Domestic means of early missile warning. 2-Part I

Domestic means of early missile warning. 2-Part I



In addition to the over-horizon and trans-horizon radars, the Soviet early-warning system used a space component based on artificial earth satellites (AES). This made it possible to significantly increase the reliability of information and detect ballistic missiles almost immediately after launch. In 1980, the early detection system for launching an ICBM (“Eye” system) began to function, consisting of four US-K satellites (Unified Control System) in high-elliptical orbits and the Central Ground Command Center (CCP) in Serpukhov-15 near Moscow (garrison Kurilovo ”), also known as“ Western KP ”. Information from satellites arrived at parabolic antennas, covered with large radiotransparent domes, multi-tone antennas continuously monitored the constellation of SPRN satellites in highly elliptical and geostationary orbits.



The apogees of the high-elliptical orbit of the US-K satellite were located over the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. This made it possible to observe the basing areas of American ICBMs on both daily turns and at the same time maintain a direct connection with the command post near Moscow or in the Far East. To reduce the illumination by radiation reflected from the Earth and clouds, the satellites did not observe a vertical downward, but at an angle. One satellite could have monitored for 6 hours, for around-the-clock work in orbit there should have been at least four spacecraft. To ensure reliable and reliable observation of the satellite constellation, nine devices had to be - this achieved the necessary duplication in the event of premature satellite failure, and also allowed two or three satellites to be observed simultaneously, which reduced the likelihood of false alarms. And such cases have happened: it is known that 26 September 1983, the system issued a false alarm about a rocket attack, it was the result of the reflection of sunlight from the clouds. Fortunately, the duty shift command center acted professionally, and the signal after analyzing all the circumstances was found to be false. A satellite constellation of nine satellites, which provides simultaneous observation of several satellites and, as a result, high reliability of information, began to function in the 1987 year.


Antenna complex "Western KP"


The Oko system was officially put into service in the 1982 year, and since 1984, another satellite in the geostationary orbit has begun its operation. The US-KS spacecraft (“Oko-S”) was a modified US-K satellite intended for operation in a geostationary orbit. The satellites of this modification were placed at the point of standing at 24 ° west longitude, providing observation of the central part of the US territory at the edge of the visible disk of the earth's surface. The satellites located in the geostationary orbit have a significant advantage - they do not change their position relative to the earth's surface and are able to provide duplication of data obtained from a constellation of satellites in highly elliptical orbits. In addition to controlling the continental US, the Soviet satellite-based satellite control system provided monitoring of combat patrol areas of American SSBNs in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.



In addition to the "Western KP" in the Moscow region, in the 40 km south of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, on the shore of Lake Hummi, was built "Eastern KP" ("Gaiter-1"). Continuous processing of information received from spacecraft was carried out at the SPRN CP in the central part of the country and in the Far East, followed by its transfer to the Main Missile Attack Warning Center (RNP) located not far from the village of Timonovo in the Solnechnogorsk district of the Moscow Region (Solnechnogorsk- 7 ”).


Google Earth Snapshot: Oriental KP


In contrast to the “Western KP”, which is more dispersed in the terrain, the object in the Far East is much more compact, seven parabolic antennas under the radio-transparent domes of white color lined up in two rows. Interestingly, the receiving antennas of the Duga over-the-horizon radar, which is also part of the EWS, were located nearby. In general, in the 80-s in the vicinity of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, an unprecedented concentration of military units and formations was observed. A large Far Eastern military-industrial center and parts and formations deployed in the area protected the 8 air defense corps from air strikes.

After the Oko system was put on combat duty, work began on the creation of its improved version. This was due to the need to detect launching missiles not only from the continental territory of the United States, but also from the rest of the globe. The deployment of the USO-KMO system (Unified Sea and Oceans Control System) “Oko-1” with satellites in geostationary orbit began in February 1991 in the Soviet Union with the launch of the second-generation spacecraft, and it was already adopted by the Russian armed forces in 1996 year. A distinctive feature of the "Eye-1" system was the use of vertical observation of the launch of rockets against the background of the earth's surface, this makes it possible not only to record the fact of a missile launch, but also to determine the direction of their flight. For this purpose, the satellite 71X6 (US-KMO) is equipped with an infrared telescope with a mirror with a diameter of 1 m and a solar protective screen of size 4,5 m.



The full constellation of satellites should have included seven satellites in geostationary orbits and four satellites in high elliptical orbits. All of them, regardless of the orbit, are capable of detecting launches of ICBMs and SLBMs against the background of the earth’s surface and cloud cover. The launch of satellites into orbit was carried out by the Proton-K launch vehicle from the Baikonur cosmodrome.

It was not possible to implement all the plans to build the orbital constellation of the SPRN, only 1991 US-KMO devices were launched from 2012 to 8. By the middle of 2014, there were two 73Д6 units in the limited working system that could work only a few hours a day. But in January, 2015, they also failed. The reason for this situation was the low reliability of the onboard equipment, instead of the planned 5-7 years of active work, the service life of the satellites was 2-3 of the year. The most offensive is that the elimination of the Russian satellite group warning of a rocket attack did not occur during the Gorbachev “perestroika” or Yeltsin “troubled times”, but in the well-fed years of “rebirth” and “rise from the knees” when huge funds were spent on carrying out “image events” ". From the beginning of 2015, our missile attack warning system relies only on over-the-counter radar, which, of course, shortens the time it takes to make a retaliatory strike.

Unfortunately, with the ground part of the satellite warning system, too, everything was not smooth. 10 May 2001 of the year a fire broke out at the central control center in the Moscow region, while the building and ground communications and control equipment were seriously affected. According to some reports, the direct damage from the fire amounted to 2 billion rubles. Due to the ignition on the 12 watch, communication with the Russian EWS satellites was lost.

In the second half of 90's, a group of “foreign inspectors” was admitted to a completely secret Soviet-era facility near Komsomolsk-on-Amur as a demonstration of “openness” and a “goodwill gesture”. At the same time, especially for the arrival of "guests" at the entrance to the "East KP" hung a sign "Center for tracking space objects," which still hangs.

At the moment, the future of the satellite constellation of the Russian ESPN is uncertain So, at the "Eastern KP" most of the equipment removed from work and mothballed. About half of the military and civilian specialists involved in the operation and maintenance of Vostochny KP, the processing and retransmission of data were reduced, and the infrastructure of the Far Eastern control center began to deteriorate.


Facilities "Eastern KP", photo author


According to information published in the media, the system “Oko-1” should be replaced by the satellite “Unified space system” (CEN). Created in Russia, the CEN satellite system is functionally largely analogous to the American SBIRS. In addition to 14F142 Tundra, which monitor missile launches and calculate trajectories, the CEN should also include satellites of the Liana satellite navigation system and target designation, devices of the optical-electronic and radar reconnaissance system and geodetic satellite system.

The launch of the Tundra satellite into a high elliptical orbit was originally planned for the middle of 2015, but later the launch was postponed to November of 2015. The launch of the device, which received the designation "Cosmos-2510", was performed from the Russian Plesetsk cosmodrome using the Soyuz-2.1b launch vehicle. The only satellite in orbit, of course, is not capable of providing a full early warning of a rocket attack, and serves mainly to prepare and tune ground equipment, training and calculation training.

At the beginning of the 70-s in the USSR, work began on the creation of an effective missile defense system for the city of Moscow, which was to ensure the defense of the city from single warheads. Among other technical innovations was the introduction into the composition of the antimissile system of radar stations with fixed multi-element phased antenna arrays. This made it possible to review (scan) the space in the wide-angle sector in the azimuthal and vertical planes. Prior to construction in the Moscow region, an experienced truncated sample of the Don-2NP station was built and tested at the Sary-Shagan test site.

The central and most complex element of the A-135 PRO system has become the radar station Don-2Н, operating in the centimeter range. This radar is a truncated pyramid with a height of about 35 meters with a side length of about 140 meters at the base and about 100 m on the roof. In each of the four faces there are stationary large-aperture active phased antenna arrays (receiving and transmitting), providing a circular view. The transmitting antenna emits a pulse signal with a capacity of up to 250 MW.


Radar "Don-2"


The uniqueness of this station lies in its versatility and versatility. Radar "Don-2H" solves the problem of detecting ballistic targets, selection, tracking, measuring the coordinates and pointing at them interceptor missiles with a nuclear warhead. The station is controlled by a computing complex with a capacity of up to a billion operations per second, built on the basis of four Elbrus-2 supercomputers.

The construction of the station and anti-missile mines began in 1978, in Pushkin District, in 50 km north of Moscow. During the construction of the station, more than 30 000 tons of metal, 50 000 tons of concrete, 20 000 kilometers of various cables were laid. For cooling equipment required hundreds of kilometers of water pipes. Equipment installation, installation and commissioning works were carried out from 1980 to 1987. In 1989, the station was put into trial operation. The A-135 missile defense system itself was officially adopted by the 17 February 1995 of the year.

Initially, Moscow’s missile defense system provided for the use of two echelons of interception of targets: long-range anti-missiles 51Т6 at high altitudes outside the atmosphere and short-range missiles 53Т6 in the atmosphere. According to information published by the Russian Defense Ministry, 51Т6 antimissiles have been removed from combat duty in the 2006 year due to the expiration of the warranty period. Currently, the A-135 system contains only anti-missiles of the near-field 53Т6 with maximum reach in the range of 60 km and in height - 45 km. In order to extend the life of 53Т6 anti-missiles from 2011, they are being equipped with new engines and guidance equipment on a new element base with advanced software during a planned modernization. Tests of armed antimissiles, starting with 1999, are carried out regularly. The last test at the Sary-Shagan test site took place on 21 June 2016.

While the A-135 anti-missile system was quite sophisticated by the standards of the mid-80-s, its capabilities allowed only a limited nuclear attack with single warheads to be reflected. Moscow's missile defense before the start of the 2000-s could successfully withstand monoblock Chinese ballistic missiles equipped with quite primitive means of overcoming missile defense. By the time of adopting the A-135 system, it was no longer able to intercept all American thermonuclear warheads aimed at Moscow, placed on the LGM-30G Minuteman III ICBM and UGM-133A Trident II ICBM.


Google Earth snapshot: Don-2Н radar and silo 53Т6 interceptor missiles


According to data published in open sources, as of January 2016 of the year, 68 53Т6 interceptor missiles are deployed in the mine launchers in five positioned areas around Moscow. Twelve mines are located in close proximity to the Don-2H radar.

In addition to detecting attacks of ballistic missiles, their tracking and targeting of antimissiles, the Don-2Н station is involved in the missile attack warning system. At a viewing angle of 360 degrees, detection of warheads of ICBMs at a distance of 3700 km is possible. It is possible to control the outer space at a distance (altitude) to 40 000 km. In terms of a number of parameters, the Don-2Н radar still remains unsurpassed. In February 1994 of the year during the ODERACS program from the American Shuttle in February 1994 of the year 6 metal balls were thrown into open space, two in diameter 5, 10 and 15 centimeters. They were in terrestrial orbit from 6 to 13 months, after which they burned down in dense layers of the atmosphere. The purpose of this program was to ascertain the possibilities for detecting small-sized space objects, calibrating radar and optical devices in order to track "space debris". Only the Russian station Don-2H was able to detect and construct the trajectories of the smallest objects with a diameter of 5 cm at a distance of 500 — 800 km with a target height of 352 km. After detection, their tracking was carried out at a distance of up to 1500 km.

In the second half of 70-s after the appearance in the US of SSBNs armed with UGM-96 Trident I SLBMs with HSRC and the release of plans to deploy MGM-31C Pershing II MSM in Europe, the Soviet leadership decided to create a network of over-the-half-range mid-potential stations in the west of the USSR. New radars, thanks to high resolution, in addition to detecting a missile launch, could provide accurate targeting of missile defense systems. It was assumed the construction of four radars with digital information processing, created using the technology of solid-state modules and having the possibility of frequency tuning in two bands. The basic principles of building the new Volga 70М6 station were worked out at the “Danube-3UP” radar station in Sary-Shagan. The construction of a new radar station began in 1986 in Belarus, in 8 km northeast of Gantsevichi.

During construction, for the first time in the USSR, the method of accelerated construction of a multi-storey technological building of large-sized structural modules with the necessary embedded elements for the installation of equipment with the connection of power supply and cooling systems was applied. A new technology for the construction of facilities of this kind from modules made at Moscow factories and delivered to the construction site, has reduced construction time by about half and significantly reduced the cost. This was the first experience of creating a high-readiness radar radar station, which was later developed during the creation of the Voronezh radar. The receiving and transmitting antennas are similar in construction and are based on AFAR. The size of the transmitting part is 36 × 20 meters, receiving - 36 × 36 meters. The positions of the receiving and transmitting parts are separated by 3 km from each other. The modular design of the station allows for a phased upgrade without removal from combat duty.


Reception part of the Volga radar


In connection with the conclusion of the INF Treaty, the construction of the station was frozen in 1988. After Russia lost the SPRN node in Latvia, the construction of the Volga radar station in Belarus was resumed. In 1995, a Russian-Belarusian agreement was concluded, according to which the communications node of the Navy Vileyka and ORTU Gantsevichi together with the land plots were transferred to Russia for 25 years without all types of taxes and fees. As compensation, the Belarusian side has been written off part of the debts for energy carriers, Belarusian servicemen are partially servicing the units, and the Belarusian side is provided with information about the rocket and space situation and admission to the Ashuluk air defense ground.

Due to the loss of economic ties, which was associated with the collapse of the USSR and insufficient funding, construction and installation work was delayed until the end of 1999. It was only in December 2001 of the year that the station took over experimental combat duty, and the 1 of October 2003 of the year the Volga radar was put into service. This is the only built station of this type.


Google Earth snapshot: receiving part of the Volga radar


The radar station SPRN in Belarus primarily controls the patrol areas of the American, British and French SSBNs in the North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea. The Volga radar is capable of detecting and identifying space objects and ballistic missiles, as well as tracking their trajectories, calculating starting and falling points, the detection range of an SLBM reaches 4800 km in the azimuth sector 120 degrees. Radar information from the Volga radar in real-time enters the Main center for warning of a missile attack. Currently, it is the only operating facility of the Russian missile attack warning system, located abroad.

The most modern and promising in terms of tracking rocket-prone areas are the Russian radar radar station type 77YA6 "Voronezh-M / DM" meter and decimeter range. In terms of their capabilities in terms of detecting and tracking the ballistic missile warheads of the Voronezh station, they exceed the radars of the previous generation, but the cost of their construction and operation is several times less. Unlike the Dnepr, Don-2H, Daryal and Volga stations, the erection and debugging of which were sometimes stretched by 10 years, the Voronezh radar of the Voronezh series has a high factory readiness, and from the start of construction to setting on combat duty usually passes 2-3 year, the installation of the radar does not exceed 1,5-2 years. Station block-container type, includes the 23 element of the equipment in the containers of factory production.


Radar SPRN "Voronezh-M" in Lekhtusi


The station consists of a transceiver unit with an AFAR, a pre-fabricated building for personnel and containers with electronic equipment. The modular design principle makes it possible to modernize the radar during operation quickly and at low cost. As part of the radar, instrumentation and data processing equipment, modules and nodes are used to form a station with the required performance characteristics from a unified set of structural elements, in accordance with the operational and tactical requirements at the location. Thanks to the use of the new element base, advanced design solutions and the use of the optimal mode of operation, compared with the stations of the old types, energy consumption has been significantly reduced. Software control of the potential in the sector of responsibility for the range, angles and time makes it possible to efficiently use the radar power. Depending on the situation, it is possible to quickly distribute energy resources in the working area of ​​the radar during peaceful and threatened periods. An integrated diagnostic system and a highly informative control system also reduce the cost of maintaining the radar. Through the use of high-performance computing tools, it is possible to simultaneously accompany up to 500 objects.


Elements of the antenna meter radar "Voronezh-M"


To date, three real-life modifications of the Voronezh radar are known. Voronezh-M stations (77Я6) operate in the meter range, target detection range is up to 6000 km. The Voronezh-DM radar (77YA6-DM) operate in the decimeter range, the range is up to 4500 km horizontally and up to 8000 km vertically. Decimeter stations with a shorter detection range are better suited for missile defense tasks, since the accuracy of determining the coordinates of targets is higher than that of a meter-range radar. In the near future, the detection range of the Voronezh-DM radar should be increased to 6000 km. The last known modification is Voronezh-VP (77Y6-VP) - the development of 77Y6 Voronezh-M. This is a high-potential radar meter range with power consumption - up to 10 MW. Due to the increase in the power of the emitted signal and the introduction of new modes of operation, the possibility of detecting hardly noticeable targets in conditions of organized interference has increased. According to the published information, the Voronezh-VP of the meter range, in addition to the tasks of the EWS, is capable of detecting aerodynamic targets at medium and high altitudes at a considerable distance. This allows you to record the mass take-off of long-range bombers and aircraft tankers "potential partners." But the statements of some “patriotic-minded” visitors to the Military Review site about the possibility of using these stations to effectively monitor the entire airspace of the continental part of the United States, of course, is not true.


Google Earth snapshot: Voronezh-M radar in Lehtusi


Currently, eight Voronezh-M / DM stations under construction or in operation are known. The first station Voronezh-M was built in the Leningrad region near the village of Lehtusi in 2006 year. Radar in Lekhtusi took over 11 on February 2012 on combat duty, covering the north-west missile-prone direction, instead of the destroyed Daryal radar in Skrunda. In Lehtusi, there is a base for ensuring the educational process of the AF Aerospace Military Space Academy. Mozhaisky, where the training and training of personnel for other radar "Voronezh". It was reported about plans to upgrade the head station to the level of "Voronezh-VP".


Google Earth snapshot: Voronezh-DM radar near Armavir


The next was the Voronezh-DM station in the Krasnodar region near Armavir, built on the site of the runway of the former airfield. It consists of two segments. One closes the gap created after the loss of the Dnepr radar on the Crimean peninsula, the other has replaced the Daryal radar in Azerbaijan. Radar, built near Armavir, controls the southern and south-western direction.

Another station of the UHF band was built in the Kaliningrad region at the abandoned Dunaevka airfield. This radar covers the area of ​​responsibility of the Volga radar in Belarus and the Dnepr in Ukraine. The Voronezh-DM station in the Kaliningrad region is the most western Russian radar of anti-ship missile systems and is capable of controlling space over most of Europe, including the British Isles.


Google earth snapshot: Voronezh-M radar in Mishelevka


The second radar meter range Voronezh-M was built in Mishelevka near Irkutsk on the site of the dismantled transmitting position of the Daryal radar. Its antenna field is twice the size of a lechtusinsky - 6 sections instead of three, and controls the territory from the west coast of the USA to India. As a result, it was possible to expand the sector of the review to 240 degrees in azimuth. This station replaced the decommissioned Dnepr radar station located in Michelevka.


Google Earth snapshot: Voronezh-M radar station under Orsk


The Voronezh-M station was also built near Orsk, in the Orenburg region. Since 2015, she works in a test mode. A combat duty mission is scheduled for 2016 year. After that, it will be possible to control the launches of ballistic missiles from Iran and Pakistan.



Voronezh-DM decimeter radar stations are being prepared for commissioning in the village of Ust-Kem in the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the Konyukhi village in the Altai Territory. These stations will cover the north-east and south-east directions. Both radars should start combat duty in the near future. In addition, Voronezh-M stations in the Komi republic near Vorkuta, Voronezh-DM in the Amur region and Voronezh-DM in the Murmansk region are at different stages of construction. The last station should replace the complex "Dnepr" / "Daugava".

The adoption of Voronezh-type stations not only significantly expanded the capabilities of rocket and space defense, but also makes it possible to deploy all ground-based missile defense systems in Russia, which should minimize military-political risks and eliminate the possibility of economic and political blackmail from CIS partners . In the future, the Defense Ministry of the Russian Federation intends to completely replace with them all Soviet radar missile attack warnings. With full confidence we can say that the radar series "Voronezh" on the complex characteristics are the best in the world. As of the end of 2015, the main warning center for the missile attack of the Space Command of the VCS received information from ten ORTs. Such a radar coverage of over-the-horizon radar was not even in Soviet times, but the Russian missile attack warning system is currently unbalanced due to the lack of the necessary satellite constellation.

Based on:
http://sputniknews.com
http://englishrussia.com
http://militaryrussia.ru/blog/topic-610.html
http://russianforces.org/blog/2013/01/status_of_the_russian_early-warning.shtml
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  1. EvgNik 16 August 2016 06: 35 New
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    In the early 70s, work began in the USSR to create an effective missile defense system for the city of Moscow, which was supposed to provide defense of the city from single warheads.

    Term, military unit 48701, June 1967 - November 1969, is there anyone who served in this unit, maybe later?
  2. vietnam7 16 August 2016 08: 18 New
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    Thank you for the article! Is there any information on how far we are behind “probable friends” in the area of ​​satellite warning systems?
    1. Mooh 16 August 2016 09: 05 New
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      Quote: vietnam7
      Thank you for the article! Is there any information on how far we are behind “probable friends” in the area of ​​satellite warning systems?

      Have you read the article? In short, we do not have them in operation. Partners have. In such a situation, assessing the lag in percentages or years is problematic.
  3. Operator 16 August 2016 09: 34 New
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    The author incorrectly described the principle of operation of the ground-based radar stations of the meter, decimeter and centimeter range of the missile attack warning system - these radars do not control the territory, but the air and space over the territory within the radio horizon (from 40 km at low altitudes to 6000 km at altitudes of several thousand km).

    Therefore, to say that the SPRN radars listed in the article see the take-off of strategic enemy bombers from their air bases is technical nonsense. The maximum possible for them is to see strategic bombers already in flight at a range of 400-500 km at a flight altitude of 10-12 km.

    Strategic bombers, due to the long approach time to the target (more than an order of magnitude greater than that of intercontinental ballistic missiles), are designed to operate in the second echelon of nuclear weapons after the SPRN is destroyed by direct strikes and ionizing the atmosphere associated with nuclear explosions of ballistic warheads rockets.

    Therefore, ground-based radar SPRN are intended only to warn about rocket attack.

    The only exception to this rule is the universal over-the-horizon Container radar, which detects tactical, strategic and carrier-based aircraft, medium-range ballistic and ballistic missile launches, and cruise missile launches at a distance of up to 3000 km.
  4. Old26 16 August 2016 14: 37 New
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    Sergei! A couple of questions and comments
    Question. You write about the station in the Far East as being under construction. To be honest, I have not heard that the construction of Voronezh was started in Zeya. Maybe I missed the bookmark moment? Do not enlighten this question.

    Comment. It relates to the location of the radar. Here are the flaws, and the questions that arise. It is clear that the scheme is probably not the newest, and you did not draw it, but nonetheless.
    1. The radar is still in Orsk, but not in Omskas written in the diagram.
    2. Armavir radar shown with two "petals", in accordance with two blocks (stations), but so far only one building is visible on Krasnoyarskaya, and "petal" two. And right here on Irkutsk one "petal" at two stations (antennas)
    3. There is no Vorkuta (although it is already under construction), but there is Olenegorsk, which they plan to start building in 2017.

    If possible, then let the moderators correct this on the diagram, if not, there is nothing to be done
    1. Alexey RA 16 August 2016 18: 53 New
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      Quote: Old26
      Question. You write about the station in the Far East as being under construction. To be honest, I have not heard that the construction of Voronezh was started in Zeya. Maybe I missed the bookmark moment? Do not enlighten this question.

      At uv. Mokrushin last September had a post about this radar:
      Notification No. 957/2015 and Notification No. 958/2015, located on the Spetsstroytorg site, "for the full range of works on the construction of the technical zone of facility 1307" make it possible for us to familiarize ourselves with some of the features of the construction of the early warning radar warning system for missile attack and space control high factory readiness in the area of ​​the city of Zeya (Amur Region):
      Full name of the object, object code: Construction of a technical zone (site No. 1 and No. 2) of object 1307 (object code 1307 / TK)
      Type of construction: New construction
      Individual design:
      Re-use on objects - analogues:
      1. Engineering complex - according to the facility analogue 2461 / TK (p. Dunaevka, Kaliningrad region);
      2. The guardhouse for 1 post with a checkpoint - according to the facility analogous to 1944 / TK (Usolye-Sibirsky, Irkutsk region)

      On the territory of technological platform No. 1, perform the following works:
      - foundations for the masts of the transmitting antenna-feeder device (PRD AFU antenna system of the transmitting center - 4 letters in different frequencies (4 sections each) in the directions: З; В; Ю-З; Ю-В) - tentatively, specified by the project 12 000 m3 .
      - foreground for four transmitting AFUs;
      - sites with foundations for containers with technological equipment in the amount of 44 sites to take the area according to the project;
      - foundations with mortgages for extensions of AFU masts - 112 pcs. estimated volume of 224 m3;
      - two sites for spare parts and RB containers with a canopy: the first site with an estimated area of ​​150 m2, the second site with an estimated area of ​​300 m2;
      (...)
      etc.

      http://twower.livejournal.com/1773241.html
      And there was a quote from the Spetsstroy website on this radar:
      The geography of its activities is being expanded by the Siberian Main Directorate of the Spetsstroy of Russia. Special construction workers have to carry out the construction of a high-readiness radar station in the city of Zeya, Amur Region. In 2015, builders will carry out all the necessary design work. The construction of the station will begin in 2016.
      The construction of new radars is carried out by order of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. Last year, the Siberian commander of the Spetsstroy of Russia fulfilled all the targets that ensure that the radar station in Barnaul and Yeniseisk was on combat alert duty, and the station in Usolye-Sibirsky was on combat duty.
    2. Alexey RA 16 August 2016 19: 04 New
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      Quote: Old26
      Question. You write about the station in the Far East as being under construction. To be honest, I have not heard that the construction of Voronezh was started in Zeya. Maybe I missed the bookmark moment? Do not enlighten this question.

      By the way, judging by the interview of the commander of the "supervising" military unit in Zeyskiy Vestnik, there will clearly be no Voronezh in Zeya.
      - Alexander Vasilievich, what are the challenges facing the military unit that you command?

      - The main task of our military unit is to ensure supervision of the construction of the facility, which will be called the center for airspace control in the Asian region. If you remember, at the Army 2015 forum, the Russian president spoke about the upcoming construction of a radar station in the Far Eastern region. That's what this station was all about then. Now there is a process of deploying the construction of the facility.

      - Where will the radar be located?

      - In the area of ​​the old airport, at the 19th kilometer from the city, as well as in the territory of the former position of the anti-aircraft missile unit. That is, there will be two points at a considerable distance from Zeya. The dimensions of each station at which the antennas will be installed are quite large. After all, only an antenna sheet takes at least one and a half kilometers. In addition, the administrative part of the city will be located.

      http://zvportal.ru/index.php/2010-11-20-05-58-23-28/78-2010-11-20-06-51-21/6473-

      22-01-2016-22-48-44-01
  5. Old26 16 August 2016 20: 12 New
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    Dear Alexey! Thank you for the information. I read it from Mokrushin, but in "Zeyskiy Vestnik" - this is interesting. Why did I ask this question to Sergey? He says that at various stages of construction there is a number of radars, and in particular
    Voronezh-DM in the Amur Region
    .
    I just didn’t hear that they started to build it. About the preparatory work - read. Indeed, according to the description in an interview with the commander of the military unit, the station does not even resemble Voronezh-M / VP, not to mention Voronezh-DM.
    1. Operator 16 August 2016 22: 39 New
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      Zeya radar site is very reminiscent of the Container ZGRLS - two significantly remote locations for transmitting and receiving parts, an antenna sheet of 1500 meters in length, and the presence of a guaranteed source of power supply in the face of a hydroelectric power station.
  6. Old26 16 August 2016 23: 29 New
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    Quote: Operator
    Zeya radar site is very reminiscent of the Container ZGRLS - two significantly remote locations for transmitting and receiving parts, an antenna sheet of 1500 meters in length, and the presence of a guaranteed source of power supply in the face of a hydroelectric power station.

    Reminds. Only the number of antennas is different from the "Container".
    Transmitting part - 4 sections oriented in the direction of "west", "east", "south-west" and "southeast"
    Reception part - 3 bi-directional antennas in the same directions
    1. Sergei1982 17 August 2016 06: 23 New
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      Quote: Old26
      Transmitting part - 4 sections oriented in the direction of "west", "east", "south-west" and "southeast"
      Reception part - 3 bi-directional antennas in the same directions

      Then what will be there, judging by the size of this ZGRLS.
    2. Alexey RA 17 August 2016 11: 01 New
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      Quote: Old26
      Reminds. Only the number of antennas is different from the "Container".
      Transmitting part - 4 sections oriented in the direction of "west", "east", "south-west" and "southeast"
      Reception part - 3 bi-directional antennas in the same directions

      But the principle of the location of the receiving and transmitting antennas and dimensions are approximately the same as that of Mordoрvskogo "container":
      The receiving part of ZGRLS can be quite far from the radiating one. So, in Mordovia is the receiving part of the new ZGRLS and the hardware part of the selection and processing of the useful signal. And the radiating part is in the Nizhny Novgorod region. In general, these are quite large structures. They consist of dozens of antenna-feeder masts with a height of more than 30 meters. In Kovylkino, the line of such masts stretched for almost a kilometer and a half. Despite this, ZGRLS is quite mobile.
      1. Operator 17 August 2016 11: 49 New
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        The "mobile" version of the Container ZGRLS is referred to by the manufacturer as relocatable.

        The ability to relatively quickly deploy and collapse the Container (using a previously prepared site similar to a former airfield) is reflected in its name.
  7. An64 17 August 2016 16: 49 New
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    The sad news: on August 11, 2016, one of the chief designers of the Volga radar, Mironov Stanislav Ivanovich, suddenly died.
    Eternal memory ... Buried today, August 17 ...
  8. Falcon 19 August 2016 08: 20 New
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    Great article, thanks Sergey!
    As always a lot of new things.
    Minus for her probably "Operator" set laughing
    With the take-off of the Bombers defined by the Voronezh radar, this is not entirely correct. She's still not Overseas.
  9. xtur 30 November 2016 22: 13 New
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    Thanks for the article, read with interest.

    One comment on the design - under the article, I did not find the author, if possible correct.