Secret project "2K"

17
Little-known details of the construction of the Kerch Bridge, which for the first time connected the Caucasus and the Crimea in 1944
The construction of a bridge across the Kerch Strait will cost the state 230 billion rubles. It is planned to commission it 30 June 2019 year. These numbers are known to all.
But few people know that this bridge will be the second. The first, 4,5 km long, connected the shores of the Caucasus and Crimea six months after the liberation of the peninsula. Red Army railroad men built it in 150 days. The first pile is 1 July 1944 of the year, the first train is 3 November ...

Military journalist Yevgeny Kirichenko sought out previously unpublished documents in the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defense.

Hitler Directive

Some historians still believe and convince others that the German sappers built the first bridge across the strait during the siege of Sevastopol. True, it does not specify: it is only about the cable car. The construction of a full-fledged bridge was indeed in Hitler’s plans, but the forces of the 2 of the Ukrainian Front prevented their implementation.

The Fuhrer, not waiting for the fall of the Soviet Union, was going to build a transcontinental railway from Munich to India through the Crimea and the Caucasus. Albert Speer, the Minister of Weapons of 3 Reich, gives details in his memoirs:

"In the spring of 1943, Hitler demanded to start building a five-kilometer bridge across the Kerch Strait. Here we built a cableway, which was launched on June 14 (1943) and delivered thousands of tons of cargo every day. This was enough for the defense needs of the 17 Army. However, Hitler did not He abandoned his plan for a breakthrough to Persia through the Caucasus. The works were carried out continuously, and relative to them, starting from the winter of 1943, instructions came one after another.The last directive: the bridge across the Kerch Strait should be completed before 1 in August 1944 Yes...".

But in August, 1944, the Crimea was already ours, and the soldiers-railwaymen with might and main scored piles into the bottom of the strait. The decision to build the bridge was taken personally by Stalin, another 25 of January 1944 of the year (until the liberation of the Crimea, three and a half months), having signed the Resolution of the State Defense Committee N5027.

[Center]

Restored cable car

Before the retreat, the Nazis destroyed the cableway through the strait, and our engineers had to build it again. The installation of the pillars was carried out by three bridge-building battalions under the command of Major Zagrebs, captains Grabowski and Krutikov. At their disposal are two wooden fishing seiners, one barge, a river motor boat and a trophy boat.

One night over the strait sparkled blue lights electric. The fascists were alarmed and opened hurricane artillery firing. Our batteries responded from both banks.
About how it was, left memories Zakhar Kondratyev:

"The sea was often stormy. Waves pumped diesel-hammers mounted on rafts strongly, did not allow to pile piles. The wind blew in pile-driver arms, as if in sails, and the raft could overturn every minute into the sea or break on metal supports. In order not to wash off with water, the soldiers they were tied with ropes ... The storm warning obliged all boat captains to immediately go to the strait, take rafts and bring them to the shore. One day the heavy fog prevented the ship from approaching the raft in time and tow it to a safe place. to the Sea of ​​Azov. They were searched for several days. Rescued by half-dead ...

One night, the blue lights of five electric welders flashed above the strait. The fascists were alarmed and opened hurricane artillery firing. Our batteries from both banks hit the enemy back. And along the construction site the boats were continuously cruising and smoke screens were placed on the windward side. Smoke corroded the eyes of soldiers, reduced visibility. But I had to put up, adapt. In the end, even during storms, the rafts no longer lead to the shore, and tied them to the supports ... "

The reconstructed (and, in fact, newly constructed) suspension road was used to deliver ammunition to the peninsula for almost half a year, until it was ordered to dismantle it and transfer it to the troops of the 4 of the Ukrainian Front, which is leading the offensive in the Carpathians. Back "cable car" did not return.

By that time, the Crimean and Caucasian shores were connected by a real bridge.

150 day feat

This project was encrypted under the abbreviation "2K" - most likely from the first letters in the words "Crimea" and "Caucasus". The place to go was chosen between the Chushka Spit and the eastern cape of the Kerch Peninsula - in the narrowest neck of the strait. But even in spite of this, the length of the bridge turned out to be decent - almost 5 kilometers.

When the connection with the ground was broken by the storm, the Komsomol sergeant Sysorov and the corporal Kuchin rushed into the sea and restored the connection throughout 250 meters from the support to the support
The order to build it was given to the 36-th separate railway brigade.

From the report of the 36-th separate railway communication recovery battalion:

"When the dispatcher connection of the land with floating equipment was broken by the storm, the soldiers of the platoon of communist Denisenko undertook to restore it without waiting for the boats. Having received an order to repair the line damage, the Komsomol sergeant Sysorov and the corporal Kuchin rushed into the sea and during the 250 m from the support to the support they restored connection

When restoring communications on the Chushka Spit, the soldiers of the Mozolevsky platoon used a new method of placing supports in a sandy shaky ground using the “pumping” method and coped with their task ahead of schedule.

When dumping a wooden dam with a stone, the steamer that brought the stone was unloaded during the 3-4 continuous work shift. The soldiers of the communist Zubkov significantly reduced these terms. Thanks to the skillful organization of work, they unloaded this steamer in one shift. Two days later, these dates were reduced by the soldiers of Captain Kuznetsov - they unloaded the ship for 6 hours of work. There were cases when soldiers, sergeants and officers, inspired by the heroic victories of the Red Army on the fronts, unloaded the steamer in 3,5 hours of work.

In the same exhausting mode, round-the-clock, bridge and divisions of railway workers worked. There is a version that more than half of the builders were prisoners, but it is not documented. True, the archival documents of the military-railway units mention "non-standard battalions" that do not have lists of personnel. Kerch old-timers say that a cemetery has been preserved on the outskirts of the city, where prisoners who were killed during the bridge construction were buried. But their names are not known to anyone.

The opening of the bridge was timed to the 27 anniversary of the Great October Revolution. 3 November 1944 of the year through the Kerch Strait passed the first train. Engineer Dmitry Teryukhov recalled that the construction managers traditionally stood under the bridge in boats.

One of the participants of the project "2K" architect Boris Nadezhin recalled after the war:

“After construction, I left for Moscow via Krasnodar and with obvious impatience waited for the crossing through the strait. Not on a pontoon, a boat or a motorboat, but in a train on a railway bridge! I did not know then that it was an exceptional case that it would be impossible to repeat it. .. The overpass moved, so now, now the bridge ... Everything disappeared right away. Black darkness outside the window. But below the carriage, slightly visible in the reflections of the locomotive firebox, waves are idly rolling into the darkness. We are driving a long time bridge. The sound of pneumatic hammers, for a moment in the window the lights are visible tion farms, people they end up clinching draw span. And again, quiet, dark, some waves at the bottom. Ended the bridge ... "

And soon the bridge ended its short biography, not having survived the winter of the year 1945.

Death in the post

By 1 January of the victorious year, the replacement of temporary wooden piles with metal ones was to be completed. It was planned to install an 123 icebreaker by the same time. But they did - only five. The violent and protracted storms prevented this winter ....

Due to severe frosts in the Sea of ​​Azov an abnormally thick layer of ice has formed. And when in February came a sharp warming, ice blocks moved into the Black Sea through the Kerch Strait. And the whole huge mass piled on the pillars of the bridge.

From the telegram of the chief of Glavmoststroy from 26 December 1944 of the year.

"During 15 days, the storm does not stop. Wind from 7 to 10 points. The whole overpass covered the ice. Water moves over the overpass. We can’t remove the tug Ararat and the floating crane from the coast. , they no longer tolerate. Work cannot be carried on from water. Waves up to two meters. "

The chief construction engineer Ivan Zurupa, soberly assessing the situation, requested four icebreakers and a squadron of bombers to break the ice fields. But he received only a battery of several guns, and icebreakers as part of the Black Sea fleet It never happened. Several bombings from aircraft were in vain - it makes no sense to bomb the sea, equal in area to Austria ...

They tried to save the supports by exploding the ice with dynamite sticks. Alas, not enough people or explosives. But the railroad kept to the last.

From the magazine stories 36-th OBVDS:

"Taking part in protecting the bridge from ice drift, personnel showed samples of dedication and organization. Private Valkovsky 7 March 1945 of the year with strong wind, reaching 8-9 points, being on the terminal support from the east, one led the fight against ice drift steadily, for two days. Undermining the ice with explosives. Thanks to his dedication, the support was preserved. "

February 20 1945 of the year under the pressure of ice half of the piers of the bridge collapsed, dragging spans. A week earlier, a specially guarded lettered train managed to pass through it, during which the Soviet delegation returned to Moscow from the Yalta Conference. Kerch Bridge lasted four months.

During this time, more than two thousand trains with fuel and ammunition for the front passed through it. If someone tells you that the Kerch bridge was a Stalinist adventure, remember this figure: "2 is thousands of echelons." They, these trains, made Victory closer.

But Stalin, who was informed about the death of the bridge, they say, did not even begin to punish anyone. The urgent need for a connection between Crimea and the Caucasus by this moment had disappeared: the Red Army had already crossed the Oder, from which the Soviet ones to Berlin Tanks could reach during daylight hours.

ONLY NUMBERS

On the construction of the Kerch bridge were involved:

35 mobile power

21 electric welding unit

23 copra

6 jib cranes for rail and road

1 floating 45-ton crane

10 excavators

230 trucks

10 steam locomotives

10 diving stations

3 Mobile Railroad Shops

8 self propelled ships

A large number of homemade rafts on iron fuel barrels.

10 000 Builders

CLOSE-UP

Nuclear power Pavel Zernov

The trophy metal abandoned by the enemy near Kerch was not even enough for half of the spans and supports of the Kerch bridge. General Pavel Zernov, who headed the N12 Directorate for the Fortification of Air Forces (Directorate of Military Reconstruction), found a brilliant way out - to use elements of destroyed bridges on the Dnieper.

It is believed that without the participation of Zernov, the project "2K" would have failed. Glory to Pavel Mikhailovich came in XNUMHe years when a graduate of the Moscow Higher Technical School im. Bauman was able to establish the production of engines at the Leningrad plant "Russian diesel". When the war began, Zernov organized the production of tanks in Kharkov, then in Stalingrad, creating a factory almost from scratch; tanks left the factory gates to the front line, closely approaching the city.

If someone tells you that the Kerch bridge was a Stalinist adventure, remember this figure: the 2000 trains that passed through it. And made closer Victory
Then there was Nizhny Tagil, where Zernov managed to triple the release of the thirty-three. And the appointment in 1943 of the year to the post of deputy chairman of the USSR State Planning Committee - responsible for the restoration of the national economy in the liberated territories, which he personally reported to Stalin. Speaking in modern language, it was a talented top manager and, probably, not by chance the Supreme, making the decision to build a bridge across the Kerch Strait, recalled Zernov’s exceptional organizational skills.

Pavel Mikhailovich immediately organized the construction, the scale of which amazed: it was necessary to hammer more than 4 thousand steel piles, to mount 15 thousand tons of spans and pillars, to lay more than 5 thousand cubic meters of concrete and pour 35 thousand cubic meters of stone dams. All this had to be found somewhere, loaded and delivered to the construction site.

The designers skeptically warned then General Zernov that the construction of such a complex structure would take years to complete even in peacetime. And during the war, when steel shops instead of channels and sprengel make tools, looks like an adventure. Imagine their surprise when, five months after the day the first pile was driven, the first train was launched through the Kerch Strait ...

The chief engineer of construction, Ivan Tsyurup and Pavel Zernov, did not have enough time and steel building materials: the ice was smashed by temporary wooden supports. They say that these two outstanding patriots regretted all their lives that their bridge, which connected Crimea to the Caucasus, turned out to be unnecessary to anyone ...

Ivan Tsyurupa became the Hero of Socialist Labor. Pavel Zernov was awarded this title twice. After the war, he led the secret design bureau KB-11 in Sarov, where the first Soviet atomic bomb was born ...
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17 comments
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  1. +10
    August 6 2016
    Decent material. I heard that there was an attempt to build a bridge to the Crimea, I even tried to rummage around in search of materials, but without much success, but here are the facts and fates, it was very interesting to read, thanks.
    Add a little:

    In 1947, the issue of bridge construction was again on the agenda. A project was even developed with a highway and two railway tracks.
    “During his presentation to Stalin, engineers announced that it would be the Tsar Bridge,” says Vladimir Sanzharovets. - The leader of the peoples approved the project. But to build it was not destined. When they began to install the first supports, it turned out that they fall into the ground at the bottom. No matter how many specialists tried, it was not possible to strengthen the supports, because there were no such technologies as now. After several months of trouble, the project was turned off and a ferry service was established in the strait, which is still valid today.
  2. The comment was deleted.
  3. The comment was deleted.
  4. +6
    August 6 2016
    The remains of the bridge could still be seen in the mid-70s ... But then the sea washed away ... In 1972, a fishing village was flooded due to flooding ... the wind from the Sea of ​​Azov in the mouth of the Kuban caught a wave ... even then you could see the ruins .. when you go to Golubitskaya ... now you can’t see them at all .. Time .. time destroyed the tracks ..
  5. +11
    August 6 2016
    My uncle, the platoon commander of the 105th pontoon-bridge battalion of the 2nd pontoon-bridge brigade, received the Order of the Red Banner for the construction of a bridge to the Crimea, though this is not through Sivash.
    He told me: they bombed them heavily, the car in his platoon was bombed, the fellow countryman was killed, and he had a bunch of children, and then for a long time and after the war he transferred half of his salary to the family until he married.
    http://podvignaroda.mil.ru/filter/filterimage?path=VS/109/033-0686044-4019%2b004
    -4018/00000009_1.jpg&id=21002434&id1=c094711d208ee74e2bcf8038452b14e4
  6. +7
    August 6 2016
    Yes ... There were PEOPLE, but now ... there are only "effective managers" around ...
  7. +1
    August 6 2016
    IMHO: in our time, given the inevitable "angry objections" from the Azov Sea, it would be more expedient to build a tunnel. More expensive, but ... "miser pays twice."
    1. +2
      August 6 2016
      Unfortunately, the tunnel cannot be built. It is very dangerous to build it. This area is seismically dangerous in geological terms, there is a bunch of "little things" "pushed", formed due to the collision of tectonic plates. Earthquakes up to 3,5-4 points happen several times a year. And up to 6,5-7 points once a 50 years. In addition: the Taman volcanic zone itself, a bunch of mud volcanoes, etc. And, in general, this area is very difficult in terms of weather conditions - storm winds, surge wave, ice, etc.
      1. -3
        August 6 2016
        Quote: Monster_Fat
        And, in general, this area is very difficult in weather conditions - gale-force winds, surge waves, ice, etc.

        So it turns out that the bridge will be idle or restored periodically.
        1. 0
          August 6 2016
          He will not stand idle if properly built. But it also needs to be built. I hope that they will build a bridge, it is absolutely necessary, Crimea is needed as air. Another thing is how much this construction will cost ... so that it doesn’t work out like in this joke:
          “We need to build a bridge and a competition for this construction is announced. The Turks come to the competition and say we will build you a bridge for $ 1 billion. Okay, they say from the project selection committee, wait in the reception, we will listen to the rest of the proposals and inform you of our decision. The Turks leave, the Germans come in and say: we will build a bridge for 2 billion dollars! Why is it so expensive? -The commission asks the Germans: the famous German quality, selected materials, high-class builders, a 100-year guarantee - all this "costs money." Okay, they say from the commission, wait outside the door, we will listen to the rest of the proposals and inform you of our decision. The Germans leave, our Russian comes in and offers: I will build you a bridge for $ 3 billion! The commission was immediately surprised: why is it so expensive? Look, even the Germans promised to build a bridge for $ 2 billion, and you are asking for as much as $ 3 billion! Where will this money go? Russian answers: how- “where will it go?” As usual: one billion dollars for me, another billion for you, and for the remaining billion dollars the Turks will build a bridge for us ... "
          1. -3
            August 6 2016
            Quote: Monster_Fat
            He will not stand idle if properly built. But it also needs to be built.

            You don't even need to go to a fortune-teller because the weather conditions will "arrange" restrictions on the operation of the bridge. Only the survivability of the structure will depend on the "literacy" of the building. And such heroism in saving the bridge, shown by our grandfathers, is not to be expected. And effective "managers" will only suck money out of the treasury. So the tunnel will turn out to be cheaper, even for such a not very favorable region. Tea is not 50 km long as to the Naglo-Saxons.
      2. 0
        August 6 2016
        You are wrong about the tunnel! Yes, in Crimea there is seismicity up to 4-5 points, but we are building both high-rise buildings and tunnels. (By the way, exactly ten years ago I built a double sewer collector from the Kiev firm "Interbudmontazh" near the capital of Turkmenistan Ashgabat / now Ashgabat / and its "end" in the desert, the so-called "KOS-300", although we were still in 2005-06 spoke to the Turkmen "comrades" about possible environmental problems in the future, however, okay, Allah is with them and with their collector! So, the seismicity there is up to 8-9 points, and we did the tunnel at a depth of 10-15 meters And geology, as elsewhere in Central Asia, is not good on the plains and in the lowlands ... The true geology was hidden from us, but the thickness of sedimentary rocks reaches a hundred meters, that's for sure! In Crimea, the geology will be better.) So, everything is feasible. !
  8. +3
    August 6 2016
    Note is good, but literary - crude. In two places repetitions. The author should seriously work on the style.
  9. +4
    August 6 2016
    Without nitpicking - a decent article. Very interesting. Thanks to the author.
  10. +2
    August 6 2016
    there were people nowadays ....
  11. Cat
    +3
    August 6 2016
    I will add a little historiography from myself. The first bridge designs between the Taman Peninsula and the Crimean coast appeared during the reign of Nicholas II. But they were not released.
  12. +1
    August 6 2016
    Thank you very much! The article is very interesting !!!
  13. -1
    August 6 2016
    "Yes, there were people in our time ... not like the current tribe ... heroes are not you ...". I wonder how many months the current bridge will stand?
  14. 0
    November 8, 2016
    In Soviet times, I had a house of culture near them. Zurups. He often visited him, but, to his shame, did not know who he was. Thanks to the author for learning now. It seemed like a powerful man.

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