190 years ago, 25 July 1826, the execution of five leaders of the Decembrist uprising took place. In total, about 600 people were involved in the case of the Decembrists. The investigation was carried out with the direct and direct participation of Nicholas I. The result of the work of the court was a list of 121 "state criminal", divided into 11 categories, according to the degree of offense. Outside the ranks were set P. I. Pestel, K. F. Ryleev, S. I. Muravyov-Apostol, M. P. Bestuzhev-Ryumin, and P. G. Kakhovsky, sentenced to death by quartering.
The number of thirty-one state criminal of the first category, sentenced to death by cutting off the head, included members of secret societies who gave personal consent to the regicide. The rest were sentenced to various terms of hard labor. Later, the "first rank" death penalty was replaced by eternal penal servitude, and quartering was replaced by the death penalty for five leaders of the uprising. The execution of five Decembrists - Pestel, Ryleev, Muravyev-Apostol, Bestuzhev-Ryumin and Kakhovsky - took place on the night of 13 (25) of July 1826. The police master read the maxim of the Supreme Court, which ended with the words: "... for such atrocities hang!"
Based on the uprising of the so-called. "Decembrists" was created the myth of the "noble knights", "the best people of Russia" who wanted to save their homeland from the "tyrant and despot" Nicholas and bring "freedom" to the serfs. Nicholas I himself, along with his father, Emperor Paul I, became one of the most maligned Russian tsars (“Black Myths” about the Russian Emperor Nicholas IThe myth of the "backward Russia" of Nicholas I). The basis of this myth was also created by Russophobe A. Herzen, who poured Russia and Nikolai from abroad with mud: “Of course, when leaving the steamer, the Life Guard, silent bureaucracy, rushing couriers, stationary sentries, Cossacks with puffs, police with with fists, half the city in uniforms, half the city making a fruitful and the whole city hastily taking off his hat, and thinking that all this is devoid of any originality and serves as the fingers, tails, nails and claws of one person who combines all kinds of power in himself: the landowner, the father, executioner, mother and sergeant, - can spin in my head, become scary, may come the desire to take off his hat and bow while the head is intact, and twice that, you may want to sit back on the ship and sail somewhere. ”
But the truth is that Nikolai Pavlovich at the beginning of his reign was able to suppress the hearth of unrest, which could embrace the entire Russian civilization and cause civil war and the disintegration of the Russian empire. After all, the "Decembrists", hiding behind the slogans that were completely humane and understandable to the majority (like most revolutionaries, democrats and perestroika), objectively worked for the West. In fact, they were the forerunners of the Februarylists of the 1917 model, who destroyed the autocracy and the Russian empire. They planned the complete physical destruction of the Romanov dynasty, their family members, and even distant relatives. And their plans in the field of state, national and economic construction are guaranteed to lead to a great confusion and the collapse of the Russian state.
It is clear that part of the noble youth simply did not know what they were doing. Young people dreamed of destroying “injustice and oppression”, destroying many class boundaries, so that Russia would flourish. Alexander Russia gave many examples of injustice: the dominance of foreigners in the highest echelon of empire management; extras; examples of inhumane treatment of soldiers and sailors in the army and on navy; the vileness of serfdom, etc. The problem was that the nobles who opposed the "regime" took the "great truths" of freedom, equality and fraternity as models. That is, the measures supposedly necessary for the good of Russia were only associated in their minds with European republican institutions and social forms, which in theory they mechanically transferred to Russian soil.
This process is similar to modern “color revolutions” or the “Arab spring” when the West, the USA, NATO and the European Union are trying to establish “democracy” (using various methods - from media propaganda and political and diplomatic pressure to direct organization of revolutionary movements and military attack) in different countries of the former USSR or in the Middle East. And “democracy”, for example, in the countries of the East, such as Iraq, Libya and Syria, led to a fierce civil war, a complete split of society according to religious, national, tribal, etc. signs, wild slaughter and genocide. Western institutions and social forms cannot simply be copied and transferred to the territory of other civilizations and cultures that are fundamentally different from the West. The “virus” of westernization ultimately leads to destruction. Which is beneficial to the owners of the West: the destroyed states, cultures and nations are easier to “digest” and become part of the global “New Babylon”.
Thus, the "Decembrists" sought to "transplant France to Russia." As later, Russian Westerners of the beginning of the 1917th century will dream of remaking Russia into republican France or the constitutional English monarchy, which will lead to a geopolitical catastrophe of XNUMX. The abstractness and frivolity of such a transfer lies in the fact that it is carried out without understanding the historical past and national traditions, the centuries-old spiritual values, psychological and everyday life of Russian civilization. The noble youth of Russia, brought up on the ideals of Western culture, was infinitely far from the people. As shows historical experience - in the Russian Empire, Soviet Russia and the Russian Federation, all such borrowings from the West in the field of socio-political structure, spiritual and intellectual sphere, even the most useful ones, as a result are distorted on Russian soil, leading to degradation and destruction.
The Decembrists, like the later Russian Westernizers, did not understand this. They thought that if the advanced experience of the Western powers in Russia was transplanted, the people were given “freedom”, then the country would take off and prosper. As a result, the Decembrists' sincere hopes of a forced change in the existing system, of the legal order, as a panacea for all ills, led to the turmoil and destruction of the Russian Empire. It turned out that the “Decembrists” objectively, by default, worked in the interests of the masters of the West. In addition, some of them were Masons, that is, the hierarchy was subordinate to the "elder brothers" from the West. And Freemasonry is one of the tools of the Western masters to build the New World Order, the global slave-owning, caste civilization (“New Babylon”). As a result, the "Decembrists" objectively became traitors to the Russian civilization and Russian statehood, realizing the plans of the West for the destruction of the Russian superethnos and civilization. Like the later "Februaryists" of the 1917 model, who explicitly or by default implemented the plan of the owners of Great Britain, France and the United States to eliminate the main competitor on the planet - the Russian Empire.
In the program documents of the Decembrists you can find a variety of settings and wishes. There was no unity in their ranks; their secret societies were more like the discussion clubs of sophisticated intellectuals, who vigorously discussed pressing political issues. In this regard, they are also similar to the Westernizers-liberals of the sample of the late XIX - early XX centuries. and the Februarynists of 1917, as well as the modern Russian liberals, who cannot find a common point of view on almost any important issue. However, they are ready to endlessly “rebuild” and “reform”, in fact, destroy the country, and the burden of their managerial decisions will be borne by the people.
Some Decembrists offered to create a republic, others - to establish a constitutional monarchy with the possibility of introducing the republic. According to N. Muravyev’s plan, Russia was offered to de-facto dismember the 13 powers and the 2 regions, creating a federation of them. In this case, the powers received the right of separation (self-determination). The manifesto of Prince Sergei Trubetskoy (the prince of Trubetskoy before the uprising was chosen as a dictator) suggested liquidating the “former government” and replacing it with a temporary one until the election of the Constituent Assembly. That is, the Decembrists planned to create an interim government before the Februarylists.
The head of the Southern Society of the Decembrists, Colonel and Freemason Pavel Pestel, wrote one of the program documents - “Russian Truth”. Pestel planned to abolish serfdom, transferring to the peasants half of the arable land fund, the other half was supposed to be left in the ownership of the landowners, which was to contribute to the bourgeois development of the country. Landowners had to lease land to farmers - "capitalists of the agricultural class", which should have led to the organization in the country of large commodity farms with a broad attraction of hired labor. “Russkaya Pravda” abolished not only the estates, but also the national borders - all the tribes and ethnic groups living in Russia planned to unite into a single Russian people. Thus, Pestel planned, by the example of America, to create a kind of "melting pot" in Russia. To speed up this process, national segregation was actually proposed with the division of the Russian population into groups.
Muravyov was a supporter of the preservation of land holdings of landowners. The liberated peasants received only 2 tithing of land, that is, only a personal plot. This site, at the then low level of agrotechnologies, could not feed a large peasant family. The peasants were forced to bow to the landowners, the landowners, who had all the land, meadows and forests, turned into dependent farm laborers, as in Latin America.
Thus, the Decembrists did not have a single, clear program, which could lead, if they won, to an internal conflict. The victory of the Decembrists guaranteed led to the collapse of statehood, the army, the economy, chaos and conflict of classes, different peoples. For example, the mechanism of the great redistribution of land was not described in detail, which led to a conflict between the multimillion-dollar mass of peasants and the landowners-landowners of that time. In the conditions of a radical breakdown of the state structure, the transfer of the capital (they planned to transfer it to Nizhny Novgorod), it was obvious that such a “restructuring” led to a civil war and a new unrest. In the field of state-building, the plans of the Decembrists correlate very clearly with the plans of the separatists of the beginning of the 20th century or the 1990-2000. As well as plans of Western politicians and ideologues who dream of dismembering Great Russia into a number of weak and “independent” states. That is, the possible actions of the "Decembrists" objectively led to confusion and civil war, to the collapse of the powerful Russian empire. The Decembrists were the forerunners of the “Februaryists” who were able to destroy Russian statehood in 1917.
Therefore, Nikolai Pavlovich and shed mud in every way and can not forgive the suppression of the revolt of the "Decembrists". After all, he was able to stop the first major attempt at "perestroika" of Russia, which led to confusion and civil confrontation, to the delight of our Western "partners".
At the same time, Nikolai is accused of inhumane treatment of the Decembrists. However, the ruler of the Russian Empire, Nikolai, who was recorded in the history of "Palkin", showed amazing mercy and philanthropy for the rebels. In any European country, for such a rebellion, many hundreds or thousands of people would be executed in the most cruel way, so that others would be disgraceful. And the military for the rebellion were subject to the death penalty. They would have opened up the whole underground, many lost their posts. In Russia, everything was different: from about 600 people arrested in the case of the Decembrists, almost 300 were acquitted. Only the leaders (and not all of them) were executed - Pestel, Muravyov-Apostol, Ryleyev, Bestuzhev-Rumin, and the murderer of the Life Guards regiment Strens grenadier regiment and Governor Miloradovich - Kakhovsky. 88 people were exiled to hard labor, 18 to the settlement, 15 demoted to soldiers. Corporal punishment was applied to the rebel soldiers and sent to the Caucasus. The “dictator” of the rebels, Prince Trubetskoy, didn’t appear at Senate Square at all, he was scared, sat out at the Austrian ambassador, where he was tied up. At first he denied everything, then confessed and asked for forgiveness from the emperor. And Nicholas I forgave him!
The “Decembrists” were punished not at the request of the “tyrant” Nicholas, but for participating in an armed rebellion. For such a crime has always been executed in all countries and to turn a participant in an armed uprising into an act of personal reprisal is mean and stupid. Nikolai reduced the number of those executed to a minimum. Nicholas I was a strict ruler who demanded that everyone honestly do their duty, but he was not a cruel man, let alone a tyrant. So, when, during the rebellion, the question arose of the need to open fire on the rebels, Nikolay could not decide to give an order to shoot, since this event was exceptional for then-Russia. Adjutant General Vasilchikov told him then: “You cannot waste a minute; now nothing can be done; it is necessary to shoot a canister. " “I had a presentiment of this necessity,” Nicholas writes in his memoirs, “but, I confess, when the time came, I could not decide on such a measure, and I was seized with horror.” “Do you want me to shed the blood of my subjects on the first day of my reign?” I replied. “To save your empire,” he told me. These words brought me to my senses: having come to my senses, I saw that either I should take upon myself to shed the blood of some and almost surely save everything, or, having spared myself, sacrifice decisively the state. ” And the young sovereign decided to sacrifice his peace of mind, but to save Russia from the horrors of revolutionary turmoil. That is, already on this day, Nikolai showed the essence of the Decembrist uprising: “the blood of some” and the salvation of the building of the empire and thousands and thousands of lives, or the death of a power and bloody unrest.
“Through the clouds that darkened the sky for a moment,” Emperor Nicholas I told 20 on December 1825 to the French envoy Count Laferon, “I had the consolation to receive a thousand expressions of high devotion and recognize love Russian people. That is why the recollection of this despicable conspiracy not only does not inspire me the slightest distrust, but also strengthens my gullibility and the absence of fear. Straight and trust more truly disarms hatred than mistrust and suspicion that make up the identity of weakness ... ” “I will show mercy,” Nikolay said further, “there is a lot of mercy, some will say too much; but with the leaders and the instigators of the conspiracy will be received without pity and without mercy. The law will punish them, and not for them I will use my right to pardon. I will be adamant: I have to give this lesson to Russia and Europe. ”