Military Review

Azov campaign 1696 of the year

Preparation of the second Azov campaign

Tsar Peter conducted the “work on the mistakes” and considered that the main problem is the river, sea component. Immediately began the construction of a "sea caravan" - military and transport ships and vessels. This venture had many adversaries - there was too little time for this task (one winter), the question was difficult from the point of view of organization, resource attraction, etc. But the plan was unswervingly put into practice. One by one, decrees and orders were issued from Moscow to the governors and town governors on the mobilization of people and resources.

Already in January, 1696 of the year in Voronezh shipyards and in Preobrazhensky (a village near Moscow on the bank of the Yauza River, where the residence of Father Peter, Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich) was located, launched a large-scale construction of ships and ships. The galleys built in Preobrazhensky were dismantled, brought to Voronezh, collected there again and launched on the Don. Peter ordered the spring to make 1300 planes, 30 sea boats, 100 rafts. To this end, carpenters, blacksmiths, working people were mobilized from all over Russia. The Voronezh region was not chosen by chance, for the local population the construction of riverboats was already a common trade for more than one generation. Total mobilized over 25 thousand people. Not only masters and workers traveled from all over the country, but also materials — wood, hemp, tar, iron, etc. — were carried. Work went quickly, and even more planes were built before the start of the campaign.

The task of building warships was solved in Preobrazhensky (on the Yauza River). The main type of ships under construction were galleys - rowing ships that had 30-38 oars, they were armed with 4-6 guns, 2 masts, 130-200 man of the crew (plus they could carry significant landing). This type of ship met the conditions of the theater of operations, galleys with their small draft, maneuverability, could successfully operate on the river, the shallow water of the lower reaches of the Don, the coastal waters of the Sea of ​​Azov. In the construction of ships was used early shipbuilding experience. Thus, in Nizhny Novgorod, the ship “Frederik” was built in 1636, in the 1668 year, in the village of Dedinovo on the Oka - the ship “Orel”, in the 1688-1692 years on Pereyaslavl Lake and in the 1693 year in Arkhangelsk, with the participation of Peter, several ships were built. For the construction of ships in Preobrazhensky, soldiers of Semenovsky and Preobrazhensky regiments, peasants, and artisans were widely attracted, who were summoned from settlements where shipbuilding was developed (Arkhangelsk, Vologda, Nizhny Novgorod, etc.). Among the masters, the Vologda carpenter Osip Shchek and the Nizhny Novgorod carpenter Yakim Ivanov enjoyed universal respect.

Throughout the winter, the main parts of the ship were made in Preobrazhenskoye: keels (hull base), frames (“ribs” of the ship), stringers (longitudinal beams going from bow to stern), beams (cross beams between frames), pillers (vertical supports supporting the deck) ), cladding boards, deck decks, masts, oars, etc. In February, 1696 prepared parts for the 22 galleys and 4 branders (a vessel filled with combustible substances for arson of enemy ships). In March, ship units were transported to Voronezh. Each galley was delivered on 15-20 carts. On April 2, the first galleys were launched, their crews were formed from the Semenovsky and Preobrazhensky regiments.

In Voronezh, also laid the first large three-masted ships (2 units), with quite strong artillery weapons. They demanded a large shipbuilding complex. On each of them decided to install 36 guns. By early May, built the first ship - 36-gun sailing-rowing frigate "Apostle Peter". The ship was built with the help of the Danish master Augustus (Gustav) Meyer. He became the commander of the second ship - the 36-gun "Apostle Paul." The length of the sailing-rowing frigate was 34,4 m, the width 7,6 m, the ship was flat-bottomed. In addition, the frigate had 15 pairs of oars in case of calm and for maneuver. Thus, in the Russian state, far from the seas, in an extremely short time could create a whole shipbuilding industry and built a "naval military caravan" - a detachment of warships and transport ships. When the troops arrived from Moscow to Voronezh, an entire armada of military transport ships — the 2 ship, the 23 galleys, about the 1500 planes, rafts, barges, and boats — were already waiting there.

Azov campaign 1696 of the year

Frigate "Apostle Peter"

In the same period, the army was significantly increased (by half - to 70 thousand people), at the head of it was put a single commander in chief - boyar Alexei Semenovich Shein. He was a participant in the campaigns of Prince V. Golitsyn, during the first Azov campaign he commanded the Preobrazhensky and Semyonovsky regiments, thus he knew the theater of military operations very well. Shein was the first in Russia who officially received the rank of generalissimo. As a result, the problem of unity of command was solved. True, Peter could put at the head of the army another experienced commander - Sheremetev, but for some reason he did not like the tsar. Perhaps due to age. Young Shein was closer to the king and he brought him into his circle. Sheremetev was awarded for the successful 1695 campaign and sent back to Belgorod.

Peter also took care of the involvement of military specialists in engineering, artillery and mines. Poorly aware of the capabilities of the Russian army and the capabilities of its commanders and exaggerating everything foreign, Peter Alekseevich began recruiting specialists in Germany and Holland. Later, including taking into account the Narva defeat in the war with Sweden, Peter gradually began to rely on the national cadre, and toughened the selection of foreigners, among whom there were a lot of different trashmen, pozaryvayu to high wages in Russia.

Campaign plan changed. Most of the troops — border regiments, noble cavalry and half of Little Russian Cossacks — were taken from Sheremetev. He left an auxiliary detachment - 2,5 thousand soldiers, about 15 thousand Cossacks. Sheremetev had to go down the Dnieper and distract the enemy from Ochakov. Under the leadership of Shein, the main forces gathered - 30 soldier regiments, 13 Streletsky, local cavalry, Don, Little Russian, Yaitsky Cossacks, Kalmyks (about 70 thousand people). The troops were distributed in three divisions - Golovin, Gordon and Rigemann. Command fleet Peter appointed Lefort. Peter left for himself the role of “scorer Peter Mikhailov,” and gave command to Shein as a whole.

The first Russian generalissimo Alexei Semenovich Shein

Second Azov campaign

23 April 1696. The first echelon of 110 transport ships with troops, artillery, ammunition and food began the march. After that, other ships, warships, began to go out. The 1000-kilometer trip was the first test for the crews, the skill of the sailors was honed in the process, the deficiencies were completed. The movement went quickly, went under sail and on oars, day and night. During the march, there was a process of developing the rules for organizing service on galleys, conducting sea battle - they were announced in a special “Decree on galleys”. The “Decree” referred to the order of signaling, anchoring, navigation in marching, discipline, and active combat operations against the enemy.

On May 15, the first detachment of galleys approached Cherkassk, where the vanguard of ground forces also arrived (troops marched on ships and land). Cossack intelligence reported that Azov has several enemy ships. 16 May Azov was besieged. May 20 Cossacks on their boats a sudden attack seized 10 transport ships (tunbas), in the Turkish squadron panic began. Taking advantage of the first success, the Cossacks were able to approach the Turkish squadron (it was at night) and set fire to one of the ships. The Turks took the ships, and one burned themselves, not having time to raise the sail.

On May 27, the Russian flotilla reached the Sea of ​​Azov and cut off the fortress from sources of supply across the sea. Russian ships took positions across the Bay of Azov. In the same period, the main forces approached the fortress, they occupied trenches and earthworks, built in 1695 year. The Turks in their carelessness did not even destroy them. The Ottomans tried to make a sortie, but they expected it. 4 of the thousand Don Cossacks, ataman Savinov, were ready and repelled the attack.

Shein refused immediate assault and ordered to "start trenches." The amount of engineering work was scheduled huge. Azov laid a semicircle, both flank rested against the Don. Behind the river was built "earthen town." Above the city a floating bridge was built on ships. Built batteries for siege weapons. Russian artillery began shelling the fortress. In Azov, fires began. Two strong batteries were placed at the mouth of the Don to strengthen the forces of the naval blockade. If the Turkish ships broke through our flotilla, these batteries would have prevented enemy ships from directly to Azov.

These precautions were not superfluous. About a month later, a Turkish squadron in the 25 pennants with 4 thousand troops approached the Azov garrison. Having found Russian galleys that blocked the mouth of the Don, the Turkish admiral Turnochi Pasha stopped his forces at a considerable distance. June 28 Turkish fleet attempted to land troops on the shore. On the Russian ships prepared for battle, we took off the anchors and went to meet the Turkish ships. The Ottomans, seeing the determination of the Russian flotilla for battle, retreated. Thus, the Turkish fleet refused to try to help the besieged garrison, Azov was left without outside help. This played an important role in further events: the Azov fortress was cut off from the supply of reinforcements, ammunition and food. Yes, and psychologically - it was a victory, the Turks were depressed, having lost hope of helping their comrades.

Russian artillery smashed the outer ramparts of Azov, and the infantry was digging the ground tirelessly, moving trenches closer and closer to the fortress. 16 June, our soldiers came right up to the moats. The garrison was offered to surrender, but the Turks responded with fire. Turkish soldiers still hoped to sit behind the powerful stone walls and towers, they were so thick that the cores did not take them. However, Shein still refused to assault. The commander-in-chief ordered a huge shaft around the fortress. We decided to move it and thus overcome the moat and climb the walls with the help of assault ladders and other devices. Large-scale engineering work began again. Shifts worked 15 thousand people. When the foreign specialists invited by Tsar Peter arrived, they were no longer needed. They did without them, they only wondered at the scale of the works that the Russians produced.

Contemporaries described these works as follows: “The Great Russian and Little Russian troops who were near the city of Azov were laying an earthen rampage to the enemy moat from everywhere evenly sticking and because of that shaft, ditch sweeping up and leveling it, with the same shaft through that ditch reached the enemy Azov shaft and the ramparts were reported only close, the hedgehog was possible with the enemies, except weapons, to be tormented with one hand; too, the land for their shaft throwing into the city fell. "

10 June and 24 June, our troops repulsed the strong attacks of the Turkish garrison, which 60 tried to help the thousands of Crimean Tatars, who were camped south of Azov, beyond the Kagalnik River. The Crimean prince Nureddin with his horde attacked the Russian camp several times. However, Shein put a noble cavalry and Kalmyks against him. They brutally beat and drove the Crimean Tatars, Nureddin himself was wounded and almost captured.

Val approached the walls, caught up with them in height. The batteries were installed on its crest, they swept through the whole Azov and inflicted heavy losses on the garrison. In addition, they prepared three mine trenches for blasting walls. The garrison was again offered to leave the city and leave freely, the Ottomans responded with fierce shooting. 16 July, our troops completed the preparatory siege work. 17-18 July Russian troops (1,5 thousand Don and Zaporozhye Cossacks) captured two Turkish bastions.

After that, the Turkish garrison was completely discouraged: the losses were heavy, the attacks failed, there was no help from Istanbul, the loss of basic positions began, artillery shelling now caused significant damage, as the Russian army had heavy weapons. July 18 was thrown white flag, negotiations began. The Ottomans were allowed to leave with personal belongings, and they left all the artillery and supplies to the victors. Shein even kindly offered to bring them on the Russian ships to Kagalnik, where the Tatars stood. Russian commanders put forward only one categorical demand: to issue “Nemchina Yakushka” - defector Yakov Jansen, who spoiled a lot of blood of the Russian army in 1695. Jansen at that time was “obsessed” - went to Islam, signed up to the janissaries. The Ottomans did not want to extradite him, but eventually gave way. 19 (29) in July, the garrison commander Gassan Bey capitulated.

Capture of the Azov fortress. Thumbnail from the manuscript 1-th floor. 18 century "History Peter I, Op. P. Krekshina. Collection A. Baryatinsky. SHM. The scene of the Turkish release of Yashka (Yakov Jansen), a Dutch traitor sailor, is included in the miniature.

From the garrison he left only 3 thousand people. Turkish soldiers and residents began to leave the fortress, loaded onto the piles and boats that awaited them. Gassan Bey was the last to leave Azov, laid down the flags of 16 at his feet, presented the keys and thanked him for honestly fulfilling the contract. Russian troops entered the fortress. The city found 92 guns, 4 mortars, large stocks of gunpowder and food. He could resist for a long time, if not for the skillful actions of the Russian army. July 20 capitulated also the Turkish fortress Lyutikh, which was located at the mouth of the northernmost arm of the Don.

The first regiments went north to Moscow in early August. 15 August left the king king. In the Azov Fortress, thousands of soldiers and 5,5 thousand of archers left the 2,7 garrison. In Moscow, in honor of the Azov Victoria staged an unprecedented celebration.

The capture of Azov. In the center, on horseback, Tsar Peter I and voivode Alexei Shein (engraving by A. Shhonebek)


Thus, the entire flow of the Don became free for the Russian courts. Azov became a Russian bridgehead in the Azov Sea. Tsar Peter I, realizing the strategic importance of Azov, as the first Russian fortress in the Black Sea region and the need to defend conquest (the war continued), on July 23 approved the plan of new fortifications of Azov. The fortress was badly damaged by Russian artillery. In addition, they decided to create a base for the Russian fleet, without which it was impossible to conquer the Black Sea region. Since Azov did not have a convenient harbor for basing the navy, already on July 27 chose a better place on Taganya Cape, where two years later they founded Taganrog.

Voevoda A.S. Shein 28 June 1696 was awarded the rank of Generalissimo (the first in Russia) for military successes. Later, Shein was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army, commander of artillery, cavalry and manager of a foreign order. Since 1697, Shein has led the work in Azov, the construction of the sea harbor in Taganrog, reflecting the constant attacks of the Tatars and Turks.

Azov campaigns in practice showed the importance of artillery and fleet for waging war. And Peter drew conclusions from this, he cannot be denied organizational skills and strategic thinking. October 20 1696 of the Year The Boyar Duma proclaims "To be ships of the sea ...". Approved extensive military shipbuilding program 52 (later 77) ships. Russia begins sending nobles to study abroad.

“Cut through the window” to the south completely failed. It was necessary to seize the Kerch Strait in order to get a passage from the Azov Sea to the Black Sea or to completely capture the Crimea. The king understood this very well. After the capture of Azov, he told his generals: "Now we, thank God, have one corner of the Black Sea, and in time, perhaps, we will have all of it." To the remark that this would be difficult to do, Peter said: "Not suddenly, but little by little." However, the war began with Sweden and plans to further expand the Russian possessions in the Black Sea region had to be postponed, and as it turned out for a long time. Fully implement the plans of Peter was only with Catherine II.

Articles from this series:
As the Russian army stormed the Azov
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Uncle Murzik
    Uncle Murzik 30 July 2016 05: 44
    Thank you for the article!
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. siberalt
      siberalt 30 July 2016 15: 38
      Without begging the fact and historical significance of the capture of the fortress of Azov, all the same, I would like to receive clarification about the rampart. First of all, at least in its parameters - length, width, height and volume of soil in cubic meters. Well, at least in average or approximate value. And in the second - at what distance this shaft was moved from its original position to the fortress walls. It is possible that from that time an army proverb went - two soldiers from the construction battalion replace the excavator. And then there are already 15 thousand diggers. I would like to know this grand military tactical find in numbers.
      1. PKK
        PKK 31 July 2016 10: 02
        Just a couple of questions: Where did Peter get the horse from? Well, maybe they brought it from St. Petersburg, the Cossacks at that time had no horses and could not give the Tsar. The engraving is clearly of a late period. And the last one, where 1000 ships were taken after the company? History is silent.
        1. AID.S
          AID.S 31 July 2016 14: 12
          Quote: PKK
          Where did Peter get the horse?

          From where, from where ... Falconet cast from bronze.
  2. aviamed90
    aviamed90 30 July 2016 06: 23
    Good article.

    In addition, Peter I also had a "Persian campaign" (or "Sulak campaign" in primary sources) from Astrakhan (by sea and by land) against Persia to the territory of present-day Dagestan and Iran in 1722-1723, apparently for the purpose of establishing control over the Caspian.

    In addition to regular Russian troops, Cossacks loyal to Peter Cossacks of the Zaporizhzhya Army took part in it.
    1. Simpsonian
      Simpsonian 30 July 2016 10: 02
      There was also Khiva’s, which ended in miniature also as the first siege of Narva or as Prutsky (which was worse than ever), and as usual, they put a bunch of people near the Petrovians and took two bowels
      1. tanit
        tanit 30 July 2016 19: 55
        After Peter, one way or another - the southern coast of the Caspian was (suddenly!) A part of the Russian Empire.
        1. Simpsonian
          Simpsonian 30 July 2016 21: 22
          And how long was he? Why did only Skobelev deal with Khiva?
  3. PKK
    PKK 30 July 2016 07: 15
    I suggest that the author Alexander load the keel of the galley into the carriage and in the early spring in the mud, take it several hundred kilometers off-road, through ravines and streams and rivulets. Roads appeared much later. Therefore, you had to rely only on the rivers. Why in the early spring? that the rivers at this time are full-flowing, part of them merge together and the shifts are the shortest in the year.
    Another question. 60 thousand Turks and the Nogai army tried to hit Azov from the rear. But how the Noble and Kalmyk cavalry could repel such an attack. How many of them were nobles and Kalmyks there?
    I would add that the main interest was in the capture of Azov by the Cossacks. The Turks interfered with the Cossack movement along the river. Before the events described, the Cossacks had already taken Azov, but for some reason, left him and went to Starocherkassk.
    1. shasherin_pavel
      shasherin_pavel 30 July 2016 09: 04
      Quote: PKK
      PKK look at the map and find the ancient city of Volok Lamsky and look at the dictionary, where he will see that "Drag" = is the transfer of boats and ships of military or merchants from one river to another. And he can also find on ancient maps a "portage" at the base of the Kanin Peninsula up to 6 km long in the White Sea, as well as a "portage" at the base of the Rybachy Peninsula 4 km away. And you can also remind him of the word widespread throughout the territory of Russia, when they said about the people from the "drag" that they were "from the drag" and did not disdain robbery.
    2. AK64
      AK64 30 July 2016 11: 13
      but for some reason, they left him and went to Starocherkassk.

      For reasons of direct betrayal of Moscow --- direct order of the king. The king ordered the surrender of Azov to the Turks.
      And after their sitting in 1641-42, the Cossacks no longer had their strength
      1. shasherin_pavel
        shasherin_pavel 31 July 2016 08: 32
        Quote: AK64
        The king ordered the surrender of Azov to the Turks

        And you look not only at the Azov campaign, but what happened in Russia in the coming years. A few years earlier and precisely this year and four years after the capture of Azov. And then it turns out that fighting in the south, Russia is still waging war with the Swedes. Or an example: why did Alexander Nevsky only have his own squad, because Novgorod itself had its own army? Answer: in 1240, the inhabitants of Bjarmia (the territory between the Northern Dvina and the Pechora River and probably the southern bank of the Ponoi River, the Kola Peninsula) sailed to Norway on their ships and sought refuge from the Novgorod forces, driving them out of their land. Subsequently, they lived in the Norwegian market Hologaland (Hulaga = tent, hut + land = land. Land of tents).
  4. PKK
    PKK 30 July 2016 07: 37
    On the map, the movement along the Volga, in the Samara region, is not shown quite correctly. The loop of the river was cut off by dragging the boats along the Perevoloks, they are still called there.
    The canals connecting the northern rivers with the rivers of the middle lane were built much later and, accordingly, the movement of the shuttles from there is difficult.
    The base near the Taganym Cape, the Cossacks used for sludge, in the shuttles, for several hundred years.
    1. shasherin_pavel
      shasherin_pavel 30 July 2016 09: 10
      Allow me to object: the ditches on the river, to shorten the path, were built for ships going against the current. Why drag ships downstream, if you can not even wave oars ... the flow will still bring. In Don, near Vyoshenskaya, I generally saw a picture: four boys on cars from cars rafted downstream ... so they didn’t even order, tied five cameras: four for themselves, the fifth for a backpack and the songs shouted with a guitar.
      1. zvereok
        zvereok 30 July 2016 17: 01
        So in the Kuban watermelons stole))) .. Do not sink))) ...
        1. shasherin_pavel
          shasherin_pavel 31 July 2016 08: 34
          So ... that we still do not sink?
      2. PKK
        PKK 30 July 2016 21: 01
        You can immediately see that you are not a military man. The reason for dragging downstream can be a reduction in time. Almost 200 km to Samara and back will take some time. These 200 km are not just movement, but also food and heating, firewood, peat.
        1. shasherin_pavel
          shasherin_pavel 31 July 2016 08: 45
          Do you want to say that the modern military use drags to deploy troops? On which page of the Charter of the River Fleet is it written? If the river flows at a speed of nine meters per minute, then for a day you can walk 13 km in a drift. You will agree that in those days the ships could move against the current along the rivers, which means that their speed should be more than 9 meters per minute, the total flow plus oars or a sail and you can go 26-30 km per day. without straining. I wrote that dragging for ships going against the current ... There are still objections. Or do you think that logs can haul ships at a speed of more than 9 meters per minute for 8 hours in a row? Even in 1999, we drove at an average speed of just over 40 km per hour, although often 120 km were on the speedometer. Rest, gas stations, stops.
          1. PKK
            PKK 31 July 2016 09: 56
            You didn’t say that the movement was mainly with the flow, so the woods were rafted and the barges below were simply dismantled for construction, and the ship was taken in a loop or to restrain the vessel in each particular case, depending on the circumstances.
            Why did you keep silence that the movement against the current was with the help of the barge haulers, perhaps you also harnessed the cattle. It is clear that there was no point in paying the haulers for the extra loop, and the ships moved. The speed of the vessel was determined by the efforts and speed of the barge haulers. Why they dragged 9 m / s is not clear. On the channels where the current was weak, only one hooded hawk was enough. And on the rivers the number of hooded hawks was determined by the weather conditions and time of year, the river’s fullness. needed to push off the coast. Sails, this is a good help.
  5. PKK
    PKK 30 July 2016 08: 05
    Don't you find it strange that the Yaitsky, Volga Cossacks from Astrakhan did not take part in the Campaign to Azov? In general, Peter was very harsh, Not having had time to properly break through the "window" from Europe to Russia through St. Petersburg, he somehow bypassed Muscovy and puzzled by the Turks. History is full of interesting riddles.
    1. shasherin_pavel
      shasherin_pavel 30 July 2016 09: 16
      Quote: PKK
      Yaitsky, Volga Cossacks from places of Astrakhan?

      if you remember raised an uprising against the government under the leadership of Razin ... And the reason? Due to the remoteness of the borders of the Russian Yaitsk and Volga Cossacks, there was no destiny, they had no one to defend the borders, and they were offered to resettle closer to the "fronts" or be abolished to a peasant position and feed on their own forces, that is, from the government, as belligerent, grain allowance do not give. True, this happened a little later, but the borders did not move away in a day or not in a month.
      1. PKK
        PKK 30 July 2016 21: 06
        Let me clarify, the Yaitsky and Astrakhan Cossacks did not raise an uprising under the leadership of Razin. Razin with unregistered Don Cossacks, had to go from the Don to the Caspian, they inherited a lot, not only with merchants, but also with registers. Therefore, the Yaitsky could join the Razin Army.
        1. shasherin_pavel
          shasherin_pavel 31 July 2016 08: 48
          Quote: PKK
          Yaitsky could join the Razin Army.

          Well then, you can remember Pugachev. Joined - did not participate?
        2. Cat
          Cat 31 July 2016 19: 58
          And they joined, as well as part of the Astrakhan archers.
  6. Valery Valery
    Valery Valery 30 July 2016 08: 13
    Interesting article, Atoru +
  7. tanit
    tanit 30 July 2016 08: 30
    And where are the tartarenes from "Tartaria" ?! Your "great city" was taken under Peter the Great ?! And why are you slandering Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov? Or is there a split in your ranks? laughing
    1. shasherin_pavel
      shasherin_pavel 30 July 2016 09: 22
      Suvorov: Ishmael took ... Crimea took ... Azov did not take ... And in general tanit sews me in vain, boyar!
  8. tanit
    tanit 30 July 2016 08: 42
    But seriously, Peter's Prut campaign was insane. False information, simple betrayal ... Peter was "led" like Karl number 12 to Mazepa. But the Persian - well, the southern Caspian was returned to the Persians only in 1735.
  9. Korsar4
    Korsar4 30 July 2016 08: 45
    And the legend goes that Peter I brought the most beautiful girls to Voronezh to keep the masters.
    1. tanit
      tanit 30 July 2016 08: 52
      But in fact he could. smile No, not from the fortress to save a married man. Not - the girl is on you. laughing
      1. shasherin_pavel
        shasherin_pavel 30 July 2016 09: 35
        Your understanding of "strength for a man" is lousy. The peasant that to go to the "fortress", at first was beaten with a whip for laziness, because the difference he had in contrast to the "community": the serf is something like a worker in the village - the master will say, painting the fence - he is painting, he will finish painting, master feed. Paul I changed the rights of landowners to reduce the days that the serf had to work for the landowner from 4 days a week to 3 days. But in any case, the landowner was obliged to feed the serf every day, in contrast to the "community member" who did not work, did not put a spoon in his mouth. It was suggested to us how bad "serfdom" is, and when the "fortress" was abolished, many peasants did not want to leave their "slave owners", since he had better food than in the "community". It was the "community members" who were not in the fortress who were engaged in "biting", so well described by the writer Garshin, that is, not "for Christ's sake", but silently (ashamed of their position) walked around the neighbors and waited for someone to give a piece for food ... And the serf even had a tsarist decree, how much the landowner should give a minimum for food per day. History must be taught, not populist articles must be retold.
        1. tanit
          tanit 30 July 2016 20: 01
          Pavel, forgive me for the flood ... I just have an understanding. You see, my great-grandfathers and great-grandmothers were not nobles and merchants. hi
          1. shasherin_pavel
            shasherin_pavel 31 July 2016 08: 59
            Well, I can only boast of my grandmother Lydia Vasilievna Malinovskaya, her parents are Poles from Kostroma, judging by the photographs where Lydia Vasilievna is 12 years old not noblemen, but not poor. And my mother had 4 grade. I am also not learned, but interested in the history of an excavator driver with 40 years of experience. I just study history from both sides, ours and European. So, in Soviet times, I listened to "Time" and "Svoboda" in order to understand what was happening.
        2. 97110
          97110 30 July 2016 22: 44
          Quote: shasherin_pavel
          It was the "community members" who were not in the fortress who were engaged in "biting", so well described by the writer Garshin, that is, not "for Christ's sake", but silently (ashamed of their position) walked around the neighbors and waited for someone to give a piece for food ...

          My grandmother had a saying: "Don't teach, but put them all over the world - horseradish - not pieces." Such is the evidence of the existence of a complex technology for collecting pieces in the world, which needed to be taught. We are black-mowed, we were not serfs.
          1. shasherin_pavel
            shasherin_pavel 31 July 2016 09: 08
            Quote: 97110
            Don't teach, but put them all over the world - hell - not pieces "

            Just to clarify: "drop in the world" or "release in the world." The word "peace" is society. "Mir" - spiritual or scientific. "Mir" * (with two dots on top, instead of it the "Y" was entered in the alphabet) - "Divine world". Why the clarification: "in society (for a while) drop it for a piece", "let it go into society forever." But thanks for grandma's wisdom.
    2. Retvizan
      Retvizan 30 July 2016 10: 34
      I beg you ... the market has always been full. House maidens too. And in general, many, especially Menshikov, were engaged in this (the one without women anywhere)
      This is Peter before the betrayal of Anchen led a more modest (well, excluding feats in the Netherlands) image. Love and all that.
      Judging by the contracts - "clean" girls had to cook food and so on, including a robot around the house. (A very interesting requirement of foreigners, apparently the Muscovites then disappointed them with this, and henceforth became picky)
  10. tanit
    tanit 30 July 2016 08: 58
    The most curious thing. Under Peter, when the Azovs were taken, they did not slaughter non-combatants. And, when the Cossacks took Azov, they cut everyone out. Breast babies too. Do not believe?
    1. shasherin_pavel
      shasherin_pavel 31 July 2016 09: 18
      What is unusual here for that time? There was a difference: if they were looking for new lands and subjects, they conquered and left to live, but they had to work for the conquerors. Example: Sparta, where enslaved helots worked to provide life for the warriors, but the Spartan warriors lived like Hitlerites in the occupied territory, or as "Saxons" in "England" from that and "Anglo-Saxons", but the "Saxons" for a longer time in British history were nobles and lords. and if they brought their own people, then the indigenous population was massacred. Subsequently, they learned how to solder the aborigines, drive them into reservations, and bring them infected blankets - this was the democratic assimilation of the aborigines (Indians) into democracy.
  11. individual
    individual 30 July 2016 09: 25
    It was a glorious time.
    And ... It is coming back.
  12. Retvizan
    Retvizan 30 July 2016 10: 46
    What did 1 trip show? A terrible mess and disorganization of the army and the inability to take one fortress by the sea. Errors corrected. Peter was a very stubborn man. He needed blood from his nose to prove to himself that he could (could).
    Shane was assigned to find a compromise with the boyars. And then Peter spent the treasury so much on all these matters - that the boyars were very unhappy. Riot of the archers and mass execution with the participation of all the nobles (so that all heads were chopped off) Sophia was also not too quiet and the nobles could "get bored"
    In general, Peter needed and needed to prove to himself, the country, Europe (where he really wanted to), Kukuyu - his solvency. For me, Sheremetyev is much better commander.
    When organized then it turns out.
    In general, after the capture of Azov, as usual, it turned out that there was everything to take the fortress, but for everything else ... Kerch was needed - or the right to free movement along the Azov and Black Seas with an exit from the straits (as you understand, the Turks would hardly would have agreed just like that) Kerch of that time turned into a pitiful semblance of a fortress, but it was the navy that was needed to hold it all and communications. In general, funds were needed, people, and money, money, a lot of money (According to Napoleon). And there was only enough for Azov, Taganrog, and a small fleet ... And then the embassy was sent to the "Fortress" in Istanbul (Constantinople) in order to demonstrate the intentions of the Moscow tsar and even beat out the world on its own terms. At first, that temporary ceasefire did not suit anyone. The Austrians and Poles, having thrown the Muscovites, framed Peter very strongly. It was very difficult to achieve the conditions alone (Free swimming with the preservation of Azov and the Dnieper towns).
    And then the Northern War crept up .... and Peter rushed from south to north.
  13. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 30 July 2016 12: 56
    It was hard for Peter. But the will was iron, and perseverance in achieving the goal. Therefore, he received the nickname - Great. For business.
    1. siberalt
      siberalt 30 July 2016 20: 18
      Great is not a nickname, but a title. And it was not the people who gave it, but the yard. laughing
  14. Sanya Terek
    Sanya Terek 30 July 2016 13: 13
    Quote: tanit
    When the Cossacks took Azov, they slaughtered everyone. Breast babies too. Do not believe?

    Of course, when the Ottoman integrators ruined the Cossack towns, they kissed non-combatants on the gums. As it went around, it responded.
    1. tanit
      tanit 30 July 2016 19: 53
      When our grandfathers took Berlin, they fed the children. The difference is not it?
  15. akudr48
    akudr48 30 July 2016 18: 33
    Yes, it is a pity that such determination, shown then by Russia near Azov, did not appear near Mariupol now.
    1. Cat man null
      Cat man null 30 July 2016 18: 58
      Quote: akudr48
      Yes, it’s a pity that such determination, then shown by Russia near Azov, did not appear near Mariupol now.

      Inspired by:

      The woodpecker is equipped with a beak. The woodpecker has a beak. He is hammering. If the woodpecker does not hammer, then he sleeps or died. He can not peck a woodpecker. Because the beak always outweighs. When a woodpecker hollows, it is heard in the forest. If it is loud, then it means that the woodpecker is good. If quiet - a bad, worthless woodpecker

  16. tanit
    tanit 30 July 2016 19: 22
    There were manners then. But Peter the Great betrayed his own people for "manners". Mannernichayuh immediately somehow diminished. For centuries. smile
    1. tanit
      tanit 30 July 2016 19: 43
      But about Mariupol - great .... Schiikarno. Has anyone stormed a city of hundreds of thousands? Where the population, to put it mildly, rides almost all the personnel? And manners are not the same. And people are not from the SS. Yes, after Peter, Lassie did. But Lassie did not join, he punished.
  17. Приговор
    Приговор 30 July 2016 20: 01
    Centuries bit by bit, then blood, lives and health, our ancestors gathered the Great Country. Only for one bald, tagged goat-traitor to ruin it once? Putin is right. It is necessary to restore our USSR. It’s absolutely not important for me what this country will be called, what ideology will be in it, but it needs to be restored! As much as our strengths are enough.
    1. tanit
      tanit 30 July 2016 20: 13
      But I agree with you. Not about Putin, but within the meaning of the comment. Although ... Yes, and about Putin, I also agree. hi
  18. tanit
    tanit 30 July 2016 20: 28
    Not a spontaneous raid of bandits. Offensive operation of the state army. It would be strange to believe that the Turks did not know about this. They knew and prepared. What the first campaign proved. And then ... If it weren’t for the crazy Prut campaign - false people, false promises, false intelligence ... In vain the order for Mazepa was only in one copy.
  19. rusmat73
    rusmat73 1 August 2016 08: 10
    we must not forget that Azov was a large slave market ...
    I would recommend to everyone the book by Vasily Vedeneev "Wild Field" - read expand your horizons on Azov, how the Cossacks took him (before Peter). hi
  20. Chazoy
    Chazoy 1 August 2016 11: 05
    They would insert from the work of Alexei Tolstoy, and that's the end of it. Tolstoy describes this episode better ... therefore - "minus" ...
  21. navodchik
    navodchik 1 August 2016 23: 13
    Alexander, thank you. Always brief, informative and colorful. We will wait for new articles.
  22. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 4 August 2016 22: 44
    The article is minus one, it is a fact. Just a banal retelling of publicly available events in the most official interpretation, without even trying any military-strategic analysis, no more.