Of all the wars between Russia and Turkey, the 1711 war of the year, known as the Prut campaign of Peter the Great, was the most unsuccessful for Russia. Among the most important reasons for the defeat were the consequences of the conflict between the Russian state and the Cossacks and, as a result, the small participation of the Cossacks in this war on Russia's side.
It was the Cossacks who had experience of constant and sometimes very successful struggle against Turkey. The Donets in 1641 fought off the 250-thousandth Turkish-Tatar army in Azov. The Cossacks, together with the Dontians (surpassing them quantitatively by an order of magnitude) at that time, constantly made sea raids on the shores of the Crimea and Turkey. These raids even got the name "Bosphorus War".
But an attempt to catch fugitives among the Don Cossacks and enlist them (as recruits) in the standing army being created led to the well-known Bulavinsky uprising of the 1708 of the year and the cruel suppression of freemen. “For this is saryn,” as Peter I wrote, “apart from cruelty, it cannot be settled.” Yet in the spring of 1709, from the Don Cossack Army, 2000 Cossacks were sent to Smolensk service to join the detachment of the B.S. Korsak.
Peter I went to the Russian army stationed in Ukraine. Even before Peter I “pacified” the Don army finally, hetman Mazepa came out against the emperor. October 24 1708, he crossed the Desna and himself arrived at the Swedish outposts. Since the betrayal was being prepared secretly, he took about 2000 people with him.
On November 6 in Glukhov, Colonel Skoropadsky was elected a new hetman of Ukraine. 12 November Mazepa was anathematized in Moscow in the Assumption Cathedral. Support for Mazepa had only Cossacks. And Peter sent A.D. Menshikov decree take and destroy Sich. Most of the defenders were killed, 300 people were captured.
June 27 in the Battle of Poltava, the Swedes suffered a terrible defeat. Late on the evening of June 30, the wounded Karl XII crossed the Dnieper. Mazepa crossed over with the king and soon died on September 22 1709 in Varnita near Bender.
The whole 1710 year was especially successful for Peter's accomplishments in the Baltic. 4 July capitulated Riga. Participation in the siege of Riga is the only specific event of the Donians, marked by the first Don historian Rigelman. He speaks about others sparingly and vaguely: “And above all, many in the whole ongoing war against the Swedes in many places and in Finland themselves were used with utility, also in 711 with the Sovereign against the Turks in Moldova at the Prut River. And on the Don, leave together with the Kalmyks, led by General-Admiral Count Theodore Matveyevich Apraksin, to guard the Tatar and Turkish attacks in the Russian borders. ”
One of the consequences of the victory at Poltava was an undesirable war with Turkey. Naturally, in the Ottoman Empire there were forces that were striving for war against Russia, first of all, Tatars. The observance of peace between Russia and Turkey deprived them of their most important source of income - the capture of prisoners and the slave trade. It was worth Peter before leaving for Poltava to appear on the Don and in Azov, as the Tatar population became agitated, calling on the Turkish authorities to war with the Russians.
In October, Peter 1710 demanded that the Swedish king be removed from Turkish territory and threatened war, but on November 20, at a ceremonial meeting of the sofa, the Turks themselves decided to start a war. The campaign of their troops led by the Grand Vizier was supposed in the spring of 1711. The first military actions began the Crimean Tatars. Turks have long been waiting for them. After the end of the Azov campaign and the conclusion of peace between the Sultan and the Russian Tsar, the Turkish authorities prohibited the Krymchaks from attacking Russian lands.
In December, 1710, the initiator of the war, the Crimean khan Devlet-Girey met in Bendery with the Swedish king Carl XII and the hetman of Right-Bank Ukraine Philip Orlik. Calculated strength. In addition to the Crimeans and the Nogai vassals of the Crimea, the parties were accompanied by the registries of Philip Orlyk, who had fled to Mazepa, and the Cossacks, who had been knocked out by the Menshikovs of the Sich, and the Poles who were hostile to Tsar Peter and King Augustus II.
After consulting, the Khan, the King and the Hetman decided to strike at Right-Bank Ukraine with the combined forces of the Khan's son Mehmed Giray with Orlikists and the Poles, and at the same time with the forces of the Crimean Khan and the Zaporozhians in Left-Bank Ukraine.
Russian about such a foray and assumed. Lieutenant-General, Prince M.M. Golitsyn, the brother of the Kiev governor, December 26 reported from Yaroslav: “And their very intention, as their rivers will become, in order for them to come: Khan and Orlik to Ukraine, and the Turks themselves with the Swedish king and with the power of Kamianets Podolsky in Polschy”.
And on the very first day of the new 1711, Peter decided to divert the Tatars, to organize a campaign from the Volga and from the Don across the steppe to the Kuban. To do this, deployed a corps near Voronezh under the command of Admiral FM. Apraksin, subjecting him to cash in the service of the Don Cossacks in the number of 5 thousands of people. In Russia, the war has not yet been declared; the troops were moved south from Livonia. Lieutenant-General MM Golitsyn moved to the Moldovan border with ten Dragoon regiments.
On Baptism, 6 January 1711, Krymchaks crossed Perekop and poured into Ukraine in two streams. Khan's son Mehmed Giray led 40 000 Tatars and 7 000-8 000 Orlik's Cossacks moved along the right bank of the Dnieper. He was reinforced by the 700 Swedes, Colonel Züliha and the 400 Janissaries. The Bujak Tatars and 3 000-5 000 hosted by the Poles hostile to Tsar Peter, who crossed the Dniester from Bender, moved towards Mehmed Girey. Khan Devlet-Girei himself with the same number of Tatars and with 2000 Zaporozhian Cossacks went along the left bank, the advisers to him were 40 Swedish officers.
The raid was opposed by a few troops covering the Right-Bank Ukraine (formally, Polish territory). Prince Volkonsky with four dragoon shelves stood "at the border of a hair and with him Cossack and hairy shelves stand, but Major General Widman with 4 shelves are set in the vicinity of him, Volkonsky."
The eleven-thousandth corps of Major General F.V. Shidlovsky stood on the left bank of the Dnieper near Kharkov. For the battle in the field of these troops is clearly not enough, and the Russians had hope to defend themselves in the fortresses, until the north would come to the aid of the troops the king himself.
On the Russian left-bank side, the khan managed to seize the Novosergievka fortress (in the upper reaches of the river Samara), whose population, mostly former Cossacks, surrendered without a fight. Then the troops of Devlet-Girey went in the direction of Kharkov and Izum, but, faced with the Belgorod and Izyumsk fortress defensive lines, were repulsed. Khan was counting on the help of the Nogai from Kuban, but the Nogai did not come, and the Tatars turned in the beginning of March to the Crimea. In Novosergievskoy fortress Devlet-Girey left the garrison - 1,5 thousands of Cossacks and Tatars under the overall command of the Zaporozhye Colonel Nestuleya.
On the right bank, the campaign went on with varying success. In the first half of February, the 1711goda Tatars easily captured Bratslav, Bohuslav, Nemirov. The garrisons there were small and did not render much resistance to the Tatars.
Orlik began to distribute generalists so that local registries would join him and start fighting with “Moscow captivity”.
But 25 in March, Tatars Mehmed Giray and the Cossacks of Orlik (over 30 000 people) approached Belaya Tserkov and here, trying to storm the city, were defeated. On the Left Bank detachment F.V. Shidlovsky with a sudden blow returned the Novosergievsky fortress, thus clearing the left bank of the Dnieper from the Tatars and Zaporozhians. After these failures, Tatar detachments, who felt that they would soon return to the Crimea, rejected pretense and began to engage in looting and seizing civilians.
Commander-in-Chief of the Russian forces in Ukraine, General M.M. Golitsyn quickly assessed the situation, assembled the 9 dragoon and 2 infantry regiments and pressed on the heavily laden Krymchaks. Mehmed Giray, saving prey, began to go to Bender, in Ottoman possessions. Along with him, naturally, Orlik began to leave. 15 April 1711 of the year near Bohuslav Golitsyn overtook a part of the Crimeans and beat off over 7 000 captured captives. The raid is over.
Now the Russians were to deliver a return visit to the Tatars and Ottomans.
Formally, the manifesto on the war with Turkey was read in the Assumption Cathedral of the Kremlin in the presence of Tsar Peter 25 February 1711 of the year. But the war plan was made long before its announcement. For the first time, the plan envisaged the conduct of hostilities in three theaters - the Danube, the Crimea and the Caucasus. And it later became a kind of tradition in the wars of Russia against Turkey.
The main blow was planned to inflict on the Danube Theater. Peter I, hoping for the help of the rulers of Wallachia and Moldavia, decided to raise on both banks of the Danube to fight with the Turks local Christians, vassals of the Ottoman Empire.
12 April a military council was held in Slutsk. Peter consulted with Field Marshal B.G. Sheremetev and General L.N. Allart and Chancellor GI Golovkin and the Russian ambassador to the Commonwealth GF Dolgorukov. The council decided earlier that the Turks would approach the Danube and seize the crossings. The troops for the campaign planned to concentrate on the banks of the Dniester, in the Polish part of Ukraine. The advanced units of the Russian army were to reach the Dniester by May 15. Sheremetev with the infantry was supposed to go there no later than 20 in May, having a three-month supply of food. The troops reached the Dniester, but Peter himself was late for them, as he was negotiating with the Polish king and the Saxon elector Augustus II.
Due to the absence of Peter and food difficulties Sheremetev with the troops crossed the Dniester 30 in May, 10 days later than planned. But then it became known that the Turks of the Danube had already passed, they could not be intercepted or held at the crossings, and Sheremetev turned to Iasi. So, at the Danube Theater, initially everything went wrong according to the plan, as is well known, ended in defeat.
At the Crimean Theater, the campaign was led by General-in-Chief Ivan Ivanovich Buturlin and Hetman Skoropadsky himself. Russian troops consisted of 7 infantry regiments and 1 dragoon regiment (7178 people), with a hetman were 20 000 Cossacks. By warning the Russian offensive on the Crimea, Nuraddin Bakhti-Giray staged an attack on Thor and Bakhmut. Tatar raid was repulsed, but the campaign performance was delayed.
Finally, May 30, a day with Sheremetev, Buturlin and Skoropadsky made their way from Perevolochny and, burdened with cumbersome transports, dragged towards the Crimea. 7 June they reached Novobogoroditskoy fortress. The "languages" informed them that the 30 000 Tatars of Bakhti-Girey are standing in the headwaters of the Samara River and are awaiting a Russian offensive. Going further to the Crimea means leaving them behind me. But Buturlin was not embarrassed by this. Leaving part of the force for the protection of communications, he slowly moved through the Dnieper rapids. He covered himself with the Dnieper from the Yedikul horde and from the Dzhambuliuyk, and Ingulets - from the Edisan.
On the left flank, in the Caucasian theater, movement also began. Even in winter, the Russians exchanged letters with the Kabardian rulers, urging them to oppose the Tatars. Kabardians responded that they had a great hostility with the Kuban Tatars, and there would never be friendship between us until the death of ours.
Later, 20 000 Kalmyks Taishi Ayuki arrived. All this army steppe and Don moved to Azov, to strengthen more and Azov garrison.
On June 3, Prince Alexander Bekovich Cherkassky wrote to Peter from Kabarda on June 3 that he agreed with the local rulers: as the boyar Apraksin with the Russian army and the Kalmyks go against the Kuban Tatars, the Kabardians will also immediately come out against the Kuban. The distances and the primitive organization of communication did not allow the Russians to strike at all three theaters at the same time.
2 July Buturlin's troops arrived at Kamenny Zaton. This fortress was once built on the bank of the Dnieper to prevent the Zaporozhye Cossacks without the royal will of the Dnieper to go out into the sea, to quarrel the sultan with the king. The Kamenny Zaton was guarded by the Russian garrison - the Gulits and Yankovsky infantry regiments. From here to the Crimea it was within reach, and the hetman and Buturlin had already made plans how to land the troops on the Crimean coast.
7 July intelligence reported the withdrawal of the main forces of the Tatars from Perekop. The movement of the Russian troops was stopped, waiting for the Tatar attack. Only four battalions of Captain Postelnikov were sent forward, who burnt down the deserted smoking of the New Zaporizhian Sich and took four guns there. Zaporozhtsev in New Sich was not, they at that time fought behind the Dniester with the army of Tsar Peter himself.
The position of the troops Buturlin was extremely difficult. They have not yet crossed their border, but they have already spent supplies. And no wonder - for a whole month they were trampling almost in one place. Starvation, had to eat horse meat. The soldiers and the Cossacks began to scatter a little. The horde loomed beyond the Dnieper not far away, distracted. Meanwhile, 15 000 Tatars Bakhti-Girey moved to Sloboda Ukraine, to the Donets, Mirgorod, Bakhmut and Thor were threatened.
23 July Buturlin and Skoropadsky gave orders to their troops to retreat. Thus, the campaign to the Crimea was unsuccessful. As it became known, the day before, the troops of Tsar Peter himself, having signed an agreement with the Turks, began crossing back over the Prut. 1-3 August Russian crossed the Dniester.
But the Kuban campaign, which had been prepared for so long, entered its decisive stage. 17 August Apraksin, who did not receive information that the war was over and the world was signed, with 9 000 the soldier left Azov and moved south. The Kalmyk horde reached there.
On August 26, according to Apraksin's triumphant report, the bid of Nauraddin Bakhti-Giray - Kopyl was ravaged.