Fire on staffs. Half a century the beginning of the Cultural Revolution in China

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5 August 1966, exactly fifty years ago, Mao Zedong put forward his famous slogan "Fire on Headquarters" (Chinese parade sylinbu), which actually marked the beginning of the Cultural Revolution in China. Daizibao, who was written personally by Chairman Mao, was voiced during the 11 plenum of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party 9. It included criticism of the party apparatus of the Communist Party of China, which was accused of revisionism and bureaucracy.

Fire on staffs. Half a century the beginning of the Cultural Revolution in China


By pushing the slogan "Fire by headquarters," Mao proclaimed the struggle against the "supporters of the capitalist path" in the party leadership, and in fact, he sought to strengthen his power and control over the party. It was up to the young assault detachments — the Red Guards (“Red Guards”), recruited from students, and the Tsaofans (“rebels”), who were recruited from the workers — to implement this slogan. They also became the main driving force of the Cultural Revolution, which was turned against the "old" generation of the Chinese intelligentsia, party leadership, and administrative workers. Of course, in fact, its cause was a banal power struggle in the Chinese leadership, which was given an ideological outline. Mao Zedong, seeking to defeat his opponents in the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, relied on the support of youth groups, as well as the state and public security organs loyal to him, the People’s Liberation Army of China. The victims of the “Cultural Revolution” were originally party agents, dissatisfied with the course of Mao Zedong, but very quickly the ranks of the victims expanded to any managers, intellectuals, and then to ordinary Chinese, who, for some reason, did not suit the young attack aircraft.



In the course of the Cultural Revolution, the principle of combating the "Four Remnants" was implemented. What are these “four remnants” was not fully understood, since different leaders of the Cultural Revolution understood them as different phenomena. At the same time, the general meaning of the struggle against the “Four Remnants” was the general destruction of Chinese culture, which existed prior to 1949, when the power of the Communist Party was established in China. Therefore, almost all the cultural values ​​of the unique Chinese civilization - architectural monuments, literary works, national theater, clan books kept in the homes of ordinary Chinese, and art objects - came under fire. Many of the cultural values ​​were irrevocably destroyed during the years of the Cultural Revolution. Virtually everything connected with foreign culture was also subject to destruction — works by foreign writers and poets, records with music by foreign composers, including classics, clothes of foreign cut. Of course, shops where all these items were sold, libraries, museums, private apartments, where the young soldiers of the Cultural Revolution rushed there found objects contrary to the revolutionary spirit, were completely destroyed.

The most famous participants in the Cultural Revolution were, of course, the Red Guards. In Russian, this word has become a common noun, they are called maximalists - subverters "everything and everyone", sometimes just bullies. In fact, the Red Guards, which in translation meant “Red Guards”, were detachments of mobilized young students, primarily students. Formally, the Red Guards represented absolutely autonomous youth detachments, in their practical actions guided by their own understanding of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. In fact, they were headed personally by Mao Zedong and his wife Jiang Qing. This explains the almost complete impunity of their actions against the Chinese intelligentsia, party and administrative workers. Proclaiming themselves to be the creators of the Cultural Revolution and fighters against the revisionists and bureaucrats, the Red Guards engaged themselves in expelling the “apologists of the old order,” which included almost all teachers and representatives of the creative intelligentsia. Often the actions of young attack aircraft took on the character of bullying and beatings on teachers. Many party workers and teachers were killed as a result of the beatings with the Red Guards, some ended up being ashamed of the bullying. At the same time, the Red Guards themselves did not regret their actions at all, since they were completely confident that they were crushing the enemies of the Chinese revolution. They were set up by the youth leaders, who made fiery statements about the need for a tougher fight.



The target for the Red Guards were all religious objects - Buddhist and Taoist temples and monasteries, the Great Wall of China, part of which the attackers managed to demolish. Having attacked the Peking Opera, the Red Guards destroyed all the theater requisites. In the streets, militants attacked passersby who were not modestly dressed or had hairstyles, in the opinion of the "Red Guards". Women broke heels on their shoes and cut off the braids, the men were broken open pointed shoes. Some units of the Red Guards actually turned into groups of criminals who broke into houses and, under the pretext of checking the owners for revolutionary reliability, were engaged in their robbery.

Amazingly, the actions of the Red Guards, even those who had openly a criminal tint, did not meet with opposition from the Chinese law enforcement agencies. Although the police of the Ministry of Public Security of China continued to exist and was quite able to stop the ongoing lawlessness, she chose not to interfere with what was happening. This was explained by the fact that Colonel-General Xie Fuechzhi (1909-1972), the Minister of Public Security of the People's Republic of China, who was appointed Mayor of Beijing in 1967, also directly supported the Hunveibins. Xie Fuezhzhi personally appealed to the police officers not to pay attention to the Red Cross killing and violence, as this is a manifestation of the revolutionary energy of the masses.

Zaofany detachments were predominantly staffed by young unskilled workers. Their leaders were no more than thirty years old, while the bulk of the zзаofane was much less. Like many young people, the tszeophans were characterized by excessive aggressiveness, rejection of older generations, including skilled workers or party workers, who in property terms lived much better than the tsaofani themselves. The Zauofan organizations were based in many cities in China, but the main centers of the movement were Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing and Guangzhou. The zazofani considered their main task to be the implementation of the Cultural Revolution in factories, factories, and also in various offices, among the younger staff of which were also members of the "insurgents" detachments.

With the help of the zaoofan, Mao Zedong wanted to create a structure of self-government workers, so he initially welcomed their initiative. In particular, in Shanghai, the zофofane groups seized the city committee of the Chinese Communist Party and formed the Shanghai commune. Mao Zedong came out in support of this action, but seizures of enterprises and party structures throughout China did not lead to the desired result. Zaofan lacked neither education, nor managerial and even everyday experience in order to fully lead party structures or enterprises. Therefore, in the end, there were two options for the completion of their actions - either they called for "old cadres" from among party workers, or real chaos began.



As a result of the Cultural Revolution in China, clashes began also between the Red Guards themselves and the tsaofans. The Red Guards were divided into “red” - children of wealthy parents and officials, and “black” - workers 'and peasants' children. There was unconditional hostility between the two groups. Of course, there were also many contradictions among the zaofans with the Red Guards. In some cities, the city party committees tried to take advantage of the protection of the Red Guards against the Zauofans, in other cities - on the contrary.

Widely known, including outside of China, received a so-called. "Wuhan incident". Part of the People’s Liberation Army of China under the command of General Chen Zaidao, who at that time held the post of Commander of the Wuhan Military District, were sent to Wuhan to pacify the "counter-revolutionary groups". However, the general defeated not only the party activists who tried to defend the city party committee, but also the Red Guards. At the same time, he arrested Colonel General Xie Fuzhi, the very Minister of Public Security of China. The soldiers loyal to Chen Zaidao did not allow the landing of the plane carrying Zhou Enlai himself in Wuhan. This was a blatant disobedience to Mao Zedong himself. Three infantry divisions of the People’s Liberation Army of China were sent to Wuhan to pacify General Chen Zaidao. Not wanting to clash with army units, Chen Zaidao surrendered to the authorities, after which he was dismissed from his post. Nevertheless, the actions of General Chen Zaidao were the first example of the army’s participation in the suppression of the illegal actions of the raging Red Guards and the Zзаofan.

The Cultural Revolution brought China many problems that Mao Chairman himself realized soon enough. He realized that “he had let the genie out of the bottle” and the units of the Red Guards and the Zauofans now not only deal with his opponents, but also threaten his own power. After all, it is possible that in the end they could turn against the leadership of the CPC Central Committee headed by Mao Zedong, declaring the latter an “old reactionary”. In addition, there was real chaos in the country. The enterprises stopped their work, since the zaofani who had captured them could not organize the production process. Cultural life has virtually ceased, the educational institutions seized by the Red Guards did not work.

Almost as quickly as the time was given the go-ahead to the complete freedom of action of the Red Guards and the Tsauophans, it was decided to suppress their activities. It happened exactly one year after the famous appeal "Fire to the headquarters." Mao Zedong called the Red Guards as politically immature youth, counter-revolutionaries, and sent against them parts of the People’s Liberation Army of China and the Ministry of Public Security. 19 August 1967 was more than 30 of thousands of PLA soldiers entered Guilin, where the real “cleaning” of the city from the Red Guards continued for six days. All members of the "Red Guard" detachments were destroyed. In September 1967, the leadership of the Red Guards decided to dissolve all the Red Guard units and organizations. 27 on April 1968 in Shanghai was sentenced to death and several leaders of the Zофofan detachments were publicly shot. Five leaders of the Red Guards sent to work at the pig farm. In total, only in the autumn of 1967, more than a million young people were sent to remote areas of China - yesterday's Red Guards and the Zauan. Now, in the position of exiles, they were to raise the economy of the Chinese province. The “purges” of the Chinese youth from the Red Guards and the Zuofans continued until the beginning of the 1970s. By this time, the number of young people exiled to correctional work in the province amounted to over 5,4 million.

In 1971, the group of military leaders closest to Mao Zedong was also defeated. At the head of this group was Marshal Lin Biao (nafoto) - the Minister of Defense of China, who by then was actually considered the official successor to Chairman Mao. According to the official version, Marshal Lin Biao was plotting to overthrow Mao Zedong, whom he accused of perverting Marxism, Trotskyism and social fascism. But the plans of the conspirators became known. 13 September 1971 Mr. Lin Biao with several colleagues tried to fly to the northeast, but the plane crashed due to lack of fuel. A number of high-ranking generals and senior PLA officers were arrested, and about a thousand military officers were removed from their posts.

In 1972, Colonel-General Xie Fuzhi, who was called one of the main patrons of the Red Guards in Chinese power structures, died suddenly. In the same year, General Chen Zaidao was rehabilitated, the first to turn his army against the raging youth. However, the turn against the Red Guards did not mean an end to the Cultural Revolution. It just took more organized and pragmatic forms. Now, the victims of the Cultural Revolution were, for example, representatives of the national minorities of China, especially the Mongols from Inner Mongolia, who were accused of working for hostile states (Mongolia, as we know, was the closest ally and supporter of the USSR in Central Asia, and the Chinese Mongols obviously believed potential fifth column of the MPR in China).

The cultural revolution has done great damage to the development of China and is negatively assessed by the modern leadership of this country. As early as 1981, a CPC resolution was adopted, which stated: ““ The Cultural Revolution ”was not and cannot be a revolution or social progress in any sense ... it was a turmoil caused by the top through the fault of the leader and used by counter-revolutionary groups , troubled, which brought serious disasters of the party, the state and the entire multiethnic people. "
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  1. -1
    5 August 2016 06: 35
    In the light of the current state of the PRC, the cultural revolution was still a blessing in spite of all its shortcomings. Let’s recall, if it weren’t for the defeat of the Trotskyists in the USSR, there would have been a victory in 37, Mao, seeing what happened to the USSR after the death of IVS Stalin, decided that this should not be allowed in China and accepted measures, yes there was enough blood and tyranny, but today Mao, a popular politician in the PRC, was in China busts and portraits of the helmsman everywhere, as the CCP decided 45% did good and the rest was on the conscience of history and ended this discussion.
    1. +3
      5 August 2016 10: 00
      Quote: apro
      as the CCP 70% decided, he did good and the rest is on the conscience of history and ended up discussing it.

      Well done Chinese. Stop talk about this. Not like ours. Ours needs self-flagellation and dusting our heads with ashes - oh, how bad we are, oh, what a Stalin a tyrant. It has long been necessary to do exactly the same. I hope that over the years this will happen as with Peter the Great, who was also a tough and even cruel ruler, made quite a few mistakes, but is considered a positive character in popular memory.
      1. jjj
        +7
        5 August 2016 10: 17
        The Red Guards are boys. The revolutionary girls were called jiaofani. There was also the process of "Criticizing Lin Biao and Confucius". For many years China was carried away by such miracles. Steel-making furnaces were built in the courtyards of ordinary houses. In Heihe, I counted about sixty such brick pipes.
        For no reason, people ran in columns with red banners, shouting something. After Damansky, the Soviet-Chinese border was the hottest. There were constant events that were not publicly covered. We used to go by boat, and from a Chinese passenger steamer - it has a paddle wheel in the back like in the film "Volga-Volga" - people wave red books with quotes from the great helmsman. And we have pilot cards on our boats in red bindings and covers, only half a meter by half a meter. Here you wave in response and enjoy the hot response.
        How time is running ...
      2. -2
        5 August 2016 10: 42
        Quote: Alex_59
        but in popular memory is considered a positive character.

        I will delight - in the people's memory "Petka the Cursed", "Tsar-Antichrist" did not remain any positive hero, but on the contrary, the only tsar of Russia with a sharply negative image.

        People’s memory is somewhat different than an official story.
        1. +1
          5 August 2016 12: 03
          Quote: Warrior2015
          I will delight - in the people's memory "Petka the Cursed", "Tsar-Antichrist" did not remain any positive hero, but on the contrary, the only tsar of Russia with a sharply negative image.

          I have no desire to argue about this.
    2. +3
      5 August 2016 10: 17
      Small fix. Lin Biao did not take off for the "northeast", as the article says, but intended to fly to the Soviet Union. But the plane crashed in Mongolia. About 20 years ago, I read about this in a flock, where it was said that the guards, introduced by Mao to Lin Biao, sensing something was wrong, entered into a firefight with other guards. The plane was damaged and fell.
    3. +3
      5 August 2016 10: 40
      Quote: apro
      China's cultural revolution was still a blessing

      Just smoke on the sidelines and quietly stunned .... There are people. That they themselves would try what is the revolution in Chinese.
      1. +3
        5 August 2016 10: 53
        I have enough counter-revolution in Russian.
      2. avt
        +1
        5 August 2016 15: 01
        Quote: Warrior2015
        Quote: apro
        China's cultural revolution was still a blessing
        Just smoke on the sidelines and quietly stunned .... There are people. That they themselves would try what is the revolution in Chinese.

        laughing This is YES! laughing Tovarisch really does not imagine what they had, it’s not Stalin’s sharazhki request for cigarettes and a diet with butter. They actually took them to the village to grazing grubs, which naturally would be left from the cattle and with work not even for the workdays of the collective farm. For the part of sophisticated torture, the Chinese have been unsurpassed masters for centuries. Just so they would sweat
        Quote: avt
        ! The Chinese Communist Party officially called this period, especially the rule of the "gang of four", fascist with elements of feudalism

        Oh, and who, and those who really delivered this verdict they themselves experienced this in their own skin, BUT, again, with the deceased, they didn’t settle accounts with our deceased, although they didn’t feel joy at the sight of Mao’s mausoleum, but as I wrote
        Quote: avt
        ... The merits of Chairman Mao, in spite of the "excesses" in the establishment of the PRC, CANNOT be revised!

        And yo-yo-yo-yo! Why? Yes, because unlike the hunchback and company, for them their own country has a way to realize their ideas and earn money, that’s the whole thing, and not partly, and not a product for sale, like for stage designers. They clearly know there in China - why the hell are they, even with billions, nobody needs without their country under their control.
    4. +3
      5 August 2016 20: 03
      Regardless of the time and place of action, the defeat of industrial enterprises and educational institutions, as well as a total violation of law and order and rampant crime cannot be a blessing. No matter how wrong the Trotskyists were, but even for them it would be stupid to smash some plant would be the height of idiocy.
      What happened in China, now in Ukraine, gangs of degenerates destroy the economy with the connivance of the authorities and law enforcement agencies, with the exception that in Ukraine they connive, but in China they indulge
  2. +8
    5 August 2016 07: 09
    I immediately remembered:
    "Near the city of Beijing
    They walk, roam the Red Guards,
    And old paintings
    Searching for the moonwebs,
    And not that the Red Guards
    Love statues, paintings:
    Instead of statues there will be urns
    "Cultural Revolution".

    And the main thing, I know very well,
    How they are pronounced -
    But something very indecent
    Asks me for the language:
    Hung-wei-bins ...

    That came up with them fun
    Their leader comrade Mao:
    Do not go, children, to school -
    Come beat sedition!
    And not that these kids
    There were at all youngsters, -
    Chopped up these babes
    Very many on burgers!

    And the main thing, I know very well,
    How they are pronounced -
    But something very indecent
    Asks me for the language:
    Hung-wei-bins ...

    Here we sat a little,
    And now cheat -
    Something quiet, in fact, -
    Thought Mao with Liao Bian, -
    What else ukontrapupish
    World atmosphere:
    Here we will show a large fig
    USA and the USSR!

    And the main thing, I know very well,
    How they are pronounced -
    But something very indecent
    Asks me for the language:
    Hung-wei-bin ... "
    V.S. Vysotsky
    1. +1
      5 August 2016 22: 21
      Thank you, recalled the text that I heard in early childhood in the 1967 year.
  3. +4
    5 August 2016 07: 28
    A similar "cultural revolution" - "the revolution of guiding", took place in Ukraine .. Thank you, Ilya ..
  4. +3
    5 August 2016 08: 08
    From that moment, tension began to grow on the Soviet-Chinese border. The indigenous inhabitants of the Chinese border began to move inland. The provocations that ended with Damansky began. Life on the border with the PRC was alarming. Life on the border calmed down, sometime in the 80th year. But there were no longer those relationships that were around 1962.
    1. +7
      5 August 2016 10: 52
      Quote: Amurets
      From that moment, tension began to grow on the Sino-Soviet border ...

      Or maybe from that moment it all began, including and the destruction of the USSR:

      “Nationalists and careerists, bribe takers came to power in the USSR after 1953. Covered from the Kremlin. When the time comes, they will drop their masks, throw away party cards and will openly rule their counties as feudal lords and serfs ... ”
      Mao Zedong
      "New China" Beijing, 1964 Number 12
      1. +1
        6 August 2016 10: 07
        Quote: Boris55


        “Nationalists and careerists, bribe takers came to power in the USSR after 1953. Covered from the Kremlin. When the time comes, they will drop their masks, throw away party cards and will openly rule their counties as feudal lords and serfs ... ”
        Mao Zedong
        "New China" Beijing, 1964 Number 12


        Wonderful words, because an elderly person was a man, but he saw far ahead. 25-30 years old.
        Yes, with the death of Stalin, everything changed.
  5. avt
    +8
    5 August 2016 08: 33
    The cultural revolution has done great damage to the development of China and is negatively assessed by the modern leadership of this country. As early as 1981, a CPC resolution was adopted, which stated: ““ The Cultural Revolution ”was not and cannot be a revolution or social progress in any sense ... it was a turmoil caused by the top through the fault of the leader and used by counter-revolutionary groups , troubled, which brought serious disasters of the party, the state and the entire multiethnic people. "
    Furthermore! The Chinese Communist Party officially called this period, especially the rule of the "gang of four", fascist with elements of feudalism and ........ Chairman Mao's merits, despite the "excesses" in the establishment of the PRC, CANNOT be revised! And his mausoleum bashfully with rags for the holidays with the parade do not hang! This is how, however, the Chinese deal with the continuity of the history of China - under no circumstances do they tear their history to pieces and selectively do not approach it, understanding the fragility of the state structure, despite the seeming monolith of the state. Learn, "destalinizers", although .... not in the horse feed.
    1. +1
      5 August 2016 10: 39
      Quote: avt
      Learn, "destalinizers", although .... not in the horse feed.

      Actually, they still have the Communist Party at the helm officially. So go by.
      1. avt
        +1
        5 August 2016 13: 20
        Quote: Warrior2015
        . So go by.

        Exactly . We have at the helm for a moment a guarantor from "the vanguard of the Central Committee of the CPSU, selflessly devoted to its cause."
        Quote: Warrior2015
        Actually, they still have the Communist Party at the helm officially.

        And which OFFICIALLY admitted by its decision to its ranks with the issuance of party cards to the rich. Teach the materiel in China, even the real renegade of the classical communist idea, Dan Seo Ping and his team, who spent much time under house arrest, having introduced capitalism in communist China, didn’t break people through the knee by removing Chairman Mao from the mausoleum, but the followers didn’t change the flag , they didn’t hang rags on the mausoleum. What's the difference? Having scored hunchbacked commies on ideology in the pursuit of money, they ruined the country, and the Chinese, in the same pursuit of money, saved the country. The tutors arranged a sale for enrichment, and the Chinese, for the same enrichment, instead of selling the flocks, use the country and its state administrative ideological machine. That’s the whole difference and the result is obvious.
  6. +6
    5 August 2016 10: 00
    Ilya, great article, thanks! In general, the story of the so-called "cultural revolution" perfectly demonstrates the essence of almost any revolution - barbarism. Barbarism at its highest.
  7. 0
    5 August 2016 11: 30
    Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
    Ilya, great article, thanks! In general, the story of the so-called "cultural revolution" perfectly demonstrates the essence of almost any revolution - barbarism. Barbarism at its highest.

    And sometimes these university professors, crippling the souls of our children, running from one television show to another, and in every possible way showing their lack of loyalty to the Western master, would like so much ...

  8. +1
    5 August 2016 11: 51
    Darmoedov and bureaucrats were cleaned. Good deed. Comrade Mao respect.
  9. +2
    5 August 2016 13: 09
    I read a book about Mao about 10 years ago. John Holliday and Yun Zhang "Unknown Mao", bought before the trip from Nizhny to Chelyabinsk (it cost 500 rubles) and read this whole volume avidly in a day. I liked the book.
  10. 0
    5 August 2016 15: 30
    Other psychology and other actions, motivation, etc.
    China for the Sinists.
    You can somehow talk about Europe (east and cent), where the Slavs. but India, China, Lat America requires immersion (to live, do not talk with the natives, but you need to communicate for a long time) to understand without words, with a half-hint
  11. -2
    5 August 2016 18: 55
    Quote: apro
    In the light of the current state of the PRC, the cultural revolution was still a blessing in spite of all its shortcomings. Let us recall 37 years if it had not been for the defeat of the Trotskyists in the USSR there would have been victory in 45,

    Argument! And if it were not for the victory in 45, then there would be no collapse of the Union in 1991, so it turns out?
  12. +2
    5 August 2016 20: 03
    Formally, the hunweibins were completely autonomous youth groups, in their practical actions guided by their own understanding of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. In fact, they were personally directed by Mao Zedong and his wife Jiang Qing. This explains the almost complete impunity of their actions,


    In three sentences, the essence of "network" social movements is revealed. Like the Ukrainian "It's time!" or the Russian Defense. Which to the question "Who are your leaders?" with a blue eye, they answered that they had no leaders, that they were "a self-governing networked social movement." But at the same time, they were so confident in their impunity that it was clear to everyone that the guys had a "cool roof." Better than the local government ...
  13. +1
    5 August 2016 22: 24
    The article is good. The disadvantage is the lack of captions for the photo. For example, in the text of the last picture three generals are mentioned, and who is in the photo?
    1. 0
      7 August 2016 10: 18
      There in the text there is a phrase: "Marshal Lin Biao (pictured) was at the head of this group." This is the third paragraph from the bottom. So everything is signed.
  14. +1
    6 August 2016 03: 51
    V. Vysotsky, by the way, had several songs on the topic of the Cultural Revolution, on the Internet there is, if anyone is interested ... The Union discussed all this quite hotly, and how many jokes, there was time. I recall a ditty: I fell in love with a hunveibin and hung a portrait, take a look in the morning what a wonder, the hung hangs, but there is no bin. To the author of the article, thanks, plus.
  15. +1
    6 August 2016 09: 57
    Thank you very much for the article! I learned new about a complex historical phenomenon.
    Truly "the revolution is devouring its children."
    "The Russians cannot understand the Chinese.
    What device to measure everything ... "
    I'd love to learn more about China from your articles, Ilya.
    Here is Tiananmen Square. Controversial information from various sources about this event.
    Or --- I read that during the perestroika Gorbachev traveled to the CMEA countries and taught everyone to rebuild there. But China did not want to listen to it ????? !!!!! I wonder how this visit went, although it’s clear that the Chinese always smile and Lavrov’s phrases did not tell him. What a pity !!!!!
    Sincerely.
  16. 0
    9 August 2016 00: 59
    Quote: Reptiloid
    the Chinese always smile

    What to do, their traditional oriental cunning in their genetic memory.