference. The main game of officers of that time.
    During conflicts, the presence of such a rocket in the enemy, forced the enemies to look into the sky with longing. Could fly to any place, regardless of the desire of those launching.
    The operation of the complex is not difficult. But due to the lack of equipment, alcohol did not stand out on the schedule. For this reason, the rocket men kept their health for a long time.
  3. +5
    August 19 2016
    In addition to the above, 16 solid-propellant launch boosters are installed on the rocket around the main nozzle of the engine. Also, depending on the launch range and air temperature, the diameter of the critical section of the marching RD nozzle was varied with the help of insert sleeves from the spare part of the rocket.
  4. +7
    August 19 2016
    My father served for this after school in 67-69 (driver, part of 20115 Ostrogozhsk; by the way, almost at home - only 70 km). After training, he was transferred to Hungary, although his father (my grandfather) was in captivity throughout the war (he fell near Smolensk) - according to his words, then this was very strictly followed. They moved a lot around the country and there were a lot of exercises. The biggest shock was when, after the march, the command came: "Dig in" .. And this fool is not so small. Then they brought in some kind of equipment and buried in 10 minutes. When turning, the rear part of the car skidded quite strongly, there was an incident in Budapest (!!!): he knocked down a "major" on a moped while turning. Too that greyhound and close was driving next to the column, though there were no penalties ... just thrown back with a blow and did not move. The combat units were kept separately, they were greatly feared, the major was in charge of them, who was also afraid. Just about the missiles ... my father told me that they were fueled. They threw a gopher (fanatics) into a bucket with an oxidizer, from which only wool remained on the surface. I don't know how to comment on this, the article says that the rockets are solid-fuel. After the start-up, the installation was badly burned. Most of all in his stories I did not like (and do not like) the fact that all the exercises were aimed at practicing the exit to the launch area, launch support, launch (roughly if). And that's all. To my question: "And then what? Departure routes, how, where, disinfection, etc." he did not give an answer. I understand that the driver may not have to know this, but indirectly it was possible to understand by working out the activities in the exercises. They were disposable.
    In the photo batino certificate.
  5. +10
    August 19 2016
    Quote: Dim Bes
    That's just about missiles .. father told me that they were being refueled. In a bucket with an oxidizing agent they threw a ground squirrel (fanatic), from which only wool on the surface remained. I do not know how to comment on this, the article says that rockets are solid fuel. After start-up, the unit was badly burned.

    Your father served in another complex. Most likely RK 9K72, with a missile 8K14. This rocket is liquid, 70 * / was used as an oxidizing agent. Nitric acid. The launcher after starting did not burn, the soot was covered with soot, as the start was vertical. After the first launch, it was possible to produce a second one by loading another rocket.
    Most of all in his stories I did not like (and do not like) the fact that all the exercises were to work out the exit to the launch area, ensure launch, launch (roughly if).

    In time to leave the position after launch, a necessary condition for completing a combat mission. Otherwise, you can catch a healthy answer from the enemy.
  6. 0
    August 19 2016
    Nice complex of its time. I still remember my combat work.
    By the way, the 20115 training is still alive.
    And the fact that he knocked someone down when turning is not surprising. The front and rear axles are steerable; when turning, the rear is not so weak. That is why it is difficult to drive the ZIL-135 faster than 60 km / h - on the road it starts to "swing" from side to side and you can catch it only by slowing down. The car could go on one engine - turn off the transfer case of the corresponding side and forward. Sluggish, of course, but rides. The cabin heater is akhtung, like on a Zaporozhets, you start it up and keep a fire extinguisher ready.
    1. 0
      August 19 2016
      I don’t know how with the heater, I didn’t try to start it, but I almost burned the car once. They served them once every six months, they stood in the underground hangar for storage. Ancient and girly. It was in the 91st, TurkVO. The service consisted only of starting the engines.
      As usual, he got to the gas pump, pumped up and forward. Wound up fine. I drove one and a half to two minutes, off the beaten path. I listen, some noise behind the cab. I climbed out, and there the engine burns from my side, and next to the gas tank. I smell gasoline. I'm confused. Fortunately, an officer was nearby, he quickly realized, in general they quickly fell asleep with sand.
      Surprisingly, of course, but only the wires at the switch burned out and something else on the little things.
      The reason, I think, was a gas leak somewhere. Shorted up, etc.
      But the point then repaired.
      Then he only realized what could happen.
      There were about 10 cars in the hangar.
  7. +2
    August 19 2016
    The Chinese fussed))
  8. 0
    August 19 2016
    Quote: Yutas
    The front and rear axles are steerable; when turning, the rear is not so weak. That is why it is difficult to drive the ZIL-135 faster than 60 km / h - on the road it starts to "swing" from side to side and you can catch it only by slowing down.

    You write nonsense, there are no axles there, there are final drives like BTR. Butt does not take anywhere. Manageability in the corners is excellent, just because the front and rear pairs of wheels are turned, and begins to swing due to uneven pressure in the wheels. Bad you know the mathematical part.
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. The comment was deleted.
  11. +1
    August 19 2016
    The article is large, interesting, but it’s a pity that it does not tell anything new.
    The 9P113 was to be driven by a crew of five.

    The 9P113 was to be driven by a crew of five.
    The driver must drive the machine.
    And sort it out when writing an article with narrative timing (future or present). And then "it was supposed to be done", "it was proposed to establish." Was it envisaged, or was it done? Suggested or installed. I'm not nagging, just very striking.
  12. The comment was deleted.
  13. +1
    August 21 2016
    What kind of defeat of a protected target by a cumulative jet can we talk about if the CVO is about 2 km? Maybe I don’t understand something?
  14. 0
    21 September 2017
    1979-81 g, Tiraspol, MSD, Luna-M, RF 4882, computer. sergeant co. .. Estimated range under 100 km, estimated deviation up to 25 meters (as is)
    Funny on demobilization - watched the "guts" of the computer calculating the size of a large TV. All on the MP-41. 5 minutes to enter and calculate start data))
    Manually on the tables duplication of the calculation of the data of 2 calculators. The standard is 10 minutes. The data for three must match. 250 ct is not khukh-mukhra. And confusing the sign is possible in your own way ...
    I achieved the calculation speed manually less than 5 minutes, faster than a computer)). Redid the calculation tables and simplified the use of the table book. Simplified calculations and improved accuracy. (service after Univer, terphysicist)) The 81th division fired at Kapyar the best in the SA. Computers are the best in speed in CA))
  15. 0
    29 2018 June
    Quote: Megatron
    It’s a pity that they didn’t write anything about military use.

    Applied and very intensively. Especially in Afghanistan. There, one rocket launcher wrote that 9K52 Dushman complexes were destroyed from the 2K6 complex ..
  16. 0
    January 23 2019
    and how many "armchair" specialists are there!?!? laughing
    1. buildup due to "uneven wheel inflation" !!! - SUPER thought !!!
    Where have you seen this, so that wheeled cranes were closed in a combat vehicle (BM)?!?!?! With wheeled cranes open (as expected), the pressure in all the wheels (in the system) is EQUAL!
    In real life, you are shown a point on the map (the OP area is the firing position or NP is the observation point). You go there, and there is a wetland or everything is covered with snow by 50-100 cm. How long will you take the OP or NP with closed wheel cranes ??? It will take about 30 seconds to open one tap. 30 x 8 = 4 minutes per car. + about 1 minute to release pressure. TOTAL - FIVE minutes. You just do not complete the task!
    2. The ZIL-135LM swing occurs due to the fact that the 2nd and 3rd pair of wheels are fixed on the frame STRONGLY (not sprung), and the 1st and 4th SPRING are turned and rotate !!! That's all SWINGS ... lol
    3. And this generally finished me off ... "there are no axles there (ZIL-135LM), there are final drives like the armored personnel carrier" - author: Good. and even the advice "learn materiel" ... am
    About ZIL135LM everything is true, but about the armored personnel carrier ....
    On the BTR-60PB, the right engine is responsible for the operation of the first and third bridges, and the left - for the operation of the second and fourth. It is possible to turn off one of the engines and move only due to the work of the second. Link: https://comp-pro.ru/boevye-mashiny/btr-60.html
    4. Thanks to Alex Bur for his creative approach to business while serving in CA !!!

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