Military Review

Two great victories of the Russian fleet, which are rarely remembered


In the early spring of 1790, the third, decisive campaign of the Russian-Swedish war of 1788-1790 began. Despite all efforts, King Gustav III did not manage to achieve any noticeable advantage in the previous two years. Russia, while waging a victorious war with Turkey in the south, not only successfully fought back in the Baltic, but also delivered tangible retaliatory strikes to the Swedes. The main role was played by the Baltic Fleet, which defeated the enemy in the Gogland and 1st Rochensalm battles. However, this did not cool the king’s warlike fervor. He longed for revenge, pinning his hopes on his naval forces. His plan was simple and bold. Given that the Swedish coast and ports are cleared of ice two weeks earlier than the Gulf of Finland, Gustav intended to send his fleet to Revel, where the squadron of Vice Admiral V. Chichagov wintered, and defeat it using the surprise factor. Then the king intended to deliver the same blow to the Kronstadt squadron of Vice Admiral A. Cruz, to land troops at the walls of St. Petersburg, where the world would be dictated by the Russians. Swedish Commander-in-Chief fleet, King’s brother, Admiral-General Duke Karl of Südermanland, received from his scouts comprehensive information about the state of Revel Harbor and the ships in it. Given the double superiority in power, the Swedes were confident in victory.

However, Russian intelligence officers also ate their bread for good reason, and soon V. Chichagov already knew about the upcoming attack. In winter, he visited the capital, reported to the empress on the fleet action plans during the current campaign. Catherine II inquired whether V. Chichagov would be able to repel an attack by superior enemy forces on Revel in the spring. The Vice Admiral assured her that he would manage. “But there are a lot of them, but you are few!” - Catherine did not stop. "Nothing, mother, will not swallow, choke!" - the commander answered.

On the Revel raid, the Russian squadron was preparing for battle. It consisted of ten battleships and five frigates, just up to 900 guns. V. Chichagov was particularly alarmed by the fact that the squadron was not yet floated, and the crews of three quarters consisted of recruits who had seen the sea for the first time. Therefore, the battle V. Chichagov decided to take, standing on anchors, "strengthening himself in a defensive position."

All battleships and the frigate “Venus” lined up in the first line. The remaining frigates, auxiliary vessels and firefighters formed the second line. The avant-garde commander, Vice-Admiral A. Musin-Pushkin, is stationed at Saratov, the rear-guard commander Rear-Admiral P. Khanykov on 74-gun “Saint Helena”. The commander raised his flag on the "Rostislav". Everyone hurried. Working around the clock, Russian sailors managed to load the cores and gunpowder, to replenish stocks. 1 May squadron met the enemy in full readiness.

The next day, about. Nargen saw the Swedes in the morning haze. The enemy fleet consisted of 20 battleships and seven frigates that had more than 1600 guns. In addition to the teams on the ships were six thousand people landing. At the crossing, the Swedes conducted several artillery exercises, and their fleet was completely fused.

There was a weak messenger wind favoring the attackers. Having found each other almost simultaneously, the opponents were still in different situations. If the appearance of the Swedes was not a surprise for V. Chichagov, for Karl Südermanland the appearance of the Russian ships ready to join the battle was an unpleasant surprise. This confused the plans of the duke. All the officers gathered at the meeting of the flagship Swedish ship Gustav III. After some disputes, they decided to attack the Russian squadron under sail.

Karl told the chief of staff Nordensheld that twenty years ago the Russians had burned the Turkish fleet at Chesme in this way. This time the Swedes decided to repeat the Russian maneuver, but at the same time burn them themselves. At the side of the Gustav III, the frigate Ulla Fersen was already swaying on the waves, to which his brother had to move before the battle, in order not to be exposed to excessive danger.

The wind began to grow rapidly, pushing the Swedish ships straight into Revel Bay with their impulses. Not keeping himself in line, one of the battleships jumped all the way onto the stones, sowing them firmly. Around the loser, from which they were thrown overboard the gun, the fleet continued to move. The commander of the flagship, Clint, tried to convince Rear Admiral Nordenskiöld to take the battle at anchor, indicating a sharp deterioration in the weather. "Late! - threw the chief of staff, - We are already attacking! "

V. Chichagov made the final preparations for the battle. At the military council, he ordered the use of guns only on sails and spars, in order to deprive the Swedish ships of the possibility of maneuver. “They, my dears, will beat us to themselves. Play back to them! ”- explained the vice-admiral. And here over “Rostislav” a signal was raised “Prepare for battle!”. Silent on battery decks. Strong hands commanders already squeezed banniki, ganshpugi. From the fuse wicks smoked light smoke. By ten in the morning on 2 in May of 1790, the foremost Swedish ships converged with the Russian squadron at a distance of fire. The battle has begun.

The enemy, moving closer to the squadron, turned through the warlock to the left tack and walked along the entire Russian battle line, and then retreated north to the island of Wulf. The leading Swedish sailing ship "Dristikgeten", descending into the wind, swept along a large course alongside Russian ships. Volley had no success. The cores are undershot. But in response, he received several well-aimed volleys from each Russian ship and, turning away to Wulf, zazyl holes sails. And along the line of Russians, the next one was already running - “Raksen Stender”. Having received heavy injuries, he ran aground near the island of Wulf and after trying to remove himself from the stones he was left by the team and burned.

A fair wind drove the enemy ships to the shore and banked them to the right combat side so that the lower batteries flooded with water, and all the upper ones became open targets for the Russian commanders. Fifth in the Swedish ranks, a ship flying the flag of the avant-garde commander Rear Admiral Modei raced along the squadron. To set an example of courage, he turned away from the Russian line only ten meters away. His ship managed to achieve several hits, but he himself barely left with broken yards.

Russian gunners acted in harmony, their volleys followed one after the other with minimal intervals. Attempting to repeat the maneuver of the avant-garde commander Forsigtikheten paid with a cleaned grape shot. The flagship Gustav III was replacing it, desperately leaning. But as soon as his commander Clint effectively defiled along the Russian squadron, as a well-aimed shot from the "Yaroslav" interrupted the ship's focus-ray. He immediately began to demolish the Russians.

V. Chichagov gave the command to get ready to take the enemy flagship aboard. However, the Swedes only twenty fathoms from Rostislav managed to correct the damage. "Gustavu III" was lucky, and he miraculously escaped capture. But miracles are not repeated. The back matelot of the flagship “Prince Karl”, which was beaten in a turn by a grotto and fore-stenghi, was not saved. The ship became out of control. An attempt to regain the position, using the lower sails, failed.

They were immediately swept away by the Russian nuclei. After ten minutes of resistance, "Prince Carl" dropped anchor and surrendered to the mercy of the victors. V. Chichagov crossed himself: "There is one!" The Sophia-Magdalena who followed him was ready to share the fate of the captive ship. He was lucky - "Prince Karl" covered him from Russian cannons. Being away from the battle, Karl Südermanland watched in horror. The fate of "Prince Charles" was expected by many of his best ships. Above the "Ulla Ferzen," a signal was raised to stop the battle. Swedish ships were rushing to get away from the disastrous Russian fire. Away from about. Wulf Raxen Stender blazed like a huge fire.

At one o'clock in the afternoon, the Russian “Hurray!” Thundered over the raid. Revelsky battle ended in complete victory. Having lost two battleships and more than 700 people prisoners, the Swedes retreated. The losses of the Russians amounted to 8 people killed and 27 wounded. It would seem that the fiasco of Revel was supposed to sober up the Swedes, but Karl Südermanland thought otherwise. He was sure that the Russians suffered serious losses, and besides, Chichagov was still not ready to sail. And the Swedes turned to Kronstadt.

Reinforcement came from Karlskrona: two new battleships, a frigate and several transports with various supplies. Being with the rowing fleet at Rochensalm, the king, having received the news of the defeat and the desire of his brother to resume the attack on the Russians, blessed the duke and his fleet to win. But Kronstadt was already preparing to meet the foe. The ships standing there were headed by the idol of youth, the heroic captain of "Eustache" at Chesme, Vice Admiral A. Cruz. Direct and quick-tempered Cruz often became undesirable for high society. Yes, and Catherine II treated him coolly. But the fleet adored his hero, believed in him - this determined his appointment as commander of the Kronstadt squadron.

Preparing for the upcoming campaign was very difficult. The best went to Revel to Chichagov, the Kronstadters were content with the rest. There were not enough officers to recruit the teams - A. Cruz ordered the army to be taken, there were not enough sailors - they took the orderlies from the capital and even the prisoners from the prisons. To provide the squadron with supplies, the admiral went to the extreme - ordered to knock down locks from warehouses and to rake out all that is.

Learning about the events of Revel, the vice-admiral decided to take a position between the islands of Sescar and Biorca. On the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, steep precipices, called by the people Red Hill, towered in the distance. To strengthen the position and defense of the fairway at Kronstadt, an old battleship and frigate was left, and the small fairway blocked the northern fairway from Sisterbek to Eotlin. The main forces of the Kronstadt squadron consisted of seventeen ships of the line and twelve frigates.

And in St. Petersburg confusion reigned. Upon learning of the Swedish forces that came to Revel, Catherine II was worried: is the Kronstadt squadron ready to repel a possible attack? “Tell me, what is Cruz doing now?” She kept asking her secretary Khrapovitsky. “Rest assured, Your Majesty, he will overpower the demon himself!” Answered the secretary, who knew the vice-admiral intimately. Not reassured by the answer, Ekaterina sent the former head of Cruise through the Archipelago Expedition Alexei Orlov to Kronstadt with the admonition to find out what and how. Arriving at the flagship "John the Baptist" ("Chesma"), Orlov humorously asked Cruise: "When will the Swedes come to St. Petersburg?" Cruz pointed to the squadron: "Only when they pass through the splinter of my ships!" Returning from the squadron, Orlov reassured the empress

At dawn 23 May 1790, opponents found each other miles in four. The 42 Swedish ships, unlike ours, are located in the 2 battle lines. But it did not bother Cruise at all. His squadron staggered in a staggered manner and with its right wing advanced forward on the enemy.

Two great victories of the Russian fleet, which are rarely remembered

The first to enter the battle were avant-garde ships under the command of Vice-Admiral J. Sukhotin. The Swedes turned on the power of their guns. The bitterness of the battle increased with every minute. Russian commanders fired so often that there were even explosions of guns, which injured and killed the servants. In the midst of the battle, the Swedish core, fired at close range, tore off J. Sukhotin’s leg. However, the vice-admiral did not allow himself to be carried to the ship’s infirmary, and, bleeding from the shkanzah, he continued to command the vanguard.

Every hour the Swedes were increasing the onslaught. Cruz, who walked on the deck of the flagship, was outwardly completely calm, smoking his favorite clay pipe. Only once did the commander turn pale when he learned of the wound of his friend, Jacob Sukhotin. Having transferred the command to the commander of the flagship, he rushed to the vanguard on the boat in order to bid farewell to his dying military comrade. Hugged, kissed according to Russian custom, and back. Under the enemy fire went around the entire squadron. Standing to his full height, covered with the blood of a murdered sailor next to him, he encouraged the crews, giving the necessary orders to the captains.

By evening, the Swedes fired less frequently. Their ships, extinguishing fires, began one after another to leave the battlefield. The wind calmed down, and Karl Südermanland feared that he would be calm. Russian squadron was in the same position. Place the battle left behind her!

Barely stopped the last volleys, Cruise on the boat again walked around the ships. Inspected the damage and congratulated the sailors on their victory. In the evening, Catherine received a report from the commander of the rowing flotilla of Prince K. Nassau-Siegen, who was at Vyborg. It is not known for what reasons, but he informed the Empress that Cruz was utterly defeated and the Swedes were about to break through to the capital. Panic began in the palace. However, closer to midnight, a message arrived from Kronstadt that Cruz, although he was attacked by the enemy, was shot all day and did not retreat.

May 24 battle resumed. Now Charles struck at the Russian center. He approached Cruise's squadron, but did not get very close and, wanting to take advantage of the multiplicity of his ships, did various maneuvers, but all the tricks of the enemy were unsuccessful, and Cruz everywhere opposed him with a fitting rebuff. Trying to get the Russian ships at the maximum distance, the Swedes beat their cores into the water so that they ricocheted to reach the goal. But it did not help. The squadron met the enemy with violent fire. Moreover, the Russian flagship thundered dance music, which incredibly astounded Karl. After half an hour, the Swedes retreated.

Upon learning of the deplorable state of his brother, Gustav III, who was with rowing ships four miles from the battle scene in Biorkesund, sent Karl to support twenty galleys. But two Russian frigates turned them to flight. Soon the king was informed that the squadron of V. Chichagov, having entered under sail, was moving towards Kronstadt. Gustav immediately notified Karl of this. The duke had one last chance. And he decided on him. Lifting the battle flags, the Swedish ships rushed forward. Frequent shots rang out again. Hoped on the decks of the core. The Swedes pressed with such decisiveness that the Kronstadters began to faint under the pressure of a superior enemy. The moment came when the squadron’s position became critical: at the cost of enormous efforts, the Swedes managed to cut through the weakened line of the Russians. Cruise ships were shot through. The upper decks were covered with dead, and blood flowed in the scuppers.

It seemed that the battle for all the linear canons was lost. But Vice-Admiral Cruz found the only correct way out in this situation. At his signal, a detachment of frigates rushed in on the enemy. Having made a dashing maneuver, the ships decisively attacked the enemy, forcing him to retreat. The position has been restored. The Russian squadron, as before, blocked the way for the Swedes to St. Petersburg. Cruise, who was closely following the course of the battle, noted that the Swedes had begun firing blank charges, trying to maintain noise and saving ammunition. “What if the adversary had a reserve at the end?” Thought the vice-admiral. He ordered the squadron to go to the new course in order to get close with the Swedes. But, not taking the fight at the shortest distance, they began to hurry away. Admiral's guess was confirmed. At a signal from the flagship small Kronstadt squadron rushed in pursuit of the enemy. The danger of a Swedish attack on the capital was eliminated.

The Swedish fleet, towed by thalers, tried to hide in the Vyborg gulf. Cruise ships pursued him relentlessly. The Revel squadron of V. Chichagov arrived in time to help them. Together, the Russian sailors drove the enemy to Vyborg and blocked it. Only a month later, at the cost of enormous losses, he managed to break through to Karlskrona, but the fate of the Russian-Swedish war was predetermined. From the defeat of Gustav III could not save the darling of anything. Soon a peace was signed in the town of Verela, according to which Sweden abandoned all its claims and pledged to reimburse Russia for all the costs of the war. Catherine II was again able to focus the country's efforts on the fight against Turkey. But, as it turned out, not for long.

Shigin V. Admiral Cruz. Series "Life of wonderful sailors." M.: Horizon, 2015. C. 6-37.
Shigin V. Admiral Cruise // Heroes of the Russian sailing fleet. M.: EVERYTHING, 2011. C. 57-68
Shigin V. From Revel to Krasnaya Gorka. // Sea collection. 1994. No.4. C.73-77.
Skritsky N.V.Ya. Chichagov // The most famous Russian naval commanders. M .: Veche, 2000. C. 137-142.
Skritsky N.V.Ya. Chichagov // 100 great admirals. M .: Veche, 2003. C. 194-197.
Lebedev A.V.Ya. Chichagov and his role in stories Russian sailing fleet // Gangut. 2011. No. 64. C. 21-37.
Firsov I. Twice Captive. M .: Astrel. 2002. C. 83-132.
Articles from this series:
The most glorious victory of the Russian fleet
Special tactics of Admiral Chichagov
Actions of the Russian fleet on the Lower Danube in 1877
Genius resolute offensive strategy
Suddenness in the tactics of Suvorov
The genius of the maneuver who beat Napoleon
Peter's reform of the Russian army

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  1. Andy
    Andy 26 July 2016 06: 26
    In Tallinn, on Estonian Boulevard, in front of the Bank of Estonia, there is a monument to the Revel battle - an anchor and a cannon with a raksen stander
    1. Follow us
      Follow us 26 July 2016 10: 26
      Are they willing to get rid of the heritage of the imperial past in Tallinn and send relics to St. Petersburg?
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 26 July 2016 07: 28
    Two great victories of the Russian fleet, which are rarely remembered..Yes, there is not enough literature about the last three Russian-Swedish wars ... And in the history books in Soviet times, several paragraphs were devoted to these wars ... We didn’t go into details .. Like in modern ones ... I don’t know .. Thank you, to the author .. especially for the reproductions ..
  3. Amurets
    Amurets 26 July 2016 07: 49
    Thank you! Very interesting! I have Shigin's books, but somehow I didn’t get to them. I will have to read it.
  4. semirek
    semirek 26 July 2016 07: 57
    With great pleasure I read this almost unknown page of our history - what naval commanders were! The successors of the glorious Peter's victories of Russian weapons.
  5. alexej123
    alexej123 26 July 2016 08: 52
    Thank you for one more "spot" that went from white to color. And the style of presentation - if only to write school textbooks in such a way, interesting, colorful, exciting.
  6. qwert
    qwert 26 July 2016 09: 49
    So I can't understand why Chichagov's name is practically unknown? For the first time I heard about him in a historical anecdote, where he, talking about the sea battle, switched to obscene expressions, and then, recollecting himself, fell silent. To which Catherine II said: "Go on, go on, admiral. I still don’t understand your naval terms." That was where my knowledge about this admiral was limited. And he, in terms of the number of battles won, is quite worthy to be on a par with Nakhimov, Ushakov, Golovin, etc. Moreover, he defeated a superior enemy at a time when the domestic fleet was not at the peak of its glory and power. So why is it being hushed up?
    1. miv110
      miv110 26 July 2016 13: 14
      Not only that, the Chichagov family did not give one brilliant officer who distinguished himself in the service of the Russian state and among them even a priest who created his own medical school.
      1. miv110
        miv110 26 July 2016 13: 19
        Coat of arms of the Chichagovs
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 27 July 2016 01: 19
      Quote: qwert
      Moreover, he defeated a superior enemy even at a time when the domestic fleet was not at the peak of its glory and power. So, why is he hushed up?

      I agree with you! I don’t understand this either! In principle, I only read about Kruz and Chichagov at Pikul’s. And no matter how much I respect Pikul, the novel-chronicle "Favorite" is still a work of fiction.
  7. svp67
    svp67 26 July 2016 10: 14
    That’s not with numbers, but with perseverance and skill, and with Faith in Victory! Well, are we really worse?
  8. Verdun
    Verdun 26 July 2016 10: 22
    Therefore, V. Chichagov decided to take the battle, standing at anchor, "strengthening his position defensively."
    I wonder what prevented Nakhimov from taking the battle in the same defensive position if necessary. And why is he, who launched the fleet to the bottom, revered by the great admiral, and rarely remember honestly fought Chichagov and Cruise? How strange the story displays the heroes of some and bypasses the others, no less deserving heroes of fame.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 26 July 2016 12: 41
      Quote: Verdun
      I wonder what prevented Nakhimov from taking the battle in the same defensive position if necessary.

      It is likely that such a defensive position is not at all a 100% guarantee of success. Abukir and Sinop are examples of this.
      And if the enemy’s ships are not connected by the direction of the wind ...
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 26 July 2016 13: 02
        Quote: Alexey RA
        Abukir and Sinop are examples of this.

        The battle of Abukir can somehow be cited as an example. And then, the arrogance of Admiral de Bruyé, who believed that there would be no attack from the shore and did not even order to charge the guns of the other side, is a separate issue. But Sinop is just a beating of the Turkish fleet, which for some reason is attributed to Nakhimov’s naval talent. Without the armament of bombing weapons, the Turkish fleet had no chance and was simply doomed to battle against the Russian fleet, the large ships of which were almost all armed with guns firing explosive shells.
        And if the enemy’s ships are not connected by the direction of the wind ...
        Do not assume that in calm or anchored sailing ship is completely devoid of maneuver. He can turn to the enemy with one side or another, using poles and springs. Admiral Ushakov skillfully took advantage of this during the assault on Corfu.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 26 July 2016 17: 03
          Quote: Verdun
          Without the armament of bombing weapons, the Turkish fleet had no chance and was simply doomed to battle against the Russian fleet, the large ships of which were almost all armed with guns firing explosive shells.

          Yes Yes. The frigate "Aurora" and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, pomnitsa, were also doomed - when a fleet that was many times superior to the defenders' forces appeared in front of the entrance to the harbor, whose ships, moreover, carried 32-pounder guns. However, they fought back - even a three-fold superior assault force was thrown into the sea.
          Quote: Verdun
          Do not assume that in calm or anchored sailing ship is completely devoid of maneuver. He can turn to the enemy with one side or another, using poles and springs. Admiral Ushakov skillfully took advantage of this during the assault on Corfu.

          The fortress does not maneuver at the same speed as a steam ship.
          1. Verdun
            Verdun 26 July 2016 18: 01
            Quote: Alexey RA
            The fortress does not maneuver at the same speed as a steam ship.

            The maneuver speed of steam ships of that time is the speed of a tired pedestrian. The resource of steam engines and boilers, the fuel supply was enough to maintain the course under steam for only a short time. Meanwhile, steam engines inside wooden cases were very vulnerable.
            The frigate Aurora and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Pomnitsa, were also doomed
            The difference in caliber is not as important as the presence or absence of explosive in the shell. 68-pound guns of Russian battleships sent a shell into the target, inside which there was more than a pound of explosives. Wooden ships could not withstand the force of an explosion of such ammunition. And the Turks under Sinope had only ordinary kernels. This reduced their chances to almost zero. It’s the same as throwing stones at an opponent who throws grenades at you.
          2. Amurets
            Amurets 27 July 2016 01: 20
            Quote: Alexey RA
            The fortress does not maneuver at the same speed as a steam ship.

            Great point! You can’t say better!
        2. lwxx
          lwxx 27 July 2016 03: 25
          According to some sources - Sinop was a trap for Russia. Nakhimov did not consider himself a hero of the Sinop battle, moreover, he considered himself guilty of subsequent events. As usual, the ears of the islanders stick out.
    2. Svidetel 45
      Svidetel 45 26 July 2016 23: 48
      The flooded ships of the Russian fleet did not allow the Allied ships to enter the bay directly to Sevastopol, and there would be no doubt that they would have entered, the sailing ships could not withstand the courage and skill of the crews for the enemy ships, the flooded ships were much more useful for defense than if they were on the water.
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 27 July 2016 11: 40
        Quote: Svidetel 45
        The flooded ships of the Russian fleet did not allow the ships of the Allies to enter the bay directly to Sevastopol

        But the lack of a fleet made it possible for the Allies to land on the coast, to freely supply their army with everything necessary, and even build a railway for this purpose. In this case, the steam ships in the Union fleet at the initial stage (when the Russian fleet was flooded) was no more than 15%. The fact that the flooding of the fleet was the right step is a beaten cliche, which many sailors already questioned at that time. Moreover, it is completely incomprehensible why this step is attributed to Nakhimov. The first to express it was Admiral Istomin, and the order for flooding was given by Prince Menshikov. But Admiral Kornilov was categorically against, considering it necessary to give battle and believing that even in the event of a defeat the allied bloodless fleet would not be able to block the city.
        the sunken ships were much more useful for defense than if they were on the water.
        yes, if they were simply placed in a row at the entrance to the raid, the concentrated fire of a dozen battleships with 100-130 guns on board would pose a serious threat to the enemy. With the support of the forts, albeit poorly armed, this was indeed a problem for the enemy.
  9. Fei_Wong
    Fei_Wong 26 July 2016 10: 57
    Special respect for Cruz. Not only did he trust his subordinates so much and valued friendship so much that in the midst of a battle slowly losing "on points" he went on a boat to the dying Sukhotin, but also so iron nerves that in the hardest siege, against many attacks of superior forces never panicked, and all the decisions were the only correct ones with the available resources.
  10. bbss
    bbss 26 July 2016 15: 09
    Glory to the Russian fleet! Glory to the Russian sailors!
  11. Kudrevkn
    Kudrevkn 26 July 2016 15: 44
    Great article! It is a pity that not such Authors are written for our children and grandchildren TEXTBOOKS OF THE HISTORY OF RUSSIA "liberalistic cut"? The glorious victories of Russian weapons CANNOT BE FORGOTTEN! Vice - Admiral Stepan Osipovich Makarov always admonished: "Remember the war, take care of the world"! This inscription is inscribed above the entrance to the Main Admiralty, "that is, the cradle of the Russian fleet" !!!
    1. Verdun
      Verdun 26 July 2016 16: 06
      Quote: KudrevKN
      It is a pity that not such Authors are written for our children and grandchildren TEXTBOOKS OF HISTORY OF RUSSIA

      It is a pity that even VO visitors do not often go into such topics, preferring to giggle at the next stupid escapade of Polish politicians or the tragedy of Ukraine and thereby earn a rating for themselves.
      1. Manul
        Manul 27 July 2016 16: 05
        Quote: Verdun
        It is a pity that even VO visitors do not often go into such topics, preferring to giggle at the next stupid escapade of Polish politicians or the tragedy of Ukraine and thereby earn a rating for themselves.

        You think so in vain. A lot of people read. Not everyone pluses the rating of the article, not everyone finds something to say on the topic, but not to write just to light up. I think the majority of normal people. And according to your comment, you might think that some of us are empty.
        The article is wonderful. I sincerely thank the author!
  12. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 5 August 2016 10: 40
    Even in Vaasa, on the shores of the Kvarkensky archipelago, Ostrobothnia, in one of the most Swedish cities in Finland, everything is connected with Russia. Here you understand how independent Finland was born in the Russian-Swedish wars. This is remembered and honored. By the way, many soldiers of the Russian army, which occupied the city in 1809, spoke Finnish. Then, according to the ethnic composition, 48% of the personnel described themselves as Mordovians. So they became the first "Finnish" settlers in the city. Before that, only Swedes lived in it (for those interested in the Ostrobotia Museum Vaasa, Museokatu 3)!