Military Review

Unknown history of Russia: the battle of Molodyah

34
“This day is one of the great days of military glory: the Russians saved Moscow and honor; approved in our citizenship Astrakhan and Kazan; they avenged the ashes of the capital and, if not forever, then at least for a long time, the Crimeans were relieved, filling them with the corpses of the earth between Lopasnya and Rozhay, where high mounds and monuments of this famous victory and glory of Prince Mikhail Vorotynsky still stand. ” Thus determined historical the significance of the Battle of Molodi, the great Russian historian Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin.




Surprising and obscure is the fact that such an outstanding event, on which no more, no less depended, and the very existence of the Russian state, is still practically unknown and deprived of the attention of historians and publicists. We will not be able to find references to the Battle of Young, which these days marks 444, in school textbooks, and in the curricula of higher education (with the exception, perhaps, of some humanitarian universities), this event also remains without proper attention. Meanwhile, the historical role of the Battle of Molodi is no less significant than the victory of the Russian army on the Kulikovo Field or Lake Peipsi, than the Poltava or Borodino battles.

In that battle, on the outskirts of Moscow, a huge Crimean-Turkish army came together under the command of Khan Devlet-Girey and the regiments of the Russian Prince Mikhail Vorotynsky. According to various sources, the number of “Crimean Tatar troops who came to be the Tsar of Moscow” ranged from 100 to 120 thousand, which they had before the 20 thousand janissaries provided to help the Great Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. The garrisons scattered from Kaluga and Tarusa to Kolomna provided total defense for the southern frontiers of Muscovy; their total number barely reached 60 of thousands of warriors. According to various estimates, about 40 thousands of people took part in the battle with Devlet-Giray. And, despite this obvious advantage, the enemy was crushed by Russian regiments.

Well, let's turn to this little-known page in the annals of our history today and pay tribute to the steadfastness and heroism of the Russian army, which defended, as has happened more than once, both the people and the fatherland.

Historical background of the battle with the young. The invasion of Devlet Giray 1571 of the year and its consequences

The history of Russia of the XVI century is in many respects the history of the restoration of Russian statehood, which for many centuries was destroyed by the princely civil strife and the Golden Horde yoke. On the southern and eastern borders of Muscovy, a dense ring was squeezed by fragments of the Golden Horde: Kazan, Astrakhan, Crimean Khanate, Nogai Horde. In the west, the ancient Russian lands languished under the yoke of the powerful Polish kingdom and Livonia. In addition to the constant wars and predatory raids of hostile neighbors, Russia was also suffocating from internal misfortune: the endless boyar squabble for power. Before the first Russian Tsar Ivan IV, crowned in the kingdom in 1547, was the hardest task: to survive and preserve the country under these conditions, to secure its borders and create conditions for peaceful development. To solve this problem without military victories in such a neighborhood was impossible.

In 1552, Ivan IV goes to Kazan and takes her by storm. As a result, the Kazan Khanate was annexed to Moscow Russia. From 1556, Ivan IV also becomes king of Astrakhan, and the Nogai horde, headed by Khan Urus, turned into a vassal dependence on Moscow. Following the annexation of Kazan and Astrakhan, the Siberian Khanate recognized itself as a tributary of Moscow. In addition, the Caucasian minor princes began to seek from the Tsar of Moscow protection for themselves and their peoples and from the raids of the Crimean Tatars, and from falling under the authority of the Ottoman sultanate.

Moscow more and more pushed the boundaries of its influence on the Muslim states that surrounded Russia from the South and the East in a tight ring. The northern neighbor, gaining geopolitical weight, became a real problem for the Ottoman Empire and its vassal - the Crimean Khanate, who considered the Muslim states located along the borders of the Moscow kingdom an area, as they say, of their geopolitical interests.

Another danger for the Russian kingdom hung on its western borders. In 1558, Ivan IV begins a war with Livonia, which initially developed quite successfully for the Moscow autocrat: a number of castles and cities, including Narva and Dorpat, were taken by assault. The successes of the Moscow tsar forced Livonia to seek military-political alliances, and in 1561, the Livonian Confederation entered the Lithuanian principality, of which Livonia was a vassal. And in 1569, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland united into a single Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The military-political alignment of forces radically changed not in favor of Moscow, and this was aggravated by the inclusion of Sweden in the war. Military actions acquired a protracted nature, which is why Ivan the Terrible had to keep significant forces of the Russian army in the early seventies of the 16th century in the Baltic States.

Thus, at the beginning of the 16th century 70, the main military resources of Ivan IV were associated with the western theater of military operations. For the Crimean Khanate and the Ottoman Empire, a very convenient political configuration and deployment of military resources arose, which they could not use. On the southern borders of the Russian kingdom was becoming increasingly restless. Frequent raids of the Crimean Tatars brought ruin to Russian settlements, captive men, women, children became a profitable commodity in the slave markets on both sides of the Black Sea.

However, the border raids could not withdraw from the dependence of the Nogai Horde and the Siberian Khanate, could not tear Kazan and Astrakhan from the Russian kingdom. This could be achieved only by breaking Moscow’s ability to scale military confrontation. And for this we needed a victorious war.

Unknown history of Russia: the battle of MolodyahIn 1571, the Crimean Khan Devlet-Girey gathers a forty-thousand-strong army and advances to Moscow. Not encountering any serious resistance, he walked around the chain of fortifications (the so-called "cross-lines"), went to the outskirts of Moscow and set the city on fire. It was one of those fires in which the entire capital city burned out. There are no statistics of damage to that terrible fire, but its scale can be judged by the fact that practically only the Moscow Kremlin and several stone churches survived the fire. Human sacrifices numbered in the thousands. To this should be added a huge number of full of Russians, taken both during the attack on Moscow and on the way to it.

Arranging the burning of the capital of the Russian kingdom, Devlet Giray considered the main goal of the campaign achieved and deployed an army. Taking with them thousands of captured Russians (some sources say about 150 thousands of people who were taken as “living goods”) and transports of stolen goods, the Crimean Tatar army moved back to the Crimea. In order to emphasize the humiliation inflicted, Devlet-Girey sent a knife to the Moscow Tsar, "so that Ivan slaughtered himself."

After the devastating 1571 invasion of the year, Moscow Russia seemed to be no longer able to rise. 36 cities were slaughtered, burned villages and farms had no account at all. Hunger began in a devastated country. In addition, the country waged war on the western borders and was forced to hold significant military forces there. Russia after the invasion of the Crimean 1571, seemed easy prey. The previous plans of the Ottoman Sultanate and the Crimean Khanate changed: they already had little restoration of the Kazan and Astrakhan Khanates. The ultimate goal was the conquest of all Russia.

With the support of the Ottoman Empire, Devlet Girey gathers an even larger army, which in addition to the Crimean Tatar soldiers included selected regiments of Turkish janissaries and Nogai cavalry units. In early June 1572, the one hundred thousandth Crimean Tatar army moved from Perekop fortress to Moscow. The uprising of the Bashkirs, Cheremis and Ostyaks, inspired by the Crimean Khanate, became part of the military campaign plan.

The Russian lands, as was done by almost everyone who had come to fight Russia for centuries, were already divided between the Khan Murzians. As they say in the annals of that time, the Crimean Khan went "... with many forces on the Russian land and painted all the Russian land to whom that dati, as with Batu.". About himself, Devlet-Girei said that he was going “to Moscow to the kingdom” and, in everything, he had already seen himself on the Moscow throne. Tsar Ivan IV was prepared for the fate of the captive. Everything seemed to be a foregone conclusion, and only the last fatal blow had to be dealt. It was not long to wait.

Bits

What could burned Moscow, not heal wounds, ravaged by last year's invasion of the Crimeans, to oppose such a force? It was impossible to remove troops from the western direction, where there were constant clashes with the Swedes and the Commonwealth. Zemsky garrisons, guarding the approaches to the capital, was clearly not enough to contain a powerful enemy.

For the command of the Russian forces, which were to meet the Tatar-Turkish horde, Ivan the Terrible calls upon Prince Mikhailo Vorotynsky. On the historical personality of this outstanding person is to briefly hold attention.

The fate of Prince Mikhail Ivanovich Vorotynsky, a descendant of the old Russian branch of the Chernigov princes, was not simple. After the capture of Kazan, he received not only the rank of a boyar, but also the highest rank of a Tsar's servant, which meant elevation over all boyar names. He was a member of the Middle Tsar Duma, and from 1553, Mikhail Ivanovich became a voivode at the same time as Sviyazhsk, Kolomna, Tula, Odoev, Kashira, Serpukhov. But the royal favor, ten years after the capture of Kazan, turned into disgrace. The prince was suspected of treason and collusion with Alexey Adashev, after which Ivan the Terrible exiled his family to Belozersk.

... In the face of the impending mortal danger, Ivan the Terrible calls for the command of the disgraced prince, unites the Zemsky and Oprichny units into one army and gives them under Vorotynsky.

The main Russian forces in the number of up to 20 thousands of Zemstvo and Oprichnich soldiers stood border guards in Serpukhov and Kolomna. The Russian army was reinforced by 7 by thousands of German recruits, among whom Heinrich Staden’s cannon fights were fought, and there was also a small number of “worthy ratification” (the people's militia). 5 thousand Cossacks under the command of Mikhail Cherkashin came to the rescue. A little later the Ukrainian Cossacks arrived, numbering about a thousand. The total number of troops that had to fight with Devlet Giray, numbered about 40 thousands of people - this is all that the Moscow kingdom could gather to repel the enemy.

Historians differently determine the date of commencement of the battle of the Young. In some sources, 26 is called July 1572, when the first armed clash took place, most sources consider July 29 as the date when the main battle events began. We will not argue with either one or the other. Ultimately, let historians deal with chronology and interpretation of events. It is much more important to understand what could have prevented a merciless and skillful enemy with a powerful and tested army in campaigns, more than twice as strong as the Russian, to break the mortally wounded and devastated country, which by all indications did not have the strength to resist? What power could stop what seemed inevitable? What were the sources of not just victory, but the complete defeat of a superior enemy.

... Coming up on the Don, on July 23, on July 1572, the Tatar-Turkish army stopped at Oka; on July X. The Crimeans began to force the river. The first crossed the 27-thousandth avant-garde of the Crimean army, who led Teberdey-Murza. He was met by a small guard squad of "children of boyars", in which there were only 20 soldiers. This detachment was headed by Prince Ivan Petrovich Shuisky. Shuisky's squad fought desperately, but the forces were too unequal, almost all the soldiers of the squad were killed in this battle. After that, the avant-garde regiments of Teberdey-Murza reached the Pakhra River near today's Podolsk and stood there awaiting the approach of the main forces. On the night of 200 July, the main forces of the Tatar-Turkish army also crossed the Oka River.

Devlet Giray, having rejected the regiments of the "right hand" of princes Nikita Odoyevsky and Fyodor Sheremetev in a bloody battle, moved to Moscow bypassing Tarusa and Serpukhov. After him went the advanced regiment of Prince Khovansky and the oprichnny regiment of Prince Khvorostinin. The main forces of the Russian troops were at Serpukhov. In the same place, Vorotynsky placed a “walking-city” (mobile wooden fortress).

Thus, there was a strange, at first glance, arrangement: the avant-garde and the main forces of the Crimeans were moving toward the Russian capital city, and the Russians followed in their footsteps. There were no forces on the way of the Tatar-Turkish army to Moscow among the Russians. In his book “The Unknown Borodino. Molodinsk battle of 1572 of the year "А.Р. Andreev gives the text of the chronicle, in which it was stated that the Rusich troops followed in the footsteps of the Tatar army, because “So much worse is the king that we follow him to the rear; and he guards Moscow ... ".

The strangeness of the actions of the regiments of Mikhail Vorotynsky was in fact a part of his plan, which, along with the courage and desperate fearlessness of the Russian soldiers, ultimately led the Russian army to victory.

So, the avant-garde army of Devlet Giray was already stretched along the Pakhra River (in the northern suburbs of modern Podolsk near Moscow), and the rearguard barely reached the River Rozhayka near the village of Molodi (modern Chekhov district of the Moscow Region). This stretch and took advantage of Russian troops.

July 29 Mikhail Vorotynsky throws into the attack on the rearguard of the Tatar army regiment of the young oprichnogo voivode Prince Dmitry Khvorostinin. The rearguard of the Khan's army consisted of powerful and well-armed foot regiments, artillery and selective Khan's cavalry. Commanded the rearguard of the two sons of Devlet Giray. The enemy was clearly not ready for an unexpected attack by the Russians. In a fierce battle, the khan units were practically destroyed. Survivors throwing weapon, fled. Khvorostininsky guardsmen rushed to pursue the enemy who had fled and drove him until the collision with the main forces of the Crimean army.

The blow of the Russian guardsmen was so powerful and unexpected that Devlet Giray was forced to stop the march. It was dangerous to move further to Moscow, leaving behind considerable Russian forces behind its back, in its unprotected rear, and even though Moscow was left for a few hours, the Crimean Khan decided to deploy the army in order to give Rusichs a battle. It happened what Vorotynsky was counting on.

Meanwhile, the guardsmen of Dmitry Khvorostinin met in a fierce section with the main forces of the Khan's army. The Russians fought desperately and Devlet Giray was forced, turning around on the march, to bring more and more of his units into battle. And so it seemed that the Russians broke and began to depart. Vorotynsky’s plan was to set up a battle, with the subsequent false retreat of Khvorostinin to force the Khan army to pursue him. So it happened. Wanting to develop success, the army of Devlet Giray rushes to pursue the retreating Rus.

... While the guardsmen of Khvorostyninsky smashed the rearguard of the Tatar-Turkish army and the Khan sons, and then fought with the main forces of the Crimeans who had developed, Vorotynsky, on a convenient hill near the village of Molodi, launched a "walking-city". Russian fortifications were reliably covered by the River Rozha (now this river is called Rozhayka).

And so July 30 the detachment of Khvorostinin with a prepared maneuver leads the pursuing forces of Devlet-Girey at the hurricane fire of cannons and pishchal, located in the "walking-city" and at the foot of the hill of the Russian troops. The real meat grinder began. The overwhelming forces of the Crimeans repeatedly rolled onto the shelves of the Rus, but could not penetrate the defense. The fight dragged on. For this turn of events, Devlet Giray was not ready.

July 31 Crimean Khan with all his strength rushes to the attack of the "walk-city". More and more new troops are coming to the assault, but it’s not possible to break through the defensive formations of the Russian regiments. “And on that day a great deal of battle would come, from the wallpaper of the soles of the mnosi, and water mixed with blood. And in the evening the regiments were uncovered in the train, and the Tatars in their camps. ". Devlet-Girey bears huge losses, Teberdey-Murza dies in one of the attacks, under whose command the vanguard of the Crimean army was.

1 August the storming of the Russian regiments and the “walk-of-the-city” was headed by Divey-Murza, the second man in the army after the Crimean Khan, but his attacks failed. Moreover, Divey-Murza came under a successful Russian raid and was captured by Suzdal Temir-Ivan Shibaev, son of Alalykin, during the chase. Here is how this episode is described in the annals, the text of which is given in his book “The Unknown Borodino. Molodinsk battle 1572 gda "A.R. Andreev: “... the argamak (one of the eastern breeds of riding horses - EM) stumbled under him, and he did not sit down. And here, Evo took the Isa of Argamak dressed in armor. The Tatar overlap became weaker than before, and the Russian people mobilized and, getting out, beating, and in that battle the Tatars beat many ”. In addition to the chief commander that day, one of the sons of Devlet Giray was captured.

All the time, while holding “the walk-city”, the troops of Vorotynsky stood without a wagon train, having neither food nor water. In order to survive, the Russian army, exhausted from starvation, was forced to slaughter their horses. Know this Devlet-Girei, he could change tactics and impose a siege on the "walking-city". The outcome of the battle in this case could be different. But the Crimean Khan clearly did not intend to wait. The proximity of the capital of the Russian Kingdom, the thirst for victory and malice for failing to break the regiments of Vorotynsky that had become a stone clouded the mind of Khan.

It has come 2 August. Embittered Devlet Giray again sent an avalanche of his attacks on the “walk-city”. Khan unexpectedly ordered the cavalry to dismount, and on foot along with the Turkish janissaries go on the attack of the "walking-city". But the Russians still stood insurmountable. Festering from hunger and tormented by thirst, the Russian warriors stood to death. There was neither despondency nor fear among them, for they knew what it was worth, that the price of their resilience was the existence of their power.

Prince Vorotynsky August 2 undertakes risky maneuver, which finally predetermined the outcome of the battle. During the battle, a large regiment, located in the rear, secretly left the “walking-city” and went through the hollow to the rear to the main parts of the Crimeans. There he stood up in a military formation and waited for a conditional signal.

As envisaged by the plan, the artillery struck with a powerful volley from the "walking-city" and the regiment of the oprichnaya prince-governor Dmitry Khvorostinin and the German reiters who fought with the Russians left the defensive line and started a battle. At this time, a large regiment of Prince Vorotynsky hit the rear of the Tatar-Turkish army. Started fierce slashing. The enemy considered that powerful reinforcements had arrived at the Russians, and he faltered. The Tatar-Turkish army turned to flee, leaving mountains of fallen on the battlefield. On that day, in addition to the Tatar warriors and Nogais, almost all 7 thousands of Turkish janissaries were killed. It is also said that the second son Devlet-Girey, as well as his grandson and son-in-law, fell in that battle. The guns, banners, tents, everything that was in the wagon train of the Tatar army and even the personal weapon of the Crimean Khan were seized by the Vorotynsky regiments. Devlet Giray fled, the scattered remnants of his troops were driven by the Russians to Oka and beyond.

A chronicle of the time states that “In the evening of August in 2, the king left the Crimean king in the evening to withdraw three thousand frisky people in the swamp of the Crimean Totar, and the king himself ran the night and Oka River climbed the same night. And the governors learned in the morning that the king of the Crimean ran and all the other people came to the totar and all those totar struck the River Oka. But on the Oka River, the Crimean king left fortar two thousand people to protect him. And those totar were beaten by a man with a thousand, and some of many other ones perished, and the others went beyond the Oka. ”.

During the persecution of the Crimean footmen before the crossing over the Oka, the majority of those who fled were killed, in addition, the 2 thousandth Crimean rearguard was destroyed, whose task was to cover the crossing of the remnants of the Tatar army. No more than 15 thousand warriors returned to the Crimea. BUT "Turks, - as Andrei Kurbsky wrote after the Molodinsk battle, - all disappeared and did not return, say, not one in Constantinople ".

The outcome of the battle

It is difficult to overestimate the value of victory in Molody. After the devastating raid of Devlet-Giray in the 1571 year and the burning of Moscow, after the devastation caused by the devastation, the Russian kingdom barely stood on its feet. Nevertheless, in the conditions of the ongoing war in the West, Moscow managed to defend its independence and for a long time eliminated the threat posed by the Crimean Khanate. The Ottoman Empire was forced to abandon plans to return the middle and lower Volga region in the sphere of their interests, and these regions were assigned to Moscow. The territories of the Astrakhan and Kazan Khanate were now finally and permanently incorporated into Russia. Moscow strengthened its influence in the South and East of its borders. Border fortifications on the Don and Desna were diverted 300 kilometers to the South. Conditions were created for the peaceful development of the country. It was the beginning of the development of arable land in the chernozem zone, previously belonged to the nomads of the Wild Field.

If successful, for Devlet-Girey of his campaign against Moscow, Russia would most likely become part of the Crimean Khanate, which was under the political dependence of the Ottoman Empire. The development of our history could go on a completely different vector, and who knows which country we would live in now.

But these plans have broken about the steadfastness and heroism of the warriors who defended the Russian state in that memorable battle.

In the history of the country, the names of the heroes of the battle of Molodi - the princes Shuisky, Khovansky and Odoyevsky, Khvorostinin and Sheremetev - should stand next to the names of Minin and Pozharsky, Dmitry Donskoy and Alexander Nevsky. Also, tribute to the memory of the German recruits of Heinrich Staden, who led the artillery of the "walking-city", should be paid. And, of course, the commander’s talent and great courage of Prince Mikhail Ivanovich Vorotynsky, without which this great victory could not have been, are worthy of perpetuation.

Sources:
Andreev A.R. Unknown Borodino. Molodinsk battle 1572 year.
Buganov V.I. The story of the victory over the Crimean Tatars in 1572 year // Archaeographic Yearbook for the year 1963.
V. Kargalov. Russian governors of the XVI-XVII centuries. M .: Russian word, 2011.
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  1. Neputin
    Neputin 6 August 2016 07: 14 New
    16
    When reading such articles you will always find out some new facts, unknown, or maybe missed earlier. Very interesting. There would be more such publications and not only in VO. Most of the people who are on this site and so are the patriots of their country. But young people should know the glorious pages of the history of their country.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Nicholas C.
      Nicholas C. 6 August 2016 09: 57 New
      24
      About a dozen articles about the Molodin battle have been published on topwar alone. And the articles are good, unlike this one. It is strange that for the author this Battle is "unknown".

      The article contains typical Svidomo fantasies about how many sworn sworn m ..
      Quote: Author M. Eliseev
      SOME SOURCES they say about 150 thousand people fat who were taken by "live goods"

      When referring to SOME SOURCES, know, they want to deceive you. Sources are not "some", they are always specific. Figures of this order arose in Turkish boast, but they also related to the general damage to Russia: captured, killed, burned down in a fire. "Historians and publicists (! Oh how)", who, from the author's point of view, "deprive attention", write about the Battle. For example, R. Skrynnikov estimates the number of people taken away to full at 10 thousand people. In general, it is clear with which side the author.

      The author also reports without indicating the source:
      Quote: Author M. Eliseev
      Arrived a little later and UKRAINIAN (!!!) Cossacks numbering about a thousand.
      Apparently, so that we know, thanks to whom the remission happened. The problem is that at that time the Zaporozhye Cossacks did not hear and could not hear anything about any "UKRAINIAN". The Cossacks considered themselves Russians. Khmelnitsky: "for our little Russia ... eradicate the Church of God, so that the Russian name is not remembered in our land"

      Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire comp. under the leadership of M.M.Speransky and published in 1830 T. 1 p. 318

      The word "Muscovy", which the author uses, was brought into circulation by the Jesuits and was used only by them. For me, anyone who uses it is a Jesuit-enemy of Russia. This (about "Muscovy") and other dogmas of Svidomite education are exposed in more detail in N. Kostomarov, whom Ukrainians tried on even for the role of their "icon", in "Truth to Poles about Russia" www.voskres.ru/idea/kostomarov.htm.
      1. Chiropractor
        Chiropractor 6 August 2016 11: 11 New
        +5
        Quote: Nikolai S.
        Devlet Giray, dropping the shelves of the “right hand” of Princes Nikita Odoevsky and Fedor Sheremetev in a bloody battle, moved to Moscow


        Which fight? Where was the fight? Whose "right hand" were these shelves? How many are there? After the withdrawal of the regiments of the "right hand" - the "right hand", what became in the center - the "brow" and the regiments of the "left hand" - "shuitsy"?
        Porridge....

        Where are the captions for the images?

        Why do archers and cavalry attack at the same time in the first image? Why is the article about the defeat of Krymchaks and Turks, and the Poles attacked in the image?
        1. Russ_Dry
          Russ_Dry 8 August 2016 06: 42 New
          +1
          left hand means right and left flank
      2. Su24
        Su24 4 October 2016 22: 16 New
        +1
        Nifiga you bomb. The article contains just a few exaggerations and inaccuracies. Do you write anyone who disagrees with you as "enemies"? Then you are just a fanatic.
      3. cazac
        cazac 9 November 2017 10: 44 New
        0
        In fact, Muscovy is not originally a city, but a territory. This territory is comparable to the territory of the modern Golden Ring. Muscovy included a number of cities and lands that were directly controlled by a person who was on the throne and were not inherited. Of the cities included in Muscovy, the capital was appointed during this period of rule, if the first person did not appoint any city that attracted him. So in the history of Russia there were capital cities such as Kostroma, Ryazan, Constantinople (aka Kiev, aka Tsar Grad), Vladimir (with a government center after Suzdal and before being transferred to Yaroslavl), Suzdal (the original city with a government center) , N. Novgorod, Yaroslavl (it is also a city with a center of state administration after Vladimir) - these are those that are confirmed by historians, and from unconfirmed, but until now, legends about the capital - Vienna, Cologne and even Lukhovitsy, Mozhaysk, as well as others e the capital of the Russian principalities, for example Chernihiv. As for Novgorod (Veliky Novgorod), on the one hand they could call the New Capital of the state, and subsequently give it the Name, or the whole of Russia, i.e., again to the name of the settlement and a certain territory.
        So, I don’t think that Muscovy (Prince MOSOKHA) is an Izuit name, but turned into an Izuit one during the time of the Romanovs (they wanted to restore the former state with its own government.
        And under the Romanovs, who were assigned at the beginning the appropriate place, i.e., west and south to the notch line, east to the banks of the Volga, north to the ocean, it turned out that they had been given the territory with the original Muscovy, and they gave them a small region in Modern Germany, which was received by the Zakharyins-Yurievs under the Novgorod division of lands.
    3. kamikaze
      kamikaze 6 August 2016 22: 12 New
      +1
      GLORY TO HEROES OF THE RUSSIAN MILITARY WAREAN AND SOLDIERS. ETERNAL MEMORY
    4. Vend
      Vend 8 August 2016 10: 52 New
      +1
      And there is a monument. You can certainly put something more monumental.
  2. Max repp
    Max repp 6 August 2016 07: 30 New
    +4
    The most valuable - the names of the fate of the heroes of their country - it is priceless. Thanks a lot to the author, write more.
  3. avt
    avt 6 August 2016 07: 36 New
    +8
    Quote: Neputin
    , and maybe missed earlier.

    More precisely, devoted to oblivion. It seems like they are not forbidding, well, as the de-Stalinists nowadays practically demand to erase from the memory of the USSR in general even the Stalin period even more so, and this is a glorious, outstanding victory. Which was not lucky with only one - well, during the time of Vanya, No. 4 happened, and this is all one that the Stalin period in the USSR. Well, like, by definition, there couldn’t be anything good, only everything according to the Lungin film.
  4. kalibr
    kalibr 6 August 2016 07: 44 New
    +8
    Dear author! It’s accepted and decent to write captions for illustrations that you insert into the text, especially if this is a picture of a famous artist. If this is a photograph of a monument, they write where it is installed, when, and again, the author is called. If you use illustrations from Viskovatov’s book, then you should write it and not wrap a piece of text around the picture. There is no sense in this, but it looks ridiculous. In addition, when you provide a list of references, it should be executed according to one sample. That is, if you write M.: and indicate the publisher, then you need to write this about every book. A trifle, of course, it is so customary. This is an indicator of respect for the reader, it is a manifestation of the culture and academism of Russian historical science. The best in it must be preserved, used and augmented. You should not rush when writing articles!
    In addition, the title "picture" itself was chosen poorly. This also depicts an attack by 300 nobles led by Minin near Moscow and they are fighting with the Poles, but this does not happen under Molodi. It is clear that no one drew the battle. But there is the Kremlin Armory fund, the Topkapi museum fund ... there is a lot. Let's leave on the conscience of the artist everything that he depicted there, but illustrating his material, one must strive to match the text and the "picture".
    And, perhaps, the last. It is written in children's books "in the annals of that time ...". The site VO "thing" is serious and you have written serious material, so it would be nice to give at least the name of the chronicle and its year. And then, for example, the author of articles about the Battle of the Ice often confuses chronicle materials with the text of "Life ...". And these are two different things!
  5. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 6 August 2016 07: 52 New
    +3
    The article is certainly good, and the battle is truly outstanding. But the picture was clearly chosen poorly - no connection with the Battle of Molody, even the opponent of the other, not Crimean Tatars.
  6. parusnik
    parusnik 6 August 2016 08: 29 New
    +4
    They fought with the Tatars, and where does the picture depicting the battle as I understand the militias of Minin and Pozharsky with the Polish troops of the hetman Khodkevich ... at the walls of Moscow .. And why not known .. the battle .. it would be possible to find out how this battle was classified .. ...
  7. Zymran
    Zymran 6 August 2016 09: 02 New
    +2
    Here is a more accurate and detailed article on those events.

    http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/srazhenie-pri-molodyah-28-iyulya-3-avgusta-1572
    -g
  8. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 6 August 2016 09: 46 New
    +3
    Change the picture, please. For on it is the battle of the Russo-Polish war half a century later.
  9. pafegosoff
    pafegosoff 6 August 2016 10: 42 New
    +8
    With the Internet, I listened at Goblin’s Dead End about this battle. The historian Zhukov is a true military historian. And about this battle it is useful to listen to, read from different angles.
    The battle is incredible, comparable to Kulikovskaya, Borodinsky ... The fate of Russia!
  10. Cartalon
    Cartalon 6 August 2016 13: 18 New
    +3
    It’s a well-known battle, the article is weak, and Grozny drove himself into a difficult strategic situation, why, contrary to Adashev’s opinion, start a war in Livonia with a hostile Crimea in the rear, that’s why they got a war all around the borders.
  11. King, just king
    King, just king 6 August 2016 14: 01 New
    +2
    Ouch. Figures are what. 100-120 thousand Tatars + 20 Janissary. From Crimea, rocky terrain, grass - cattle were bred. You cannot live on meat alone. There is no water, no roads, nothing.
    Where did the mobilization resource of a hundred thousand fighters come from? And how much is left in the Crimea? By 1-2 Clockwork Horse. A herd in 200-300 of thousands of horses, do the authors of the calculation even imagine a horse as such?

    200 fighters at the crossing against the 20000 vanguard allegedly fought ... Why fight there. Shooting at a range of flight of an arrow, that’s the whole battle.
    1. Pissarro
      Pissarro 6 August 2016 14: 14 New
      +2
      Why fight there. Shooting at a boom range, that's the whole battle


      At the range of the arrow, it’s not just armor, you won’t break the padded jacket.
      1. King, just king
        King, just king 6 August 2016 15: 27 New
        +1
        Nda? Good at half-range boom flight.
        500 people riding horses on the right, 500 people riding horses on the left, 500 people riding horses in the rear, from the front 1000 jumped. So there is no Russian detachment.
        Ischo smart thoughts have?
        1. King, just king
          King, just king 6 August 2016 20: 11 New
          +1
          Everything is as usual. With clever thoughts, he strained the minus. Besides putting a minus, there’s not enough mind for anything. Long familiar picture. No dialogue, no monologue ...
    2. Alexey T. (Oper)
      Alexey T. (Oper) 6 August 2016 20: 17 New
      +5
      Quote: King, just king
      Ouch. Figures are what. 100-120 thousand Tatars + 20 Janissary. From Crimea, rocky terrain, grass - cattle were bred. You cannot live on meat alone. There is no water, no roads, nothing.
      Where did the mobilization resource of a hundred thousand fighters come from? And how much is left in the Crimea? By 1-2 Clockwork Horse. A herd in 200-300 of thousands of horses, do the authors of the calculation even imagine a horse as such?

      200 fighters at the crossing against the 20000 vanguard allegedly fought ... Why fight there. Shooting at a range of flight of an arrow, that’s the whole battle.

      Archaeologists estimate the number of Devlet-Giray troops not more than 40-45 thousand, the size of the troops of Grozny - about 20-25 thousand.
      More simply physically could not expose.

      The Livonian war, with the maximum tension of all the mobilization resources of the Moscow state during the period of Ivan the Terrible, the Russian army sent to the campaign, there were about 45-thousand soldiers. At the same time, everyone who they could, including the decrepit and calic warriors from among the service people, was gathered on a campaign. It should be borne in mind that in those periods the land army was not assembled and the war was a matter exclusively for noblemen and servants.
      1. King, just king
        King, just king 6 August 2016 21: 56 New
        +2
        I think the Krymchaks were 20 thousand, and maybe less. With a 40th exclusively mounted army, a painfully long column is obtained. Horses would not be fed. I would have to follow several columns at a sufficient distance from each other.
        Perhaps separate units gathered at the scene of the battle, perhaps. But 40-45, I think, is a bit much. Still, more than 100 thousand horses.

        Plus, I think, Krymchaks and full of decent dragged with them. And if they were immediately sent to the Crimea, the number of soldiers by the number of convoys accordingly decreased.
      2. cazac
        cazac 9 November 2017 09: 51 New
        0
        But if we assume that they came to plant the Romanovs on the throne and overthrow the legitimate authority, then you can allow 100 thousand troops. According to some estimates, over 200 thousand people fighting for power encountered at Kulikovsky Field. In a civil war, the whole country is divided into fighters.
  12. The centurion
    The centurion 6 August 2016 15: 14 New
    +3
    According to the meaning and description of the article "walk-town" this is Wagenburg. Meanwhile, as far as I know, this is a "steppe tank"
    1. The centurion
      The centurion 6 August 2016 15: 27 New
      +2
      Quote: Centurion
      According to the meaning and description of the article "walk-town" this is Wagenburg. Meanwhile, as far as I know, this is a "steppe tank"

      Or such a tank
  13. Heimdall47
    Heimdall47 6 August 2016 18: 21 New
    0
    ... a huge Crimean-Turkish army under the command of Khan Devlet-Girey and the regiments of Russian Prince Mikhail Vorotynsky.

    Still, the regiments were not Vorotynsky, but Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich.
    And to call the Russian army 16 centuries Rusics is somehow strange. This term is an outdated concept of the times of Kievan and Vladimir Russia. As well as the Russians.
  14. Cat
    Cat 6 August 2016 20: 30 New
    +2
    The self-designation "rusichi", "dew" and "rusy" are found in documents of the later 17th century. For example, in the description of Yermak Timofeich's campaign "On the Conquest of Siberia", the story was added by monks at the Tobolsk Monastery, according to the participants in the campaign in the 20s of the 17th century. Although there are other more anarchic inclusions, for example from Plutarch - "sparkling with bronze". The very concept of "Russian" was fixed in the dictionary circulation by the middle of the 16th century.
    1. Heimdall47
      Heimdall47 6 August 2016 22: 17 New
      +1
      Quote: Kotischa
      The self-designation "rusichi", "dew" and "rusy" are found in documents of the later 17th century. For example, in the description of Yermak Timofeich's campaign "On the Conquest of Siberia", the story was added by monks at the Tobolsk Monastery, according to the participants in the campaign in the 20s of the 17th century. Although there are other more anarchic inclusions, for example from Plutarch - "sparkling with bronze". The very concept of "Russian" was fixed in the dictionary circulation by the middle of the 16th century.

      Leave the bronze aside.
      Could not find
      in the description of the campaign of Ermak Timofeich "On the conquest of Siberia"
      such a name. Do not tell me where it is there?
      By the document indicated by you, I mean the polls in 1621 of the first Tobolsk archbishop Kiprian of the surviving associates of Yermak about their conquest of Siberia.
      Or do you mean something else?
      The reference to some multiple documents of the 17th century is also interesting. What kind of documents are these?
      1. Cat
        Cat 6 August 2016 23: 46 New
        0
        Yes you are right.
        According to other sources, I will make a selection and send it to you in PM.
        I draw your attention to the work of Kostomarov and Skrytnikov on the emergence of the concepts of Russia and Ros, as well as Gumilyov, he has a good description of self-identification and the Byzantine influence on the emergence of the name Russia.
        Especially about the "bronze" also at Skrytnikov.
        Regards, good night.
        1. Heimdall47
          Heimdall47 7 August 2016 14: 19 New
          0
          Quote: Kotischa
          I draw your attention to the work of Kostomarov and Skrytnikov on the emergence of the concepts of Russia and Ros

          Skrytnikov is Skrynnikov?
          He drew attention to various works (both by Kostomarov and Skrynnikov), in connection with which he expressed his opinion that the term "Rusich" by the 16th century is archaism. I have not heard a single document / art. works of that time, where this name would be used. I would be glad to see quotes from such hypothetical texts.
  15. Olena
    Olena 8 August 2016 09: 18 New
    +2
    -It's great ... -Probably this battle at Molody is rarely mentioned for reasons of "political correctness" -because almost all the Turks-aggressors were destroyed, and their vassals, the Crimean Tatars, suffered enormous losses and their military leadership was "beheaded" ...
    -I just didn’t understand about the famine that began in the ranks of the Russian army during the siege of "walk-gorod" ... -Because the entire period from July 30 to August 2 is not such a long period ...
    -Does the Russian army really have no food reserves ...
    -And basically, it's all just brilliance ... -Fellow Ivan the Terrible ... -I found someone to put at the head of the army, who could then organize everything so cool ...
    1. cazac
      cazac 9 November 2017 09: 57 New
      0
      I understand that in addition to this article, you have not read about this battle. But if you read, I think your opinion will change dramatically.
  16. optimist
    10 August 2016 09: 25 New
    +2
    From the author: Thank you very much for your interest in the topic and your comments. When preparing the next publications I will try to take into account your advice and comments as much as possible.
  17. Molot1979
    Molot1979 29 September 2016 13: 49 New
    +2
    Some military historians consider the true author of the victory not of Vorotynsky, but of Khvorostinin. In fact, Vorotynsky was not particularly distinguished in the military field, while Khvorostinin won many more victories.
  18. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 12 November 2016 16: 56 New
    +1
    Author: M. Eliseev
    If successful, for Devlet-Girey of his campaign against Moscow, Russia would most likely become part of the Crimean Khanate, which was under the political dependence of the Ottoman Empire. The development of our history could go on a completely different vector, and who knows which country we would live in now.
    Alternative history? Oh well.
    It was impossible to remove troops from the western direction, where clashes with the Swedes and the Commonwealth were constantly ongoing. Zemsky garrisons guarding the approaches to the capital were clearly not enough to deter a powerful enemy
    In early June 1572, the XNUMXth Crimean Tatar army moved from Perekop fortress to Moscow.
    Oh no no no. There are 100 thousand of them, and there are only 40 of us. And whether we are. Some "German recruits" 7000 people. Curious. Where were they caught, on what threshing floor? Petya was not yet there, neither was Catherine. And, I understand, I understand, I understand .... the author softened, he could not write "mercenary". And then somehow it turns out inconveniently, the mercenaries were hired to die for money. On the other hand, there is beauty: the Germans saved Moscow and erected a monument to them. Yes, 1000 glorious Ukrainians galloped up to fight for Moscow. Actually the Cossacks.
    5 thousand Cossacks under the command of Mikhail Cherkashin came to the rescue. Actually Cherkashenin
    In general, that is a dark matter. The official story is silent or chewing on a rope. Yes, it is understandable. Under the Romanovs, everything that related to Grozny was a taboo, and the sources were cut out. So it turns out our 25 from the bottom of 000 Germans. (see. VIKI) Your deeds are wonderful, Lord!
    We will wait for further developments. As for a couple of dozen articles on the topic, this is an indicator of interest, not HISTORY.
    1. cazac
      cazac 9 November 2017 09: 45 New
      0
      At that time, Germans were called people who did not speak (or bad) in Russian (narrow-eyed too). Such troops were recruited specifically to protect strategic facilities or specially protected persons. Naturally, they were paid increased salaries and armed at the expense of the state and very well. Such troops were considered an elite and their presence in a particular army testified only to the fact that they fought for legal power. Specifically, in this article, I assume that this is, after all, the latest appendix of the “historians” -fixers.
      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 9 November 2017 16: 46 New
        0
        cazac Today, 09:45
        At that time, Germans were called people who did not speak (or bad) in Russian (narrow-eyed too).
        1. sources.
        2. Dear, you my friend is not a racist, but a complete KY. (For the "soil" you need to answer)
        1. cazac
          cazac 10 November 2017 09: 18 New
          0
          Do not confuse the Germans with the Germans. German from the word dumb !!!! (i.e. not speaking). And if you live in the 21st century, do not confuse it with the 13th. Laws 13 do not always fall on the 21st century. DOUBLE KYU.
          1. Mavrikiy
            Mavrikiy 10 November 2017 11: 05 New
            0
            Quote: cazac
            Do not confuse the Germans with the Germans. German from the word dumb !!!! (i.e. not speaking). And if you live in the 21st century, do not confuse it with the 13th. Laws 13 do not always fall on the 21st century. DOUBLE KYU.

            1. Another nonsense. The Germans called those from the west who did not know our language. And since the Germans perled on us, they left the name to them.
            2. narrow-eyed who are I understand. Chinese? They did not climb here, they had their own business ... And we understood the rest and communicated. So they are not Germans.
            3. I repeat: SOURCE! No? So this is KJ.
  19. cazac
    cazac 8 November 2017 17: 30 New
    0
    Arranging the burning of the capital of the Russian kingdom, Devlet Giray considered the main goal of the campaign achieved and deployed an army. Taking with them thousands of captured Russians (some sources say about 150 thousands of people who were taken as “living goods”) and transports of stolen goods, the Crimean Tatar army moved back to the Crimea. In order to emphasize the humiliation inflicted, Devlet-Girey sent a knife to the Moscow Tsar, "so that Ivan slaughtered himself."
    Actually after that, it seems to me that the kings changed to Semion Bekbulatovich, and in the political sense the convictions were criticized, that is, young Ivan V (supported by the Zakharyev-Yuryevs) was simply exchanged for Semion (supported by the boyars).
  20. cazac
    cazac 9 November 2017 09: 34 New
    0
    Arranging the burning of the capital of the Russian kingdom, Devlet Giray considered the main goal of the campaign achieved and deployed an army. Taking with them thousands of captured Russians (some sources say about 150 thousands of people who were taken as “living goods”) and transports of stolen goods, the Crimean Tatar army moved back to the Crimea. In order to emphasize the humiliation inflicted, Devlet-Girey sent a knife to the Moscow Tsar, "so that Ivan slaughtered himself."
    Actually after that, it seems to me that the kings changed to Semion Bekbulatovich, and in the political sense, the conviction of the oprichnina, that is, young Ivan V (supported by the Zakharyev-Yuryevs) was simply changed to Semion (supported by the boyars). Knowing the history, and how the Romanovs acted with it, it is also unclear who won anyway and when such a massacre took place. Having gained power in 1613, the Romanovs of all the heroes of Khovansky and Odoevsky, Khvorostinin and Sheremetev exalted and only forgot Shuisky, or maybe they couldn’t for political reasons, but they still didn’t forget him and left a mark in history. I suppose that this massacre nevertheless happened already at the beginning of the 17th century, and the Crimeans left the territory of Moscow and were attacked by Romanov’s minions.