The patriots of Ukraine condemned the kneeling of their president at the monument. And in response to the proposal of the Polish Senate to declare 11 July the national Day of Remembrance of the victims of the genocide committed by Ukrainian nationalists against citizens of the 2nd Polish Republic, nationalists staged a protest action against the recognition of the Poles by the Volyn tragedy on the same day as the Polish Embassy in Kiev. They also demanded that the Verkhovna Rada adopt a law recognizing the actions of the Second Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as genocide against the Ukrainians. There is nothing else to expect in a state that has revived the spirit of Ukrainian nationalism. But first things first.
President of Ukraine Petro Poroshenko together with the Ukrainian delegation
lays flowers to the Monument to the victims of the Volyn tragedy in Warsaw.
West Ukrainian patriots have old offenses. The roots of their appearance lie in the events that accompanied the revival of Poland in the autumn of 1918. As Ukrainian historians point out, in 1919, the neighboring state, contrary to its constitution and international agreements, captured the original Ukrainian territories - Holland and Podlasie. At the end of the 10th century, these lands belonged to Kiev. For example, the city of Kholm (now Chelm), Kiev Prince Vladimir I of Svyatoslavich, joined his possessions in the 981 year.
In 1919, these areas became part of the Polish state, with all the ensuing consequences for ethnic Ukrainians. Polish authorities demanded that they communicate only in Polish and go from Orthodoxy to the Roman Catholic faith. Warsaw banned Ukrainian schools, the publication of Ukrainian books, magazines and newspapers, limited the delivery of literature from Galicia and Volyn. Ukrainians were expelled from government and state institutions. For example, by the year 1930 there was not a single ethnic Ukrainian left in the Polish Sejm.
According to the Lviv historian, academician Ivan Kripyakevich, in 424 areas of the Kholm region, 460 was destroyed from 217 Orthodox churches during the interwar period, and 194 was converted into churches. In just one 1938 year, over the course of two months, the Poles destroyed more than 160 Orthodox churches. The work on the seizure of church property was led by a special coordinating committee led by General Skorovinsky. The direct executor of the action was the 3-I Infantry Division, commanded by Colonel Turkovsky.
The land of Orthodox monasteries and churches was transferred to state jurisdiction. Part of the land received at their disposal Polish settlers-osadniki. Voivods, priests, teachers, and landowners actively participated in the process of polishing ethnic Ukrainians. Ukrainian activists, who dared to oppose the policy of polishing, were thrown into prison, special detachments of volunteers were settled with the peasants on the spot. This was written by Alexey Litkovets in “Vestnik Lyubachivschiny” No. 15 in 2007 year.
Polishing stopped with the beginning of the German occupation. “It was a heavy blow to the psychology of Polish chauvinists who dreamed of complete Polish assimilation of Ukrainians,” the author continues. During the German occupation, the Polish government in exile (in London) organized the Army Craiova (AK), which was later used to destroy the Ukrainians. Since February, the 1941 of the year against the peaceful and defenseless Ukrainians of the Kholmshchyna region and Podlasie began an incredible mass and cruelty terror, which became widespread in 1942 – 1944 years. In all villages, robbed, killed and set on fire the houses of Ukrainians. People were afraid to spend the night at home, they buried clothes and grain, made shelters. The owners of the hamlets went to the neighboring villages for the night.
At the first stage (1942 – 1943), claim Ukrainian sources, the Poles destroyed the Ukrainian intelligentsia and activists. The Kholmsky Aid Committee has compiled a list of killed Ukrainian activists from 500. Among them are two leaders of the Ukrainian Aid Committee, former Senator Ivan Pasternak, more than 20 priests and clerks, more than 20 national teachers, more than 30 voity (leaders of communes), their deputies and volost officials, several dozen Soltis (rural elders), about Ukrainian 200 workers of cultural and educational and cooperative institutions, artisans, villagers. Many of them were martyred. By the resolution of the Holy Council of Bishops of the Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church of 20 in March 2003, seven clergymen of Kholm and Podlyashyas, brutally tortured by the Poles in 40 of the 20th century, canonized the Holy Martyrs of Kholm and Podyashia: Pavel Shvayka and his wife, Yekan, also made a name for the holy martyrs of Kholm and Plyashy: Paul Schvayk and his wife, and their children, John and John, and their children, and their children, John and John, and their children, and their children, and their children, John and Vestry, Pavel Shvayka and his children, John, and their children, and their children, John and St. Johns, and Poles, and Poles, are: Pavel Shvayka and his wife, Yo-yo-Ivan, also Ivan, are also the name of the Holy Martyrs of Kholm and Plyashya: Paul Shvayka and his wife Yo-yo-yo-ya; Korobchuk, Peter Ogryzko, Sergiy Zakharchuk, monk Ignatius.
Since 1943, the second, the most terrible, stage of the destruction of the Ukrainians began. In 1943 – 1944, everyone was killed - children, women, old people. In May 1943, the population of four villages was destroyed: Molozhiv, Tugan, Mircea and Sagittarius. Alexey Litkovets cites in his article the memory of eyewitnesses to a brutal massacre. A resident of the village of Tugan, Nina Mishanchuk, told how her grandfather was killed. He was first shot in the legs so that he could not run, then cut off his ears, tongue and finally shot. Among the gangsters, her mother recognized the brother of her school friend Polka.
In the autumn of 1943 and at the beginning of 1944, the villages of Molodyatichi, Malka, Pogoreloye were completely burned, and their inhabitants were tortured. From 9 to 22 March 1944, 35 villages were burned down and thousands of civilians were killed.
Militants from the Craiova Army and peasant battalions (the Khlopskie BH battalions) participated in the destruction of the villages. The chronology and scope of the actions show that they were carefully planned and well organized, according to the Ukrainian historian.
9 – 10 March 1944 was simultaneously attacked by the Ukrainian villages of Sakhryn, Turkovichi, Laskov, Shikhovichi, Miachko, Malich, Riplin, Terebin, Stryzhivets. 11 March, the villages Andreevka and Modrinets were on fire, 14 March - the village of Modrins.
On the night of March 9, an action was carried out in the Sahryn to destroy the local population by insurgents of the Home Army and the Khlopsky Battalions, under the command of Lieutenant Zenon Yahimek (Victor) and the 1 Peasant Battalion under the command of Stanislav Basay (Lynx). The bandits surrounded the village and fired at it with incendiary bullets. People ran out of a burning village and were hit by bullets. Some residents took refuge in the stone church, but the bandits blew up the doors of the church, killed the people, and burned the church. 35 people, mostly women with children, tried to hide in a police building under construction, but they were also killed. When the village burned down, the bandits still searched for people in the fields and in the shelter for a day.
The total number of dead residents of the Sakhryn and neighboring villages is estimated by Polish historians and researchers of the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine very roughly - from 200 to 1300 people. Currently, the names 651 of the deceased resident of the village of Sahryn are established.
Thanks to the archives of the NKVD – KGB opened in Ukraine, more than 300 documents were published in free access to testify to the cruelty of Polish nationalists. One of the documents is the report of the Ukrainian intelligence officer (obviously, from the UPA) "Polish Terror in Kholmshchyna".
“During 11 – 14 March 1944 of the year,” the report says, “Polish gangsters burned down 14 Ukrainian villages and shot up to 1500 Ukrainians, of whom about 70% were children and women.
The population of the villages fled in different directions, and the Polish gangsters did not allow anyone to bury the corpses. ”
The report describes the massacre in several villages. “At five in the morning, Polish gangs in three groups (200 – 300 people in each) attacked the villages simultaneously and began to burn them from all sides, simultaneously tormenting everyone who came to hand. Incendiary bullets set fire to the houses, and people who ran away from the fire were shot, thrown alive into the fire and tortured in brutal ways. On that day, burned 14 sat down in three volosts. ”
Next comes a list of localities listing the number of farms burned and killed. In total, the list is 13 villages, 940 farms, 1367 killed. However, this data is incomplete.
For example, about the village Terebin it is said only that it was burned without indicating how many farms were injured and people were killed. About the village of Stryzhivets it is said: "It is completely burned."
Further in the report it is written: “It is not possible to indicate the number of people burned: on that day more than 1 thousand Polish gangsters took part in the action, including one third of the militants. The command staff was not local. The rest of the gangsters were local, but trained. The scout confessed that on the eve of the rally some officer had come and personally selected the militants who were capable of such work.
The Polish gang in this work showed such sadism, in front of which all the others that had to be heard anywhere turn pale. For example, in the village of Shikhovichi, Polish women went with teenagers to finish off the wounded and loot property. In the village of Sahryn they crucified two small children in the church, brought choral to the choir and set fire to the temple. The child's priest twisted his arms, and his wife was quartered. In the same village, one mother and two girls were torn in half.
In the village of Terebin, a dozen children were thrown into a well. In the village of Myagky a wooden church was burned, chapels and roadside crosses were tumbled down, graves were desecrated. All the property that was upstairs or buried, and the entire cattle of the gang, along with the civilian farce, took with them.
In some villages, the Poles do not let anyone. In the village of Sykhihovych, bezrogi (pigs, Ukrainian explanatory dictionary) walk through a fire and eat corpses.
There was not the slightest opposition from the German side. Gangs calmly and smoothly did their job.
The goal of the Polish underground was not only to exterminate the Ukrainian element, but also to cut off Kholmshchina from Galicia with a wide strip of burned-out villages.
Historians believe that the fighters of the Home Army
purposefully and brutally destroyed the peaceful
Ukrainian population. 1944 Photo of the Year
It should be noted that the Polish colonists, who were in those dwellings, on the eve of the rally left for the West (in the Tomash region). ”
Judging by the design of this report, it was prepared at the headquarters of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) - the combat wing of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) and was used during the war as a propaganda leaflet. However, now this report is presented by Ukrainian state Internet resources as a historical document, not in doubt.
SKELETON IN THE CABINET
Many documents about the atrocities of the OUN-UPA against the Poles and their own countrymen are kept in the archives of the NKVD-KGB, which remained in Ukraine, but Kiev prefers not to remind them of them. The crime of Ukrainian nationalists striking in its cruelty is the Volyn massacre. However, the new generation of nationalists, who grew up in Ukraine, believes that the Poles themselves were to blame, that the sources of the tragedy should be sought in Polish society, “in the nature of the evil spirit towards Ukrainians, in their struggle for their own independent state, and not calling them names earth defended itself, rezunami. Every nation on its land has the right to fight the occupier. Poland, just in Western Ukraine, acted as an occupier, even worse, because it violated the rules of the occupation regime regarding the rights of Ukrainians. The conclusion is: if you are guilty, then do not become offended or offended. ”
At the household level, such an emotional attitude towards the past does not contribute to historical reconciliation, because it ignores the objective reasons for the outbreak of the Polish-Ukrainian war.
In 2012, the Kiev-Mohyla Academy Publishing House republished the book by the Chairman of the Ukrainian Institute of National Remembrance of the Candidate of Historical Sciences Volodymyr Vyatrovich’s book “The Second Polish-Ukrainian War 1942 – 1947”. The author claims that it was inevitable, because the underground movement in both countries had the opposite goal. The Polish movement, whose main actor was the Craiova Army, sought to restore Poland within the borders of the 1939 of the year, that is, when Western Ukraine was part of the Polish state. The idea of restoring the 1939 borders of the year was at the heart of the creation of the Polish underground, which the Polish government, who was in exile in London, could not refuse. It gained its legitimacy precisely in pre-war Poland, for the restoration of which it fought.
At the same time, in Volyn and Galicia, which the Polish government considered the eastern territory of their country, the Ukrainian insurrectionary movement was actively developing. OUN and UPA also could not give up this territory. Their goal was to create an independent conciliar state, which would include the entire territory where Ukrainians lived.
Western Ukraine has become a base for the development of the insurgency and a place of bloody and brutal struggle. She moved to the active phase in the 1943 year, at the turn of the Second World War, when the first signs of the defeat of the Nazis appeared and the question arose of who would own Western Ukraine. The Poles were expecting the restoration of the 1939 frontier of the year, while the Ukrainians hoped to raise a rebellion here that would spread to the rest of the Ukrainian territory. The most terrible confrontation of two rebel armies and civilians began. It acquired particular cruelty in Volyn and Kholmshchyna, where the Ukrainian Orthodox and Polish Roman Catholic groups collided.
Vyatrovich saw in him the social aspect: a significant part of the Ukrainians belonged to the lower strata of society, the Poles belonged to the highest. Before 1939, the Poles enjoyed the support of the central government from Warsaw, so they behaved like colonists. All these problems were tied in a tight knot and gave an explosive mixture. During the war between Ukrainians and Poles were committed war crimes related to the destruction of civilians. With the help of mass reprisals and intimidation, both sides tried to oust the "alien" population, and in the case of the slightest resistance or simply expressed reluctance to leave the inhabited places, they destroyed it. It was considered, whose civilian population will remain in this territory after the Second World War, to which it will belong.
The hopes of neither Polish nor Ukrainian nationalists came true. The decision on the post-war border was made without them. Hence, the causes of hostility between them have not been eliminated and remind about themselves in our time.
TIME TO BECOME WILD
Now, it would seem, is not the right time to reopen the old wounds of Polish-Ukrainian relations. In Ukraine, there is a civil war, Poland is trying to support its neighbor on the political and diplomatic level. It is necessary to appreciate. Why remember the past?
At the same time, a civil war in Ukraine can cause a cool breeze in Polish-Ukrainian relations, or rather, not the war itself, but the stream of migrants pouring into a neighboring country. According to the Polish Foreign Office, in 2014, documents for refugee status were submitted by 2318 Ukrainians (in 2013, the total number of 46). In 2015, the migration service applied for a temporary residence permit for a Ukrainian 58 733. The status of refugees received 1092 man.
As Radio Poland reported last September, a spokesman for the Office for Foreigners explained that at that time there were only 500 free places at the refugee center, but in connection with the situation in Ukraine, Poland had prepared a plan for a large wave of refugees. “We took into account all the rooms where people can be accommodated. Thus, the number of places increases to 2 thousand, ”- said the official representative of the Ministry.
But in Poland, Ukrainians do not seem happy. The day after the information about the refugees appeared on Radio Poland, on the evening of September 10, an explosion thundered in the Ukrainian World center in Warsaw and a fire started. At this time, a concert was held in the building, language courses for immigrants worked.
In May of this year, a group of unknown persons replaced the slab on the graves of UPA fighters in a cemetery in the Polish city of Przemysl. Earlier, a cross with a Ukrainian coat of arms and a plate with an inscription in Ukrainian were standing on mass graves: “The soldiers of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army rest in the fight for a free Ukraine during the attack on the garrison of the Polish Army in Birch” and “The remains of the soldiers of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army killed by 22 in May 1947 of the Year in Excess on the basis of a decision of the Polish Military Court in Sanok. ” Now the inscription reads: “The remains of the Bandera gangsters, executioners and torturers of innocent Polish women and children were buried in this place.”
This was announced by the Polish Internet portal Kresy.pl. This resource (literally - the border, the Polish name of the territory of Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania, which were part of Poland from 1918 to 1939 year) is not only an informational, but also an archival project, thanks to which a database on the border area has been created, a network library dedicated to cultural heritage of the former outskirts of the II Polish Republic.
It should be added that the village of Lishnaya went down in history as one of the places of the Volyn massacre of the year 1943 - organized by the UPA of mass destruction of Poles in the territory of Volyn. Recently, the Polish Senate voted on the Volyn tragedy with the votes of the ruling party Law and Justice (PiS). The Upper Chamber of the Polish Parliament called on the Seimas to establish July 11 as the National Day of Remembrance of the Victims of the Genocide committed by Ukrainian nationalists against citizens of the 2nd Polish Republic, Radio Radio Poland reported on July 8.
The text of the document adopted by the Senate states that “in Volyn’s massacre, apart from the Poles, Jews, Armenians, Czechs, representatives of other national minorities, as well as Ukrainians who tried to help the victims were killed”. The upper chamber of the Polish parliament also expressed respect and gratitude to those Ukrainians who saved the Poles, putting their own lives at risk. The resolution also states that victims of crimes committed by Ukrainian nationalists in the 40s so far have not been properly perpetuated, and massacres have not been called genocide, in accordance with the historical truth. The resolution was supported by 60 senators, 23 opposed. One senator abstained.
During the debates, Senator Jan Zharyn noted that the basis for the adoption of the resolution was the text of PiS party member Mikhail Dvorchik. According to him, the decree "reveals the historical truth, and the real association (Ukrainians and Poles. -" NVO ") is possible solely on the basis of the truth."
The truth in Poland was forced to remember not only in connection with the flow of refugees. This is Warsaw’s response to the official Kiev’s policy, which is actively introducing the idea of the nationalists of the last century into the mass consciousness of Ukrainians. The fact that in Soviet times it was ordered to forget what was hidden in the archives of the KGB and the Security Service (SB) of the Polish Ministry of Internal Affairs burst into the public consciousness again and invoked the shadows of the ancestors.
WHAT IS DANGEROUS UKRAINIAN NATIONALISM
The rantings of various Kiev scientists like Valeriy Bebik about the thousand-year history (XII – II millennium BC) of the Ukrainian civilization at first caused only laughter. What is worth, for example, the argument that ancient Rome is the city of Romain in the Sumy region; that some ancient Zaporozhian priests developed the basis of the whole world religion; that the ancient Aryans are the Ukrainians who emigrated to India. It all looked funny until the moment when Bebik turned to the dangerous topic of the living space of the Ukrainian nation. Kursk, Voronezh, Rostov regions, Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, says Bebik, this is Ukraine. Almost 40% of the territory of Poland is also ethnic Ukrainian lands. This is claimed not by the patient of a medical institution, but by the vice-rector of the open international university for human development “Ukraine”, a member of the public council under the Ministry of Information Policy of Ukraine, where he represents the public organization All-Ukrainian Association of Political Sciences. That is, he is one of the participants in the formation of state ideology, which, as it turns out, is based on Ukrainian nationalism.
The theoretical foundations of the “new” old ideology are taken from Stepan Rudnytsky’s book, Towards the Basics of Ukrainian Nationalism. This policy document, reprinted by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists in Prague and Vienna in 1923, is today posted on the website of the electronic archive of the Ukrainian liberation movement and is freely available.
What did the author dream about, that he bequeathed to his fellow nationalists, what did he call for?
First of all, the Ukrainian national state should be in ethnographic borders on its own land, which should be twice as large in area as the territory belonging to it at the beginning of the 20th century. “Ukraine simply has to become the most important breadbasket of Europe” and determine the fate of all mankind: “Positively or negatively, Ukraine has always strongly influenced world political relations. And for us it is clear that our question is not some minor question, like a Provencal, Macedonian, Irish, Lithuanian or even Great Serb or Polish one. The Ukrainian question is a big question, a world question. ” In a word, Ukraine, according to Rudnitsky, should become a superpower, which will have only one main rival - Russia. In confrontation with her, Rudnitsky proposed to turn to Europe for help. “The European people have a big task: to plant healthy sprouts of European culture on a very reliable wilderness of Ukrainian common culture and to grow a powerful giant tree on a new Ukrainian culture that can have its own social and political opinion, a tree that casts its salutary shade to the shores of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, "- wrote Rudnitsky.
According to the verdict of the special troop of the NKVD in the Leningrad region, the author was shot in November 1937 of the year. But the reserved word dropped by him almost 100 years ago gave fresh sprouts on the fertile soil of Ukrainian nationalism.
As the classic wrote, the teaching becomes a material force when it takes possession of the masses. So it got hold of them - gradually, slowly, but persistently and systematically, with the connivance of the Ukrainian authorities. In 90-s of the last century, the radical Social-National Party of Ukraine appeared, the Ukrainian People’s Assembly, the Ukrainian National Solidarity Organization (UNA-UNSO), emerged from the underground, the nationalist organization Trident of the Name was created by the last leader of the OUN (Bandera) in emigration Vyacheslav Stetsko. Stepan Bandera "as the power wing of the Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists (KUN). In 1999, Trident retired from KUN and separated into an independent organization led by Colonel Dmitry Yarosh. Other organizations of this type were formed. The young independent state was not going to restrain the destructive Ukrainian nationalism awakening from hibernation. In 2004, the Social-National Party of Ukraine became the all-Ukrainian association “Freedom”. In 2006, the militant neo-Nazi right-wing organization Patriot of Ukraine was registered in Kharkov, which serves as the power wing of the Social-National Assembly political movement. Both organizations are headed by Andrei Biletsky. Somewhere under the feet of the “heavyweights”, the union of the “autonomous” nationalists of the “White Hammer” and other organizations was confused. They all participated in the coup 2014 in the winter of the year. In the wake of the “Revolution of Gidnosti”, the leaders and representatives of these organizations entered the power - the Verkhovna Rada, the government, security forces and special services.
Nationalists warned the creation of the image and likeness of the DPR and LPR of the Odessa and Kharkiv people's republics. They warned Ruthenians and ethnic Hungarians, many of whom had already obtained Hungarian passports, so that they would not even think about some of their autonomous republics by bloody fights in Mukachevo. Nationalists through the Verkhovna Rada held a law providing for the responsibility of Ukrainians and foreigners for publicly expressing disdain towards participants in the “struggle for the independence of Ukraine” such as Stepan Bandera, now it is considered outrage and degradation of the dignity of the people.
When Poroshenko talks about new Ukrainian missiles that will reach the Voronezh nuclear power plant, Ukrainian nationalists are saying through his mouth. They will not stop at the murder of hundreds of thousands of people in the neighboring country, if they are allowed to legally accumulate forces and means. For this, Dmitry Yarosh is already the second time trying to pass a law on the Ukrainian Volunteer Army through the Verkhovna Rada. On the Bandera information site Ukrainian Look 1, June Yarosh wrote: “I consider its adoption by the Verkhovna Rada one of the most important steps towards victory over the Moscow Empire and an important factor in national security and defense. This law legitimizes all Ukrainian volunteers and directs the volunteer and volunteer potential of our people to a constructive national liberation and state channel. ”
Militant nationalism that got its hands weapon in the conditions of unstable, weak power and general hardening of the war, has already shown what crimes he is capable of. It is not only about the period of the Second World War, but also about our days - about those burnt alive in Odessa, about the dead 10 thousand citizens in the south-east of Ukraine. With such a “baggage” and nationalistic ideology, the fundamental principle of which is the thesis of the value of a nation as the highest form of social unity, the Square clearly does not fit into a united Europe.