Military Review

German command: "Kill all Russian." Part of 2

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German command: "Kill all Russian." Part of 2



The name of Stalin in the works is much less common than the mention of the Red Army. At the same time, children call him just as “a teacher, leader and liberator, Comrade Stalin”. The images of the “beloved”, “gallant” Red Army and Red Army in the conditions of the newly eliminated threat of enslavement were much more relevant for adolescents of the middle of the 1940-s than the cult images of the leaders.

As for the writings of teachers, they are more stylistically literate than the writings of schoolchildren. The literary level of the texts is much higher. This is evident, for example, by the way one of the teachers of school No. 3 completed her essay: “They came and brought with them grief, captivity, slavery, death and poverty. They leave and leave behind themselves the ruin, the destruction of culture and all that is dear to the Soviet person. "

The writing of another teacher is built in the form of diary entries, each of which refers to a key date. Of greatest interest is the description of the "new order" of the fascists in Taganrog. Record of 17 in October 1941 of the year (the beginning of the occupation of Taganrog): "The new order" reigned in our country. " The recording, made in February 1943 of the year (victory at Stalingrad): “New order” is delayed by us ”. And finally, an entry from 30 in August 1943 of the year (the liberation of Taganrog): "New order" collapsed, thrown out of his native city. "



In some writings of schoolchildren there is a strikethrough in red pencil. These are mostly edits of words, but sometimes whole sentences are crossed out. So, for example, crossed out two descriptions of cases of betrayal. The first of them is the betrayal by one of the underground workers of their comrades. During the interrogation, he told the Germans everything and asked other underground workers to follow his example.

The second case is the issue of a father by a neighbor of one of the students, a member of the party. Also, for example, cross out the fragment, mentioned earlier, about the superiority of the enemy in the early days of the war. Obviously, the teachers deleted from the essays those moments that they thought should not be mentioned. There are other edits. So, in many writings the word “Russian” was replaced with “Soviet”, in some places “partisans” - with “underground”, and vice versa, depending on the context of the events described. The personal self-censorship of schoolchildren also played its role. None of the students responded positively about the Germans or negatively about the Red Army. Everyone wrote how they waited for liberation, everyone felt joy when it finally happened, they called the occupation "temporary".



The students thanked Stalin and glorified the Red Army. Many writings are imbued with malice and hatred towards the invaders, including the phrase "we will avenge."

Thus, despite its ideological component, school essays convey the spirit of the Soviet era. They make it possible to emotionally experience that time, to see the war through the eyes of children, to understand what they felt in the first months after liberation. Virtually permanent dangers, mass destruction, the death of comrades and relatives bore a negative impact on the psyche, and after the war, as noted by historian V.A. Ageeva, "continued to influence the everyday school." However, life has ceased to be filled only with deprivation and hardship, it is perceived by teenagers only in gray and black tones. A person seeks to oust negative experiences and experiences from memory; he is characterized by concentrating on the positive moments of life, which bring small everyday joys.



Memories of residents

Today, the study of behavioral strategies and models of perception of reality by Soviet people who survived the German fascist occupation is acquiring more and more importance. The memories of people who survived the Nazi occupation during the Great Patriotic War are very deep, vivid and often painful. They were generated by intense fear, depression, anger and are not erased by eyewitnesses even after many decades. Witnesses of the occupation, the time of which fell on their childhood and adolescence, did not remember everything equally. Based on the analysis of oral historical materials from expeditions to Korenovsky and Goryacheklyuchevskaya districts of Krasnodar Territory, it seems possible to highlight the most significant moments.



After the war, it was often said that the bloody events were foreshadowed by supernatural signs, which testifies to the vividness of traditional ideas in the popular consciousness and in the second half of the 20th century, known from the pre-industrial period: here is a soldier (from two sides). Just real, tall, ruzhё so, men. And from the mene smyutsa, ka: “Sho you invented?” Prishla is an old woman alone: ​​“Yes, really, this will be sho”. And our young: "Oh, every tynki-minky coming up." She: “Well, niche, Bis disbelievers, pobochite”; "Before 1941, the red sky was strong, lightning was waving."


Photo by Mikhail Trakhman (Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union, TASS)


Even before the occupation, military troubles made themselves felt. Women had to work hard. They and the teenagers replaced the collective farmers who had gone to war: “I remember well the tse, he got up in the morning, and announced. Then there was tee, radio. And so they declare: war. I came to the board in the collective farm. They put me on a horse. Forces and went to the teams announced everything sho war started. They are calling home all the people from work. Came together here. There was a collective farm chairman. Said, sho began mobilization. And they began to take the muzhikiv to the front. In general, remain alone women. And we, teenage boys.

To the new duties was added a sharp increase in taxes, supply difficulties: “Well, when the war began, we still went somehow. And when they began to impose large taxes on meat, milk. We all had to be attributed to the tax. Came, described. Opened the old chest, and there is still something lying. Well, it's natural to grumble late. It was necessary, then it is necessary. There was a war. So it is necessary. Sorry, Lord. ” All this was accompanied by accelerated maturing of adolescents.

The entry of the invaders into the Kuban stanitsa produced a terrible impression. He was waited with horror. In the formation of a negative image of the German in advance, official propaganda, the stories of the retreating Soviet soldiers, and letters from the front also played a role. Special psychological impact had an abundance of military equipment, which made loud and harsh sounds, frightened villagers. Especially memorable advanced motorcycle patrols. All of this "deceives" the Germans, gave them the features of dangerous cars, not people.

“We went to tanks, motorcycles. They persecuted the Romanians and mocked them. The mud was terrible, and they ordered them: "Lie down, get up, lie down, get up," into this mud. "

“The Germans came - I was twelve years old. I remember well. They came in the month of July, the cleaning was just dust. They rode the motorcycles here. And the boys w. At the meeting looked at them. Yak to hell. They were rude. He lived in the occupation from July to February, the month of forty weeks. In the forty-second year, the Germans came. ”

Under the influence of long-term direct contacts with the invaders, their perception ceased to be clichéd. Their human qualities, individual features became visible: “(Did the Germans not live in your house?) Lived. He lived German. (Did not touch?) No. This German was a high rank. He has a car. The guards stood at every corner. The officer was. He is purely German. Neat was. I would even say that the Germans are not all bad. ”

But the memory of German terror is still more common: “The Germans came in the summer. In August. There were atrocities in the Platform Great. Current naps. I lived near the bazaar. And his mother lived here. German drunk came. Directed to them. The old woman has departed. The cow has gone. ”

- What then was in Imeretinka? During the occupation?

- We have, for example, two of our partisans, the chairmen of collective farms, Matvienko and Konotopchenko. And so no more lost. I dont know. Well, Tada drove them all to an ostentatious hanging. This is an awesome action. The Germans did such nasty things that it was necessary not to put up. How many people put. What kind of people destroyed! Work force

A special place in the memory of the villagers was found for the allies of the Germans - Romanians, Slovaks. They were considered more cheeky, thieving, prone to looting. But at the same time less scary. To a greater extent this applied to the Romanians.

- Were the Romanians, the Hungarians?

- have been. They were afraid. They were so cool. They put it on, sneak and walk. It was cold, January. And when the Germans came, there were many Ukrainians there. Ours with them. Where they like, there they choose apartments and sleep. We spent the night at night. Left us. We lived poorly. Mom is one, there are three of us. Scary where at home. Then the houses were old. "

“They expelled the hut, the Romanians settled. And the Germans and Romanians were. Romanians. Smoker heads prodrizaly, hog odryazaly head. Tae Vse saw it. And we drove from the hut. Hive beehive with us. Won bees otkrusyly, med visor, watering. There were Germans in the neighborhood. ” Romanians “scolded us, we were gone, mothers won us trogals”. When the Romanians were standing, the “horse near the hall was overblown.” "In the hall, bedroom, and themselves in other rooms."

- Did they bother the girls? Why?

- Older pristavaly. Girls are hiding where who, sidel. Pristavaly. Everything was. The girls are standing. Pribigaly. Do not know how. Reached

“The Germans were. Czechoslovakia stood. Czechs were there. Immediately the Germans, then the Romanians, and then the Czechs. And steel. In the barn started a bakery. Bread was baked and sent to the front. Some people worked here in their barns. And that work was not any. In the barns the bakery was. There, under the Germans, the compound was. Czechoslovakia stood on the apartment. Bread requested. Bring a bag. Pigs ponatagali. In the barn. Six pieces. Bring a bag of bread and spill it out. "Mom, some water you pour." And they gave us bread. And feed the pigs. They slaughtered these pigs, slaughtered. The car came. Cut and take to the front. Czechoslovakia - they are good people. Good ones. And the first Germans! Those trampled fences. They came, broke. What hatedki defeated. Then came after the Germans Romanians. And then the Czechs came. Already order has become. Silence, it was good.

- What did the Romanians do?

- Romanians did not do anything. They were preparing products. Bread baked meat.

- have been. And we are not Germans, they said, sho Slovaks. And the Hungarian people. And Slovakia. Were, were. In the village were.

- And the Slovaks did not offend the population?

- Offended. Taken away. Feather fed up - will come to take away. Chick taken. Che there is not offended? Hurt! There is a Slovak. Shouts: “Mom! Give eggs, hammers, milk! ”

As can be seen, in the eyes of eyewitnesses, the image of the Slovaks was formed as original soldiers of Svejkov, not aggressive and even friendly, but not missing the opportunity to “grab” worldly goods.



The so-called policemen, policemen from local residents, under the German occupation administration, the old residents of the Kuban villages remember in general with fear and disgust. They constantly repeat that there was more harm to civilians from the policemen than from the Germans themselves. It was with them that the main conflicts of the occupation period occurred. In the popular consciousness, the policemen became the embodiment of all the evil that the occupation brought

- In general, they are offended by the local strongly?

- offended. But what about?

- Shot?

- Imagine, sho German himself, a German, he did not touch. He turned the police against us. He has a policeman.

- And the shooting was in the village?

- We did not have. Maybe they were taken somewhere, but in our village I don’t remember, Schaub was shot. Beat beat. Here on our street was the council on the corner. To put a goto - he smacks with whips. Both women and men. For insubordination. And disobedience to sho - do not want to work. ” “The policemen were in the war. Required. Well I was on duty at these policemen. Well, shoot. The Reds came and shot. ”

Not always eyewitnesses emphasized the brutality and cruelty of the policemen, the danger that emanated from them. Sometimes storytellers emphasize social disadvantage and age immaturity. The policemen are labeled as "unhappy people." Especially since the youth and adolescents were among the main objects of all sorts of Hitler "mobilization" and propaganda processing.

- How did the policemen behave?

- To be very harsh, I would not say. One even asked for forgiveness, was hiding with us. Invalid with us. A brother and went for the Germans. Young.

Eyewitnesses say that before the retreat the Germans and their allies were already completely different. They understood that they did not manage to gain a foothold in the Kuban, therefore they became much more violent and cheeky. The invaders purposefully destroyed valuable property and buildings.

According to Tatyana Zelenskaya, the appeal to the people's memory is intended not only to preserve the whole eclecticism of the days gone by, but also to bring the past closer to the modern person who is holding the future of our country. Archival documents make it possible to fill the history of the war with its human perception, to understand the diversity and ambiguity of military realities in the minds of ordinary people in wartime - a child, a soldier, a witness to the occupation, a prisoner of a concentration camp.

Many residents have found confirmation of the negative image of the enemy created by propaganda in personal clashes with the occupiers. As a result, hatred and thirst for revenge became the main feelings in relation to the Germans. Yevgeny Krinko points out: “The perceptions of the Soviet citizens about the Germans seriously changed during the war. The hatred of the enemy, the experienced severity of wartime, the death of loved ones - all this could not but affect the liberation of Soviet territory. The German maintained his hostility even when he was not a direct threat. ” As a result of the war and occupation, an extremely negative image of the German was formed in the consciousness. The German became a symbol of evil: "Hitler's robbers," "Hitler's gangs," "Fiends, murderers, hangmen of the people!", "From the first day the Germans, like hungry wolves, began to rob", "Never an hour for the good of the Germans."
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 27 July 2016 08: 03
    +5
    Interesting topic .. Thanks, Polina ... A policeman, a former policeman lived in our town ... Everyone knew his house .. We are guys, we painted crosses on his gates .. Childhood. 70s ..
  2. qwert
    qwert 27 July 2016 08: 18
    +6
    I recalled the story on TV of an old woman who survived the occupation. “And we understood that he was working for the Germans when Micah said:“ The Russians will come soon - they will chase the Germans. ”We never said“ Russians, ”we always said“ ours. ”
    And about the portraits of Stalin ... Here Mukhin wrote well that if you take the "Ogonyok" file for 1949 (if I am not mistaken), then in a year it contained only three PHOTOS OF STALIN. One in the room in the month of his birthday. One in common with the deputies at some plenum or conference, and one in the issue about the allies, where he is with Roosevelt and Churchill. That's the whole cult. Three photos per year, two of them are common.
    Silly question in the article "Killed? Offended?" The losses of the USSR amounted to 20 people (I believe in this figure), of which 000 are military. This makes 000 civilians. So "killed, offended" or not?
    1. zenion
      zenion 27 July 2016 16: 09
      0
      When the Romanians fled from Transnistria, the retreating Germans entered the towns and villages near the Dniester. Local people showed them the houses where Jews lived and the Germans blew them up. I was always surprised that they did not mind the explosives.
      1. dumpy15
        dumpy15 27 July 2016 17: 39
        0
        The Germans had everything taken into account and calculated. For example, 4 kg of "Cyclone B" was enough to kill 1000 people. Every day about 10 trains with people arrived in Auschwitz from all over occupied Europe. Each echelon had 40-50 cars. Each carriage had from 50 to 100 people. Etc.

        Auschwitz was liberated on January 27, 1945 by troops of the 1st Ukrainian Front under the command of Marshal Ivan Konev
      2. The comment was deleted.
  3. EvgNik
    EvgNik 27 July 2016 08: 32
    +5
    “They came and brought grief, captivity, slavery, death, and poverty with them. They leave and leave behind the ruin, destruction of culture and all that is dear to Soviet people. ”

    For me it is similar to our times. By encouraging foreign investment in the country, quiet occupation is encouraged. The ruin of factories, agriculture, destruction our culture. Does this not happen before our eyes?
    So, drawing parallels, we can say that the article is superimposed on our time.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 27 July 2016 09: 17
      +2
      Yes, Eugene. Today there is an article about education, about studying History, which just echoes the theme of Pauline. What to do? Domestic politics is different from foreign. One cannot live in two worlds and according to double standards.
      But from the scientific phrases of the historian Rozhkov, you can construct your own phrases for such disputes. For example, someone says: we must unite with the whole of Europe. There --- culture. And I answered: no, this is not so. This is just work your prism.
      1. EvgNik
        EvgNik 27 July 2016 10: 19
        +2
        Dmitry. Today, articles are generally some kind of disturbing, not uplifting. Something is coming.
    2. washi
      washi 27 July 2016 12: 48
      +2
      Quote: EvgNik
      “They came and brought grief, captivity, slavery, death, and poverty with them. They leave and leave behind the ruin, destruction of culture and all that is dear to Soviet people. ”

      For me it is similar to our times. By encouraging foreign investment in the country, quiet occupation is encouraged. The ruin of factories, agriculture, destruction our culture. Does this not happen before our eyes?
      So, drawing parallels, we can say that the article is superimposed on our time.

      Already occupied
      Today I turned on the TV
      There is an advertisement for a "successful person": a car, etc.
      It is not right
      Successful one whom after death is magnified and thanked
  4. Tanya
    Tanya 27 July 2016 08: 49
    +5
    Many residents found confirmation of the negative image of the enemy created by propaganda in personal clashes with the invaders. belay

    This phrase just killed ... it turns out that the enemy was quite positive and correct, but propaganda created a "negative image" for him ??? and only after that manybut, apparently, not everyone found confirmation of this ??? And without propaganda, people would not understand that they came to destroy them? And that fascists of all nationalities were a beast?
    1. EvgNik
      EvgNik 27 July 2016 10: 28
      +1
      Quote: Tanya
      it turns out that the enemy was quite positive and correct for himself, but propaganda created a "negative image" for him

      That's it, Tatyana, that's it.
      Today our journalists let us down, in the morning they ruined our mood, apparently the weather affects them too.
      Stalin's name in the works is much less common than references to the Red Army.

      First you need to conduct research - how many times in the writings of schoolchildren the names of other general secretaries and presidents were mentioned, to make a comparative analysis. An incorrect statement at the beginning of the article gives an incorrect message to the entire article.
      1. Tanya
        Tanya 27 July 2016 10: 40
        +2
        First you need to conduct research - how many times in the writings of schoolchildren the names of other general secretaries and presidents were mentioned, to make a comparative analysis.

        There is no order for other secretaries general and presidents yet. Therefore, there is no research. request
        And the scale of individuals is not comparable.
  5. Fox
    Fox 27 July 2016 13: 38
    0
    minus the article ... that I don’t believe in "good" occupants. did they hurt? but no, of course, 27 million were killed themselves and that's all. Stalin's cult ... there are no words at all. if it was a cult, then what now ?! school as a spell is repeated after each phrase: "... this is from the United Russia party", "this is the United Russia party for you" ...
    no ... here as with Poklonskaya, after her defile with a portrait of a nicholas on the March of Memory, Polina didn’t trust softly. She slept soundly.
  6. dumpy15
    dumpy15 27 July 2016 17: 41
    0
    Quote: bowman
    The author, even in such an article, could not help but kick the dead lion.

    Is the "dead lion" Nazi Germany?
  7. tiaman.76
    tiaman.76 27 July 2016 20: 31
    0
    recourse kids very sorry .. suffered
  8. Bashkir_A
    Bashkir_A 28 July 2016 00: 02
    0
    This article immediately forms the association "The Germans attacked us" and forms the opinion that even children had to fight and that their hearts are bleeding.

    Just look at the photos without reading the article.

    I studied and was brought up at the Union. And he remembered the axiom: "War and a German is a terrible grief for the country and you need to fight the enemy to the last drop of blood."

    In the modern sense, a German is simply a resident of Germany. But if we recall the word "War", then stories about the Great Patriotic War will immediately come to mind.

    Why am I doing this. But to what. He watched several films about the war with his son, and he immediately began to understand that it was necessary to beat German tanks and beat the Nazis. Children sometimes play war in the yard and at the same time argue who will be German ... It is not necessary to specifically form an opinion against the Germans, they are already on the enemy for us in the subconscious.

    At the same time, the local Germans who have lived in Russia since the time of Demidov think the same way, at least the children in the games know who fought with us during the Great Patriotic War ...

    And it is not necessary to specifically form the consciousness of children, they themselves understand what’s what.