Military Review

Station jamming P-330ZH "Resident"

34



At the exercises that we attended, finally managed to get acquainted with the "Resident". Indeed, this station personally caused me a heightened interest, since in our time this has not yet been invented. And so it happened.

I’ll say right away that despite the fact that the P-330ZH was put into service in 2008, the station has already managed to undergo modernization. Therefore, we were not allowed inside the fully deployed station, because there was something that we were not supposed to see. Photos of the entrails - from the old "resident", so to speak.

So, "Resident".



The station is used as part of the automated interference system P-330М1P "Diabazol", so it can work autonomously. But with less efficiency. This is a classic station jamming in the radio frequency range. But as part of the complex "Resident" may be the following:

1. Automated detection, direction finding and analysis of radio emission source signals in the working frequency range.

2. Radio interference to wearable and mobile ground stations (subscriber terminals) of satellite communication systems INMARSAT and IRIDIUM, navigation equipment of consumers of satellite radio navigation system NAVSTAR (GPS) and base stations of cellular communication system GSM-900 / 1800.

3. Automated information exchange with a similar station to ensure synchronous direction finding of radio emission sources in order to calculate their coordinates. There may also be an information exchange with the base control point in order to obtain a task for conducting combat work.

4. Maintain cartographic data displaying information about explored sources of radio emission on the background of an electronic topographic map of the area or in a grid of rectangular coordinates.

Now the name becomes clear. Why "resident"? Hello to all cellular and satellite communications in the radius of the station.

Methods of using P-330ZH:
- autonomously;
- paired with a similar product as a leading station;
- paired with a similar product as a slave station;
- autonomously and in a mated pair under the control of a control point of the type P-330КМА.

Performance characteristics:

Calculation (crew): 4 person.

Operating frequency range:
- in the conduct of radio intelligence - 100 ... 2000 MHz;
- when conducting radio suppression - 800 ... 960; 1227,6; 1575,42; 1500 ... 1700 and 1700 ... 1900 MHz.

Types of interfering signals: sighting in frequency, sighting-barrage in frequency, barrage in frequency.

The range of radio suppression of the equipment of ground consumers - 20 ... 25 km.

The range of radio jamming of consumer equipment installed on aircraft is at least 50 km.

The power supply can be carried out from the industrial network or the own diesel power station 220 / 380В or in emergency mode from the 24 B batteries.

Deployment time (coagulation) - no more than 40 minutes.




The downside, in my opinion, is quite a long deployment procedure. Antenna installation is a very delicate and complex process, as it turned out.



The antennas are installed manually using mechanical winches, and the main difficulty is to synchronize from the installation. In short, a few hemorrhoids, here mechanization would definitely not hurt.






In the frame of the generator that feeds this module.



But in general, the calculation of 4-s people really sets everything for 40 minutes.



Done ...



Fully deployed station.


Station jamming P-330ZH "Resident"
It looks like the inside of the working compartment.


When the "Resident" works, then you can forget about any connection in the specified range. It just will not be at all. And the two stations operating in pairs are quite capable of stunning the millionth city.

What is in our time to remain without a mobile connection, say, probably not worth it. Of course, the entire specified range at once "Resident" will not work, but this is not necessary. It is enough to know the frequencies of the providers companies, and ...

The station is able to work simultaneously on 12 channels. In general, it is more than enough for everyone to immediately remember about the wired phones.

The only negative is that the “Resident” in the radius of action brings down everyone, both his own and others. Therefore, in the process of work, an alert is made on the cable phone for their own. In the same way inform and about the termination of work.

Of course, a long-running station can be easily detected by the source of radio emission and try to eliminate it with missiles or artillery. Therefore, the antenna module is made remote, if it arrives, then at least the calculation will survive. Of course, there is little that will save from shelling by area, but the station is really small, so the probability is low.

I asked the guys from the calculation, if you want it, how much can you collect? The answer was encouraging: there will be no more minutes through 20 after the first break. But the enemy must somehow be guided, corrected. And how will they do it? Indeed, the structure of "Diabazol" can include not only "Residents", but also the modernized Borisoglebsk-2, which can cut down the entire VHF communications.



But it is already completely different. история...
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34 comments
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  1. arkadiyssk
    arkadiyssk 26 July 2016 07: 00
    +2
    Those. it crushes the maximum ancient GSM 1800, what about 3G and 4G where are the frequencies from 2000 MHz?
    They developed equipment in the USSR and continue to impose it on the troops for the sake of making money?
    1. Tambov Wolf
      Tambov Wolf 26 July 2016 09: 31
      +2
      Remember the old complexes R-834P and R-934. The range was exactly the same as ours. And the United States in the war between Iraq and Iran supplied aircrafts with communication stations with a UHF range higher than 500 MHz. That’s what the relatives were of no use. Thinking is still visible. like "maybe and I suppose." Yes, and the deployment of antennas is exactly the same as on those manually, although the French already at that time had antennas working automatically. What is interesting, some citizens from the Ministry of Defense are looking. Not for a rollback ?.
      1. DimerVladimer
        DimerVladimer 26 July 2016 13: 08
        +2
        Quote: Tambov Wolf
        Remember the old complexes R-834P and R-934. The range was exactly the same as ours. And the United States in the war between Iraq and Iran supplied aircrafts with communication stations with a UHF range higher than 500 MHz. That’s what the relatives were of no use. Thinking is still visible. like "maybe and I suppose." Yes, and the deployment of antennas is exactly the same as on those manually, although the French already at that time had antennas working automatically. What is interesting, some citizens from the Ministry of Defense are looking. Not for a rollback ?.


        Exactly!
        Archaic complexes, useless in modern conditions!
        1. Cresta999
          Cresta999 26 July 2016 14: 28
          +6
          I answer immediately to everyone who wrote above: do not smack nonsense! The army is not a fashion store for you. You might be surprised, but the morse code is still used in the armies of all countries. As a backup communication channel. And one of the most noiseproof! It is not necessary to think that if equipment using new frequencies appeared, or a new type of modulation, or a new compression method, then the old equipment is immediately withdrawn from the game. This is NOT so far. If you are talking about a local operation, then of course, they will try to apply all the most modern in it. Like for example in Syria. But one does not need to think that this is possible in a big war. In addition, there are always other directions. For example, when certain equipment for certain actions became outdated to work for Americans and their friends, it was transferred to the Far East to work for Chinese people who mainly use our means of communication. So there is no need here about kickbacks. These are your personal conclusions that have nothing to do with reality.
          1. Prapor-527
            Prapor-527 26 July 2016 18: 13
            0
            "DIABAZOL" killed in general !!! good Next will be "Suprastin" ... hi
            1. All1
              All1 1 December 2016 20: 47
              +1
              Gutalax and Loperamide! )))
  2. avg-mgn
    avg-mgn 26 July 2016 07: 02
    +4
    Very good! Thanks to the author, he could do everything he could and said and illustrated.
    1. Inok10
      Inok10 26 July 2016 13: 39
      +2
      Quote: avg-mgn
      Very good! Thanks to the author, he could do everything he could and said and illustrated.

      ... I agree ... thanks to Roman Batkovich! ... it is indirectly indicated that it is a complex before modernization, and right ... let the adversary guess the current performance characteristics ... hi
  3. Alex von Dorn
    Alex von Dorn 26 July 2016 07: 24
    0
    With mechanization has always been bad, bad heredity. And so the thing is necessary, even very much.
    1. Inok10
      Inok10 26 July 2016 21: 28
      +2
      Quote: Alex von Dorn
      With mechanization has always been bad, bad heredity. And so the thing is necessary, even very much.

      ... this is not bad heredity, but Russian pragmatism ... no one canceled the use of tactical nuclear weapons, nor the means of destruction with electromagnetic radiation ... and where will your electric motor be? ... that's right, where there are spare parts for cars ... and this is a manual drive, a little longer, but more reliable ... like the soft stretch marks on the antennas ... chopped with a knife and slippers ... sort of like trifles, but they have serious weight ... hi
  4. Professor
    Professor 26 July 2016 08: 42
    +1
    2. Radio interference to wearable and mobile ground stations (subscriber terminals) of satellite communication systems INMARSAT and IRIDIUM, navigation equipment of consumers of satellite radio navigation system NAVSTAR (GPS) and base stations of cellular communication system GSM-900 / 1800.

    What about army satellite communications?

    What about anti-interference GPS antennas?


    The station is able to work simultaneously on 12 channels. In general, it is more than enough for everyone to immediately remember about the wired phones.

    No. Not enough. HRHF will not drown it.
    1. vadimtt
      vadimtt 26 July 2016 09: 59
      +2
      As I understand it, the parameters are given Residents of the 2008 sample, what happened to her after the modernization is not known for sure, perhaps all of the above has been implemented. The frequency hopping, if it is not jammed at all, then degrades to the state of a "damaged phone", however, in order to confirm this, you need to know the time characteristics of the Residents, how long it takes to find new active frequencies (slow scanning or SDR processing is used) and how quickly the command to stop is released and executed ... There are none in the article.
    2. Cresta999
      Cresta999 26 July 2016 14: 33
      +3
      Why are you all clinging to the frequency hopping? It feels like it has become some kind of spell. If in the 20th century jammed radio broadcasts of this type, then now what will hurt ??? Or do you think frequency tuning occurs between different ranges or something ??? Like at a given moment of time on earth waves, and in the next millisecond in the microwave range? So? You yourself know not. Well, your frequency jumps from 5 MHz to 5,5 and vice versa. So what is the difficulty of covering this area with an obstacle then ?!
      1. Professor
        Professor 26 July 2016 14: 49
        -1
        Quote: Cresta999
        If in the 20th century jammed radio broadcasts of this type, then now what will hurt ???

        How? White noise?

        Quote: Cresta999
        So what is the difficulty of covering this area with an obstacle then ?!

        Three difficulties:
        1. Determine that the data is being transmitted and confuse it with the background.
        2. Do not drown everything in a row including their own.
        3. Find so much power that can drown out the entire range.
        1. Cresta999
          Cresta999 26 July 2016 23: 17
          +1
          1. At the expense of "white noise". What did you say it to? I don't even know where to start the answer, to be honest. Or is it just another buzzword? Seriously, the type of modulation and the amplitude of the interference signal is selected based on the type of signal to be suppressed. And just in the last place, it is interesting whether he uses the frequency hopping or not. The main thing is the type of modulation, frequency, etc.
          2. It has not been difficult to determine transmission using frequency hopping for several decades. Even when I was a cadet, we studied domestic direction finders for radio stations operating on frequency hopping systems. It was in the 97th. I don’t know how much you can tell today (since I haven’t seen this kind of information in the open press), so I’ll just say that there’s no difficulty.
          3. Some power-on jamming stations turn on everything. This is their feature. Therefore, before suppressing interference, it is mandatory to investigate and draw up a plan for the use of frequencies, which is common for the direction. Illiterate, but in essence.
          4. You probably think that the frequency tuning takes place over a wide range. This is not entirely true. I already wrote about this above.
          5. It is not necessary to completely suppress the entire signal. but if necessary, it’s possible. Range will simply decrease.
          1. Professor
            Professor 27 July 2016 08: 54
            -1
            Quote: Cresta999
            1. At the expense of "white noise". What did you say it to? I don't even know where to start the answer, to be honest. Or is it just another buzzword? Seriously, the type of modulation and the amplitude of the interference signal is selected based on the type of signal to be suppressed. And just in the last place, it is interesting whether he uses the frequency hopping or not. The main thing is the type of modulation, frequency, etc.

            The fact of the matter is that with frequency hopping you do not know the frequency. The type of modulation does not matter here at all. Without knowing the frequency, you will have to drown out the white noise, i.e. the whole range.

            Quote: Cresta999
            2. It has not been difficult to determine transmission using frequency hopping for several decades. Even when I was a cadet, we studied domestic direction finders for radio stations operating on frequency hopping systems. It was in the 97th. I don’t know how much you can tell today (since I haven’t seen this kind of information in the open press), so I’ll just say that there’s no difficulty.

            I have other information. Modern frequency hopping not only jumps "far and fast", but also makes it so that the transmission looks like noise. Look at the American standard at leisure, there is also about the signal-to-noise ratio. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE INTERFACE STANDARD

            Quote: Cresta999
            3. Some power-on jamming stations turn on everything. This is their feature. Therefore, before suppressing interference, it is mandatory to investigate and draw up a plan for the use of frequencies, which is common for the direction. Illiterate, but in essence.

            Jamming everything is also a method, but
            1. You muffle your
            2. Huge power needed.

            Quote: Cresta999
            4. You probably think that the frequency tuning takes place over a wide range. This is not entirely true. I already wrote about this above.

            I do not think, I know. Today you can even buy a PPRCh station for home use in a store.
            TriSquare TSX300-2VP Two Way Radio Value Pack

            Quote: Cresta999
            5. It is not necessary to completely suppress the entire signal. but if necessary, it’s possible. Range will simply decrease.

            If you do not know at what frequency the enemy is broadcasting, then you have to jam the entire expected range. hi
            1. Cresta999
              Cresta999 27 July 2016 09: 07
              +3
              Sorry, professor, but you are an impenetrably stubborn person.
              You do not hear a single argument.
              White noise? White noise is a signal at the level of the possibility of perception by the equipment that does not have a pronounced formation algorithm. This is if in your own words. White noise CANNOT drown out anything. And it is not necessary in principle. Are you suggesting that I go to some link on the Internet to look at one of the thousands of radio stations on which I have worked for many years? He laughed sincerely. Thanks. Each such radio station can not only be understood and tracked and muted, but even identified by its "emphasize". So stop pouring this amateurish nonsense on the heads of unprepared colleagues on the site. Good luck.
              1. Professor
                Professor 27 July 2016 09: 11
                -1
                And all the best to you. hi

                PS
                White noise
                1. Cresta999
                  Cresta999 27 July 2016 21: 57
                  +1
                  Professor, are you kidding me? Why are you slipping it to me? First a link to the radio station, now a wikipedia article? Did you imagine yourself a real professor? Or are you thinking of teaching me something new? Then you have to try hard. Just to make you understand. Some of my teachers (real professors) set up radio intelligence in Vietnam during the US-Vietnam conflict. And in a week they opened up the entire American group, including the name of the unit commanders. So instead of throwing links to articles on Wikipedia, you would rather read what I wrote to you.
                  1. Professor
                    Professor 27 July 2016 22: 10
                    0
                    Quote: Cresta999
                    Professor, are you kidding me?

                    And did not think to mock. It’s just that your professors probably told you a long time ago what white noise is and you forgot about it quite a bit, and I periodically use this white noise to characterize filters. And it turns out that white noise is signal at the level of perception of equipment not having a pronounced formation algorithm.
                    1. Cresta999
                      Cresta999 28 July 2016 07: 49
                      0
                      Professor, probably even on a wikipedia article it says what sources of white noise are. And if you are talking about natural, then yes, at some time and in some frequency range its amplitude (maximum) is less. Those. At the level of perception. See the waveform. You will not see a straight line there. This is first class! If you are talking about an artificial source of white noise, then ideally this is not possible at all. And in a specific range - so to speak scientifically, it is no longer white noise. You, professor, confuse the warm with the soft just to write the last sentence and not look, sorry, an idiot. Write.
                      1. Professor
                        Professor 28 July 2016 17: 59
                        0
                        Quote: Cresta999
                        Professor, probably even on a wikipedia article it says what sources of white noise are. And if you are talking about natural, then yes, at some time and in some frequency range its amplitude (maximum) is less. Those. At the level of perception.

                        Not at the "level of perception by hardware", much higher. Even rolls over. This is a kindergarten. An example of natural white noise is sunlight. I do not advise you to check and look at the sun, since the amplitude of white noise in the entire visible spectrum is much higher than the possibility of perception by your "equipment" and after saturation there will be an irreversible loss of the possibility of perception by your "equipment" (in the form of an analog device like eyes), i.e. blindness.

                        Quote: Cresta999
                        See the waveform. You will not see a straight line there.

                        I looked. I see a straight line.


                        Quote: Cresta999
                        If you are talking about an artificial source of white noise, then ideally this is not possible at all.

                        In an ideal world, everything is perfect, but in the real world a little different. The whistle of the steamer drowns out the whole sound range perceived by a person with white noise. The white halogen lamp drowns out the whole visible spectrum with white noise.

                        Quote: Cresta999
                        And in a specific range - so to speak scientifically, it is no longer white noise.

                        You would follow the link. There is a definition of white noise.

                        Quote: Cresta999
                        You, professor, confuse the warm with the soft just to write the last sentence and not look, sorry, an idiot. Write.

                        It makes no difference to me whether I look like an idiot in anyone's eyes. I am not at that age and in the wrong status. hi I leave you the last word so that I look like an idiot. wink

                        Regarding frequency hopping, the signal can theoretically be drowned out exclusively by white noise, i.e. scoring the entire range used by the radio station. For example, the described station, as they say, is capable of drowning out 12 channels. The household radio station previously introduced by me uses 10 billion channels. It is possible to drown it out only with white noise, having scored the entire frequency range used by it.
  5. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 26 July 2016 11: 57
    +1
    An analogue of what the Americans install on a HAMVI pair (EW intelligence complex)? And while moving very mobile.
    Coagulation of the complex in 20 minutes - no one in modern combat will give so much time, in minutes they will cover - for example, MLRS cluster munitions in area, since the complex does not have anti-fragmentation reservations - survivability raises questions.
    Deployment of 40 minutes is something of the "unreal-long" area.
    An installation with a suppression radius of 20-25 km should be of a "nomadic" type - work with motion, so as not to be hit by conventional means of attack - is detected (triangulated) in 30 seconds, inflicting fire damage on the complex - 1,5-2 minutes by conventional means (artillery, multiple launch rocket systems).
    Maybe for that they showed the complex that it does not meet the modern requirements of the battlefield?
    1. Inok10
      Inok10 26 July 2016 13: 49
      +4
      Quote: DimerVladimer
      by conventional means of attack - it is detected (triangulated) in 30 seconds, the application of fire damage to the complex - 1,5-2 minutes by conventional means (artillery, multiple launch rocket systems).

      ... well, well, the shooter is an excellent artilleryman ... any MLRS is a radio fuse, which means a client of the EW / REP "Mercury BM" complex ... any NATO corrected ammunition is NAVSTAR, and it won't even be in the "Resident's" work area "...
      P.S. ... and also to the excellent artilleryman the range of the Paladin 24 km. active-rocket projectile under ideal conditions and most importantly, without NAVSTAR, conduct battery topo-mapping ... laughing
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 26 July 2016 13: 57
        +1
        Quote: Inok10
        ... well, well, the shooter is an excellent artilleryman ... any MLRS is a radio fuse, which means a client of the EW / REP "Mercury BM" complex ... any NATO corrected ammunition is NAVSTAR, and it won't even be in the "Resident's" work area "...

        So the first to be extinguished is "mercury" - power supply unit with contact fuses and remote tubes. smile
        The accuracy of the direction finding of the radiation source is quite enough to suppress the target with conventional ammunition. Moreover, all radio-emitting systems have an extremely vulnerable part that is physically impossible to hide - antennas.
        1. Inok10
          Inok10 26 July 2016 14: 09
          +4
          Quote: Alexey RA
          The accuracy of the direction finding of the radiation source is quite enough to suppress the target with conventional ammunition.

          ... well, they’ll let them approach a distance of 15 km. ? ... will no longer be a normal ammunition ... I’ll emphasize it again ... no NAVSTAR, no topographic reference, then there is no direction finding ... the basics of the basics ... hi ... no, of course you can take a sextant, as in the good old days and get your coordinates with the accuracy of "half an elbow on the map" ... and get the direction finding results with the accuracy "over there, behind that hill and a little more." .. laughing
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 26 July 2016 17: 29
            0
            Quote: Inok10
            ... well, they’ll let them approach a distance of 15 km. ? ... normal ammunition will no longer work ...

            Ahem ... actually, even the ancient 39-gauge loladins ... ugh, "paladins" have a range of 18 km with normal and 30 km with active-reactive.
            But there are still numerous "brainchilds of Bull" - 52-caliber divisional artillery systems with their 24-30 km of an ordinary projectile.
            Quote: Inok10
            I emphasize once again ... there is no NAVSTAR, there is no topographic location, so there is no direction finding ...

            Yes, there is RTR and NAVSTAR, and topographic location. For the range of the EW station is always less than the range of the direction finding of its radiation: there is a rather wide ring in which the power of the EW signal is no longer enough to crush the satellite navigation signal, but at the same time the signal of the EW station is clearly detected.

            And do not forget about the ANN (ring laser gyroscopes and all that). They work autonomously, their satellite channel serves only for periodic correction of cumulative errors - for a couple of days they will live quietly without it.
            1. Inok10
              Inok10 26 July 2016 19: 26
              +3
              Quote: Alexey RA
              Ahem ... actually, even the ancient 39-gauge loladins ... ugh, "paladins" have a range of 18 km with normal and 30 km with active-reactive.

              ... 24 km. - active-reactive ... usual yes, at 18 km. with a KVO of 200-300 m at such a range ... that is, you can’t do without shooting, but who will correct the UAV? ... since NAVSTAR is absent, how will the UAV determine its coordinates? ... what about the UAV control channel? ... and something tells me that the air defense of the Ground Forces will not let him barrage in the area of ​​fire ... and accordingly, no one canceled the counter-battery fight, the Paladin’s 100% chance of getting a Grad package in his firing position ... if not destroyed, then 100% depressed ...
              Quote: Alexey RA
              But there are still numerous "brainchilds of Bull" - 52-caliber divisional artillery systems with their 24-30 km of an ordinary projectile.

              ... but why so secret and ornate? ... M110A2? ... well, they were still in service or they were all replaced by MLRS, i.e. MLRS, but they already spoke for him ... here, please, in more detail ... hi
              Quote: Alexey RA
              Yes, there is RTR and NAVSTAR, and topographic location. For the range of the EW station is always less than the range of the direction finding of its radiation: there is a rather wide ring in which the power of the EW signal is no longer enough to crush the satellite navigation signal, but at the same time the signal of the EW station is clearly detected.

              ... here I completely agree ... RTR will not have top-level questions, which is not the case for those working 10 km away. from the line of contact, here the pipe is full ... but, but what about the means of destruction? ... until I see how, aviation is not offered ... that is, the air defense of the Ground Forces ... from 5 to 200 km. at all heights from 5 m to 20 km. ... hi
              Quote: Alexey RA
              And do not forget about the ANN (ring laser gyroscopes and all that). They work autonomously, their satellite channel serves only for periodic correction of cumulative errors - for a couple of days they will live quietly without it.

              ... I would be glad to agree with you ... if not for one but, on the Paladin, something tells me they aren’t there ... there is a NAVSTAR unit linked to ASUO, the mattress army has long abandoned paper cards ... we still have old-time means of topographic referencing in the old experience, ours are well aware .. No one will allow to fight as at a training ground according to NAVSTAR / GLONASS ... this is utopia ... hi
        2. Parsec
          Parsec 26 July 2016 15: 02
          +4
          Quote: Alexey RA
          The accuracy of the direction finding of the radiation source is quite enough to suppress the target with conventional ammunition.


          What tool are you talking about now?
          Have you ever been engaged in direction finding?
  6. Orionvit
    Orionvit 26 July 2016 19: 36
    0
    Of course, any competent artilleryman with a good targeting officer will cover such a station quickly. I would not like to underestimate the enemy, but at least there are good gunners in the NATO countries? All the doctrines of the alliance are like political window dressing and self-promotion with shouts about the Russian "threat". Suffice it to recall the recent dropping of "Hummers" during exercises in Bavaria, which speaks of the general level of training of the NATO forces. Besides, they serve there under contract. Good salary, food, not dusty work, social guarantees, benefits. But on occasion, to fight, especially with the Russians, the majority will simply refuse. They did not join the army for this, there is no patriotism. And where does it come from, half of the ped.i.kov.
  7. torp
    torp 26 July 2016 20: 06
    -1
    I would like to ask Roman: is it realistic that such stations are in the DPR? By the fact that hahly laid out a resident's photo, the floor was made by Makeevka! If it's not a military secret.
    1. All1
      All1 1 December 2016 20: 35
      0
      Ukrainians and Ukrainians-not the same thing. As well as Russian and Russian. You can be a Russian and a Tatar. You can be ukrofashistom and not be a crest. So off the sloppies from Ukrainians!
  8. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 29 July 2016 09: 29
    +1
    The people, for different tasks, different complexes. For limited conflicts in the Caucasus and Ukraine, this complex is quite enough. For combined arms battles there are other complexes, on both sides, and missiles to suppress them.
  9. All1
    All1 1 December 2016 20: 27
    0
    But what about 433 MHz? In industry and everyday life, a very popular frequency!
    As for the antennas - the author did not appreciate the troubles of the designers, who regard the antennas as a work of art, and not as something functional! )))