Military Review

SS could not fulfill its mission

SS could not fulfill its mission

In conditions when the enemy forces exceeded the Soviet forces by several times in their number and technical composition, our soldiers showed fierce resistance, as evidenced by the defensive battles in the area of ​​the Mius River. It was here that the Germans were driven back several kilometers back, beyond the Sarmatian river. And then for several days the 1135th Infantry Salsky Regiment under the command of Major V.A. was holding back the advancing Nazi troops. Kuznetsova. His headquarters was surrounded. In the german ring tanks and motorized infantry On October 20, in the Turkov beam near the Sedovsky farm, tanks Kuznetsov was able to send his last report: “To Rybin. Tanks of up to 12 units with infantry surround the infantry and shell a lump. Paragraph. There are no means of struggle, except rifles and grenades. This is the last message. Kuznetsov. 20.10.41. Turkova's beam ".

One after another, defensive sections are created on the territory of Russia, ringing large cities and strategically important areas, following the existing directive of the Stake to exhaust the enemy as much as possible, restraining his advance. This order was carried out at the cost of incredible efforts, despite the desperate attempts of the fascist German forces, who were rushing to seize the territory of the Soviet Union, especially the strategic sectors leading to the oil fields. And fighting areas at the cost of great losses with honor carried out the task. Thanks to the stubborn resistance of the Red Army units, the offensive initiative of the enemy was broken and the blitzkrieg promised by Hitler failed in the first months of the war.

The so-called combat areas (orders) played their part in many ways. Adopted in the old Russian army, these concepts after the revolution passed into the field charters of the armed forces of the young Soviet republic. They did not lose their appointment in the 1930-1940 years, still being one of the main types of frontal defense.

In modern military science, combat sectors are considered in the light of specific tasks being solved by troops within them. So, they distinguish: “defense sites”, “concentration sites”, “landing”, “defense breakthrough” and others.
In this article, we will look at some of the formations and units of the Red Army that held the defense in the Taganrog battle area in October 1941.

The Taganrog military station was created by the combat decree of the Southern Front command, as soon as the Germans from captured Mariupol moved in the direction of Taganrog and Rostov. See this document for details. It was completely named like this: “The combat order of the commander of the troops of the Southern Front No. 0191 / op to create a combat sector for the defense of the Uspenskaya-Taganrog line (October 10 1941).” The text stated the fact of the breakthrough of the front near the village of Volodarskoye and Mangush and low comforting - “the enemy occupied Mariupol”. It was ordered to fulfill the main task - to prevent a breakthrough to the east, to occupy the defense on the eastern outskirts of Mariupol and also to keep the defense in the area of ​​four settlements - Solntsevka, Pavlovka, Zlatoustovka, Cherdakly.

The creation of the Taganrog combat section was specifically stipulated. The main goal of which is to cover the Rostov direction. For this, two rifle divisions stood out: the 150 and 339, and the 20 anti-aircraft mortar regiment of the mortar company.

But the directive adopted “at the top” did not keep pace with the rapidly changing situation at the front. It became known that the enemy had already captured Mariupol two days earlier, and on October X, the Leibstandart Adolf Hitler motorized brigade of the SS continued to develop its swift offensive. This is how the article “Taganrog in World War II” by the French historian and writer Charles Trang is written about this: “October 10 The 10-I tank division replaces Leibstandard in Mariupol. "Leybshtandart" immediately rushes east, led by a reconnaissance group.

At this time, the SS scouts face many difficulties, and there is no longer any question of a lightning war. Indeed, the land has been conquered by deep ravines, which in this area are called "beams". In these clay and steep ravines are the units of the Soviet army, which should deter the advance of the German troops. We must fight for every beam that is not part of the functions of reconnaissance groups. ”

Therefore, to fulfill the order (more precisely, point 2 of the combat disposition) of the 9 army failed because of the difficult situation, and it was forced to retreat to Taganrog.

In accordance with the directive, other units of the Red Army were preparing to meet the enemy in the valley of the Mius River in the strip from Taganrog to the Uspenskaya station. However, if parts of the 9 Army retreated to Taganrog, then they should have participated in battles in this direction. But in the military documents of that period nothing is said about this. Moreover, and in stories The 9 Army of Taganrog as a battlefield of the 9 Army also did not find a reflection.

If, in the order above, instead of the vague wording of the 9 Army, “specific regiments and divisions were called“ defended ”, then today we would know exactly which units and subunits of the army reached Taganrog and took part in“ covering the Rostov direction ” .

From archival documents it is known that the commander of the 9 army, Major General F.M. Kharitonov, executing the order, sends the 395 th infantry division and the mobile group of Colonel M.V. Kolosov in the 18 th army, and he himself remained with the 30 th Irkutsk-Chongarsky rifle division (commander - Major General MD Goncharov). At the same time, the remnants of the 51, 176 and 218 infantry divisions at that time were redeployed. ”

But if after the capture of Mariupol by the enemy, the 9-I army retreated to Taganrog, then why did the 395-I division as a combat unit of the 9-i army retreated in the direction of Stalino (now Donetsk)? A few days later the division will be introduced into the 18 Army, which was instructed not to allow the Germans to break through to Stalin. Thus, the command of the Southern Front strengthened 18, but at the same time weakened the 9 Army. Consequently, at that time, the defense of Donbass was a more important task compared to the defense of the Rostov direction.

In this case, the commander of the 66-th Armavir cavalry division, Colonel V.I. Grigorovich, who had two regiments at his disposal, was ordered to urgently organize an attack of the oncoming tank column in order to prevent the encirclement of the 31 of the Stalingrad division. There were no additional forces in Grigorvich and he had to attack German tanks with cavalry. Then military historians called this attack a gesture of despair.

Considering the fighting of the Red Army on the Taganrog military sector, it should be noted that the troops had to simultaneously solve the task of “covering the Rostov direction” and “preventing the capture of Taganrog”.

Despite the difficult operational and tactical situation, domestic and foreign historians found evidence of the unparalleled courage of Soviet soldiers who were able to resist the Leibstandart Adolf Hitler motorized SS brigade, which was in the vanguard of the third army corps of E. von Mackensen’s cavalry. In the Miuss estuary, for four days, from 10 to 14 in October 1941, units of the Red Army repulsed numerous German attacks and were able to stop them.

The stubborn fighting continued, the SS almost treading water and could not move on. The capture of Taganrog, scheduled for October 12, failed. On this day, the Soviet units received reinforcements, the 31-I and 339-I Rostov infantry divisions came to the battle against the enemy. “On October 14, the resistance of the Soviet troops was such that the SS could not fulfill their mission,” points out Untersturmführer C. Trang in his memoirs.

And only on October 15, the enemy managed to seize the village Nikolayevka, which opened the direct road to Taganrog. To the city remained no more than 10 km.

But if the 31-th and 339-th Rostov rifle divisions appeared on the Taganrog combat section of 12-13 of October, who was holding back the attack of the enemy from 10 to October 12? The above combat disposal refers to the use of "local resources, including the garrison of Taganrog." But what the garrison of Taganrog was in October 1941, we do not know today.

According to military historians, the missing link was taken by cadets of schools deployed in Rostov-on-Don, who were urgently sent by trains to the Taganrog area and given out one rifle to five.

The 150-th Infantry Division, before being on the Taganrog combat sector, reflected the enemy offensive near Dnepropetrovsk, being in the 9-th army. But on October 3, she was taken out of the army and transferred by train to a new area of ​​concentration. They became the eastern bank of the Mius River from the Assumption to Taganrog. About the transfer of the division said in one of the front-line documents, from which it became known that October 10 "on Art. Ouspenskaya unloaded 4 echelon divisions, 3 echelon - are on the way. "

On the combat route of the 339 of the Rostov Rifle Division until recently, there was little public information. The veil of "secrets" opened V.I. Afanasenko in the article “Unknown about Rostov Rostov 339”. The 339 Rifle Division was formed in August 1941 in Rostov-on-Don from the recruits of the city and region. The commander of the division appointed Colonel A.M. Pyhtin. The regiments of the division were named after the cities of the region, who took patronage over them. So, the 1133 th regiment became known as the Taganrog, 1135 th - Salsk, 1137 th - Rostov, 900 th artillery - Azov. During the formation of the division there were problems with personal and small weapons. From the funds of urban museums had to withdraw weapons from the period of the Civil War, suitable for combat use.

In connection with the difficult situation that developed around Taganrog, the commander of the North Caucasian Military District, Lieutenant-General F.N. Remezov was forced to send to the front a poorly armed division. Moreover, due to the lack of transport the division went to the area of ​​concentration on foot. “During the five-day march along the muddy steppe roads, the personnel of the division reached out to Mius in an extremely exhausted condition, with a large number of sick soldiers.” “The command determined the eastern bank of the Sarmat river, fifteen to twenty kilometers west of Mius, by the deployment of the 339 division. But the first meeting with the enemy occurred before the r. Mius, ”historian Dmitry Afanasenko told in his article.

October 12 1941 of the 339 Rifle Division restrained the attack of F. Kühn's 14 Panzer Division and the F. Eberhardt 60 Motorized Division north of Taganrog, from Bolshaya Neklinovka to Matveyev Kurgan. On this day, fierce fighting began. And in the morning of the next day, the head 1133 Infantry Regiment under the command of Major B.K. Aliyev in the area of ​​Bolshaya Neklinovka was attacked by enemy tanks and a Viking SS motorized brigade.
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  1. poma
    poma 29 July 2016 06: 44
    A heavy share went ...
    Eternal memory to the fallen ...
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 29 July 2016 07: 27
    The mission was not feasible, in the literal sense of the phrase ...
    1. jktu66
      jktu66 29 July 2016 10: 43
      Well, the theme of the Great Patriotic War is too serious to make mistakes: the anti-aircraft mortar regiment of the mortar company is that ??
      1. gladcu2
        gladcu2 29 July 2016 14: 12
        Stalingrad Division? In 1941?

        Maybe really formed in Stalingrad. But as far as I know, the names at the beginning of the war were not given to the divisions.
  3. igordok
    igordok 29 July 2016 07: 37
    In the Northwest, the SS also had big problems. During the assault on the unfinished Sebezh UR (concrete boxes without basic weapons), the SS "Dead Head" division lost about 2000 soldiers. Then she dropped out for reformation. In revenge, most of the captured soldiers of the Red Army were shot.
    The reason for the shooting could have been the stubbornness with which the Red Army men defended, the heavy losses suffered by the "SS" during the assault on the fortified area (Field Marshal Manstein called them "colossal" in his memoirs "Lost Victories"). Another reason could be that on July 6 at Zasitino the division commander, SS Gruppenfuehrer Theodor Eicke (Theodor Eicke, commandant of the Dachau concentration camp, one of the creators of the concentration camp system, one of the organizers of the Night of Long Knives) was seriously wounded. Photo taken by photographer SS-Kriegsberichter Baumann (SS Division Dead Head). US National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), from
  4. Stas57
    Stas57 29 July 2016 09: 13
    cadets of schools located in Rostov-on-Don, who were urgently sent by trains to the Taganrog region and issued one rifle for five.

    well at least they did not write about the poor 18-year-old boys ....

    On October 9, two combined batteries of anti-tank guns (six guns per battery), formed from the training unit of the 1 and 2 RAU, were quickly transferred to the western bank of the Mius River. The battery of the 1-th RAU (horse drawn) under the command of senior lieutenant Rozenko took firing positions on the northern outskirts of the village of Nosovo, blocking the Mariupol-Taganrog highway. The battery of the 2-th RAU with six A-20 Komsomolets tractors took up firing positions in the Sarmatian farms area, at the junction of the roads from Fedorovka to Pokrovskoye, blocking the exit to the bridge across Mius near the village of Troitskoye. Two platoons (thirty cadets each) from the anti-aircraft artillery battalion were allocated to the infantry cover for the artillery fire positions. For two days the cadets held their positions. Only the calculations of the 1-th RAU battery with well-aimed fire destroyed four vehicles with infantry, several armored vehicles. The battery of the Second RAU repulsed several attacks of the enemy’s tanks and motorized infantry using machine guns of the Komsomolets armored tractors, and retreated to the east coast of Mius only on 11 October, after the general withdrawal of the troops of the Taganrog combat site [1, l. 2]. Among the cadets were future Heroes of the Soviet Union - Ivan Trofimovich Cherkashnev, a graduate of the 1 th RAU of the 1942 year, and Ivan Ilyich Fedorin, a graduate of the 2 th.
    To strengthen the junction of the 339-th Rostov and 31-th Stalingrad infantry divisions, the 2-th combined cadet regiment (RPU) advanced to the west coast of Mius. On October 14 – 17, the infantry school held the line Bolshaya Neklinovka – Pokrovskoye –– the height of the 51,5, reflecting the attacks of the units of the 13-th Panzer Division and SS men of the Adolph Hitler Life-SS Standard. The future Hero of the Soviet Union Grigory Vasilievich Kovalenko and the future chief of the KGB of the USSR, army general, Hero of Socialist Labor Viktor Mikhailovich Chebrikov fought in the composite regiment. On October 17, breaking the encirclement ring due to the attack of the Cossacks of the 66-th Armavir Cavalry Division, infantry cadets, along with squadrons of Colonel V.I. Grigorovich, fought off the 18-th Wehrmacht’s 21-October Division. Holding along the front of 14 kilometers along with the remnants of the 66 Cavalry Division, the cadets and teachers of the 15th consolidated regiment fought at the 2 height - Kopani beam - Gorskaya Porada - Lyubovka-Chistopolie-Stoyanov.

    Under the guise of units and formations of the Taganrog combat area (31-I, 150-I, 339-I rifle, 66-I cavalry divisions, 1-I, 2-I, 3-I, 4-I, 5-I and 6-I the second combined cadet regiments) on the western approaches to Rostov on October 18 – 20 occupied two divisions of the 56 Separate Army on October. This army was formed within three days according to the directive No. 003017 of the Supreme High Command from October 15 of 1941 of the year specifically to protect Rostov [2, p. 73]. Unfired, newly formed divisions were reinforced by combined cadet battalions. The battalion of three-troop personnel of the Rostov Infantry School from the 2-th combined cadet regiment was assigned to the 353-th Novorossiysk infantry division of Colonel G. F. Panchenko, and the 3-th combined cadet regiment (1-th RAU) - 343-th Stavropol infantry division P. Chuvasheva. Cadet battalions occupied the line of height 110,2 - height 97,3 - Leninavan - the Western junction.
  5. nivander
    nivander 29 July 2016 11: 47
    the Waffen SS also had their own lucky ones. For example, Sturbannführer Kurt Meyer, the commander of the intelligence. During the Greek campaign, he threw a grenade at his own Zoldat so that they would leave the shelter and launch an attack. In 1941, near Brody, his battalion came under attack from the 12th division of the Red Army, only seriously wounded K. Meyer survived. and returned to the front only in October 1941. In January 1942, Leibstadart was almost completely killed near Andreanopol, and only 35 heads survived from the head regiment, including K. Meyer. In September 1944, already being an SS general and commander of the Hitler Youth, he got captured by the Belgian partisans, how he survived the mind is incomprehensible (all the prisoners of the SS were immediately shot by us, the Americans and the British and the French)
    1. Bashibuzuk
      Bashibuzuk 29 July 2016 11: 59
      Ah yes Kurt Meyer, oh yeah son of a dog ...
      throwing grenades at your own soldiers is cool.
      How did he survive this attack ... when he threw it.
      But they didn’t shoot this ... the son of a dog ... I think because he offered his services to the Belgians - to shoot his own wounded and prisoners. Why, experience has already been accumulated.
    2. mroy
      mroy 29 July 2016 12: 21
      If you believe Meyer himself, then he was allegedly in camouflage without insignia and was able to destroy documents and introduce himself as an army colonel.
      But most likely he sang with a nightingale, if only they would not put him to the wall.
      1. gladcu2
        gladcu2 29 July 2016 14: 17

        SS had their own camouflage, which was different from the Wehrmacht camouflage.

        An excellent sign, the Wehrmacht had a stroke of stripes in the form of rain.
        1. mroy
          mroy 1 August 2016 10: 13
          I know this, and even clarified this question, but again, according to the version of Meyer himself, he was wearing exclusive camouflage from Italian fabric with a non-standard pattern.
          In my humble opinion, the entire set of excuses voiced in the memoirs speaks in favor of active and voluntary cooperation, and possibly even in favor of voluntary surrender.
  6. Bashibuzuk
    Bashibuzuk 29 July 2016 11: 55
    Pauline, what happened to you ??
    They wrote in such a way that I wanted to continue reading ... then suddenly -
    "... According to military historians, the missing link was occupied by cadets of schools stationed in Rostov-on-Don, who were urgently sent by trains to the Taganrog region and gave out one rifle for five.
    During the formation of the division, problems arose with personal and small arms. Weapons from the period of the Civil War had to be withdrawn from the funds of the Civil War period, suitable for military use...."
    And why on all five? Why not for six ... or for a platoon. Why, in the end, didn’t give shank cuttings?
    And how many schools .. was stationed in Rostov-on-Don in 1941? I understand that there are 20 institutions, huh? Including Suvorov schools.
    And in none of the institutions (military, so ...) did you have your own arsenal?
    I would also like to know -
    how many museums were there in Rostov, in those same years, and what fund of storerooms, in particular, military weapons suitable for use, did they have? Maxim machine guns ... at least enough for the company? Lewis, Shosh machine guns .... how many berdanas and guns were there, how many 3 inches were lying around?
    This is not the topic - the Great Patriotic War - to write about it so incredibly.
    I stand on that.
    1. Stas57
      Stas57 29 July 2016 12: 37
      Quote: Bashibuzuk
      And in none of the institutions (military, so ...) did you have your own arsenal?

      It turned out that I brought up my training art.
      I certainly believe that maybe not everyone got the weapon, and some companies had problems, but damn, there are no fairy tales in the war, and 18 summer boys with a rifle for ten they don’t stop the SS, they are just killed.
      The SS is stopped by competent fighters, well trained, well armed.
    2. Ilhar
      Ilhar 29 July 2016 13: 31
      What are Suvorov schools?
      1. Bashibuzuk
        Bashibuzuk 29 July 2016 14: 50
        As for the Suvorov schools .... I missed.
        Suvorov schools, of course. And then they later appeared.
        Just hooked, honestly ... one rifle for five .... got-and-and-and-and-and-and-and-and-and-through-and-then ...
        It would be necessary to write for plausibility - there is only one rifle, but each user was given their own bolt. For a "mosinka" it's easy.
        About .. slammed his shutter, so no longer shooting.
        "..Missing link cadets occupied which trains."- what link, how many trains .... God, your will.
        And Stas wrote absolutely exactly, stas57 - ". 18 year old boys with a rifle for ten do not stop the SS, they are just killed and that's it.
        SS are stopped by competent fighters, well trained, well armed .... "
        Miraculous things are happening, with reporters.
        That alone, solid traditionalists, begin to subvert the foundations.
        Then suddenly others, not noticed in collaborationism - change before our eyes.
        It’s not otherwise, Putin is to blame ... he has too many power agents to power.
        Or .... am I missing something?
    3. Tanya
      Tanya 29 July 2016 16: 09
      This is the case when a comment is more interesting and informative than an article.
  7. Oleg Monarchist
    Oleg Monarchist 29 July 2016 12: 52
    and gave out one rifle for five.
    During the formation of the division, problems arose with personal and small arms. Weapons of the Civil War period, suitable for combat use, had to be withdrawn from the funds of city museums .... "

    I wildly apologize ... Was there a civil war about five hundred years before the events described?

    In general, all these moaning about "one rifle for three" is the nonsense of liberaloff, which creates an idea of ​​the Second World War based on the delusional American film "Enemy at the Gates".

    And each military school cadet has his own weapon assigned to him. Who is inventing all this nonsense "one for three"?
    1. Dimon19661
      Dimon19661 29 July 2016 13: 36
      It’s just that people who are far from the army and absolutely do not understand its structure write such articles. The article has a lot of emotions, feelings, but little specificity. I believe that it is unacceptable to explain the failures of the Red Army at the initial stage of the Second World War by the example of such articles.
      1. Fitter65
        Fitter65 29 July 2016 15: 57
        Quote: Dimon19661
        . I believe that it is unacceptable to explain the failures of the Red Army at the initial stage of the Second World War by the example of such articles.

        And such an aftertram
  8. Fitter65
    Fitter65 29 July 2016 14: 07
    ... as evidenced by the defensive battles in the area of ​​the Mius River. It was here that the Germans were driven back several kilometers back, beyond the Sarmatian river. And then for several days the 1135th Infantry Salsky Regiment under the command of Major V. A. restrained the advancing Nazi troops. Kuznetsova. His headquarters was surrounded. On October 20, in the German ring of tanks and motorized infantry, in the Turkov’s beam near the Sedovsky farm, tanks Kuznetsov was able to send his last report: “To Rybin ...
    After reading this, I immediately realized that the author is Polina, who is Efimova. It seems that the topic is interesting, and the material is not bad, but the presentation of the material ... Then she loses part of the phrase or sentence, immediately jumps from one moment to another. Madame you calmly, slowly, describe one episode, then another, third ... And as a result, an uncommon ending, in general, as always, we recruit + not at the expense of the ability to present material to the reader, but at the expense of patriotism.
    -Comrade, are you a patriot ?!
    -Yes, I'm a patriot!
    -And why then go to a foreign car, and not to a domestic car?
    -So I explain to you. I-PATRIOT !!! And not (title of the book of Dostoevsky-5 letters)
  9. Tanya
    Tanya 29 July 2016 16: 08
    But if the 31st and 339th Rostov rifle divisions appeared on the Taganrog combat area on October 12-13, then who restrained the advance of the enemy from October 10 to 12? The combat order above refers to the use of "local resources, including the Taganrog garrison." But what the Taganrog garrison was in October 1941, we do not know today.

    These questions are answered in the Combat Journal. For every day.

    The transfer of the division was also mentioned in one of the front-line documents, from which it became known that 10 October “At art. Assumption 4 echelons of the division were unloaded, 3 echelons are on the way ".

    Here it is - one of the front-line documents for 10.10.41. Sent 9 trains, unloaded - 7. (railway)
  10. The comment was deleted.
  11. Stas57
    Stas57 29 July 2016 16: 50
    By the way, I’ll throw a scoop, these are the French 1940
  12. geologist
    geologist 29 July 2016 21: 09
    Again horse cavalry from Pauline? Cadets with stone axes and in kokoshniks from the museum ...
  13. LuZappa
    LuZappa 29 July 2016 22: 42
    Specially registered to deliver a minus. But until it gives, you have to postpone it ...
    1. ZIS
      ZIS 31 July 2016 22: 47
      I have already slapped.
    2. Shuma
      Shuma 27 September 2016 18: 29
      And how can I put a minus? I did not find... :(
  14. ZIS
    ZIS 31 July 2016 22: 41
    The 20th anti-aircraft mortar regiment of the mortar company.
    Someone !!! Can clearly explain what kind of a division of the Red Army? A regiment in the company? And in my understanding, anti-aircraft gunners and mortar gunners do not fit, they have too different tasks in my opinion.
    1. BAI
      BAI 27 September 2016 13: 24
      "anti-aircraft mortar regiment of a mortar company."
      Is this from a series of armored Buryat police?
  15. seregatara1969
    seregatara1969 27 September 2016 18: 33
    For this, two rifle divisions stood out: the 150th and 339th, the 20th anti-aircraft mortar regiment of the mortar company
    it's like?
  16. krasnoarm45
    krasnoarm45 12 August 2018 09: 39
    This text is completely stolen by P. Efimova from another article of researchers, a bibliographic link to the original - Voloshin V.A., Rakochiy S.V. and neighboring countries in wars and armed conflicts. Materials of the All-Russian Scientific Conference with international participation. Federal Agency for Scientific Organizations, Russian Academy of Sciences, Southern Scientific Center, Institute for Social, Economic and Humanitarian Research (Rostov-on-Don, June 1941-22, 25). 2016.S. 2016-169.

    The actions of P. Efimova - plagiarism of intellectual work, entails a violation of several parts of "Article 146. Violation of copyright and related rights" of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation.