Military Review

The failure of the bombing of Moscow

35
The failure of the bombing of Moscow



On the night of July 21-22, 1941, the first massive Hitlerite raid was successfully reflected aviation to our capital

During the Second World War, many cities were literally wiped out by massive aerial bombardments. Such a tragic fate could have comprehended Moscow, if not for the efforts and skillful actions of our air defense forces.

Even 8 July 1941, Hitler put the command of his aviation, "Luftwaffe", the task of delivering massive air strikes and level the capital of the USSR with the ground. After 10 days in the directive №33 from 19 July 1941 of the Year “On the further conduct of the war in the East”, the Nazi “Führer” demanded that the German aviation accelerate the start of an air offensive against Moscow.

During the war years, our capital was not only a political symbol, but also the most important hub of transport communications, and the center of military production. The mass bombing of the Germans in the capital was supposed to be both a propaganda and purely military success of Hitler.

The leadership of our country realized that Moscow would inevitably become the goal number XXUMX, to which the efforts of the enemy’s aviation would be directed. Therefore, to protect the sky of the capital at the very beginning of the war, the Moscow air defense zone was formed, which included the 1 th anti-aircraft corps and the 1 th fighter air corps.

The anti-aircraft corps defended the capital in July 1941 included 1044 anti-aircraft guns and 336 installations of quad machine guns, and the 6 fighter corps - 602 fighter aircraft in 11 aircraft regiments. In addition, the Moscow air defense zone subordinated "brigade air defense districts" to the regions surrounding the capital - Kalinin (Tver), Yaroslavl, Gorky (Nizhny Novgorod) and Tula.

But weapons, the sky of Moscow was covered over 600 searchlights and 124 aerostat barrage. To control this mass of troops, almost 40 thousands of kilometers of telephone lines were laid!

The first domestic radar station monitoring the airspace RUS-2, created a year before the start of the war and deployed near the city of Mozhaisk, was used as a means of early detection. It made it possible to detect in advance the movement of enemy aircraft, and then could transmit information for the guidance of fighter aircraft and target designation of antiaircraft artillery.

In addition to the radar station, near Mozhaisk, emergency radars were created in Klin, Kaluga, Tula, Ryazan, Mytischi, Vladimir, Yaroslavl and Kashin. But it was the Mozhaisk station RUS-2 near 22 of 21 hours of July 1941 of the year that at a distance of about 100 km discovered the first masses of enemy aircraft, moving towards Moscow.

In 22 hours of 05 minutes, the air defense units of Moscow were declared combat readiness number XXUMX. On the streets of the capital, an air-raid alarm sounded ... All in all, Moscow sent over 1 enemy bombers that carried more than 220 tons of high-explosive bombs and 100 thousands of incendiary to Moscow.

Had this armada appeared in the sky of Moscow, the capital would have been awaited by massive destruction, huge fires and, as a result, not only the death of many people, but also the disruption of military traffic and military production of the capital's factories. It would be a moral blow to the citizens of the USSR from the destruction of the capital against the background of the successes of Hitler's ground forces.

The German bombers had by that time had considerable experience in successfully bombing London and other cities in England. However, the Nazi plan for Moscow's air terror failed. At the distant approaches to the capital, Luftwaffe bombers were met by our air defense fighters. They were particularly active in the zone of light fields, which created the searchlight units, which "caught" enemy aircraft with rays of light and did not release them.

Air defense guns fired not only to the defeat of the detected aircraft, but also created barrage fire that broke the air structure of the enemy bombers. Already on the outskirts of Moscow, Soviet night fighters conducted a series of air battles and shot down German aircraft with 12. Anti-aircraft defense systems destroyed 10 enemy aircraft.

Conceived by the command of the "Luftwaffe" plan for the raid on Moscow was destroyed. Many of the German bombers turned back, other groups of enemy aircraft changed the course of flight, trying to get to the city from other directions. As a result, a massive raid was scattered on the outskirts of the city. Only Hitler's individual aircraft managed to appear over Moscow that night, most of them aimlessly dropping bombs on the fields and groves near Moscow.

The 220 raid of enemy bombers continued from 22 hours 25 minutes 21 July to half past four in the morning 22 July 1941 year. As a result of the skillful actions of our air defense forces, the Germans did not manage to inflict significant damage to Moscow.

Two days later, the most distinguished fighters and commanders of parts of the Moscow air defense zone were awarded prizes for successfully repelling the first massive enemy raid. Five soldiers were awarded the Order of Lenin, and 22 received medals "For Courage".

Until the end of 1941, Moscow still had to repel 121 with a massive air raid by enemy aircraft. But it was precisely the first success gained on the night of July 22 that showed that our capital was securely covered from aerial terror.
Author:
Originator:
http://rusplt.ru/wins/proval-bombardirovki-moskvyi-27443.html
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  1. Fei_Wong
    Fei_Wong 24 July 2016 06: 26
    +20
    Significantly, our very first "reciprocal curtsy" in the building of Berlin turned out to be much more successful (I'm talking about the bombing of Berlin by our DB-3 on August 8, 1941).
    My dear Ernst! The war with Russia is already costing us many hundreds of thousands of people killed. Gloomy thoughts do not leave me. Last night, bombers came to us. Everyone is told that the British bombed, but we know for sure that the Russians bombed us that night. They are taking revenge for Moscow. Berlin is shaking from the explosions of bombs ... And in general I’ll tell you: since the Russians appeared above our heads, you can’t imagine how bad it was for us. Willy Furstenberg’s relatives served at an artillery factory. The factory no longer exists! Native Willie died under the ruins. Ah, Ernst, when Russian bombs fell on Simmens factories, it seemed to me that everything was falling through the ground. Why did you contact the Russians?

    Interestingly, only 15 DB-3 participated in the departure (and not one was shot down), and actually five were bombed in Berlin, but the Nazis, of course, had their own dissenting opinion:
    On the night of August 7-8, large forces of British aviation, in the amount of 150 aircraft, tried to bomb our capital ... Of the 15 planes breaking through to the city 9 shot down.

    I envy the German counting system (even air defense, even the Luftwaffe). Such a freebie, not like ours, with a triple recheck. Well, that's why their aces and 200+ kills were easy to type, and we even did 50+ units.
    1. svp67
      svp67 24 July 2016 06: 43
      +7
      Quote: Fei_Wong
      I envy the German counting system

      Do not confuse information disseminated by the Goebels service and what was actually considered in parts. We also have a similar picture, since according to the Sovinformburo, our army destroyed the Wehrmacht and the Luftwaffe back in 1941, and in full force.
      1. mikael
        mikael 24 July 2016 12: 57
        +4
        the Germans did not have such a strict account of those shot down in our fighter aviation in general until the 43rd year that the pilot had to count the downed plane for confirmation of the ground forces or the data of a film machine gun, so that the pilots shot down behind the front line were not protected at all even if they were confirmed by the crews of escorted bombers and attack aircraft, and in the north, pilots even had to travel to the tundra and bring pieces of downed aircraft, because the Germans took into account the downed ones, one can judge from the "results" of their first hundred aces, according to their data, they destroyed more aircraft than were in the ranks of Soviet aviation from 41 to 45 year like "gentlemen" you have to take the word "here is their counting system
        1. moskowit
          moskowit 24 July 2016 20: 09
          +1
          Long, long time ago I read that the Germans, when calculating, did not take into account the aircraft, but the number of engines ... Failed PESHKU count two ... That is why their "aces" count many downed ...
        2. kara61
          kara61 16 August 2016 19: 17
          0
          In the Red Army Air Force, such an accounting system appeared in 42 m. After Stalin asked, where did the Germans get planes and tanks, if according to reports from the front they had already been destroyed twice.
          It was difficult to attribute to the fighters. Well, the bombers wrote everything they wanted. Especially in the fleets. The deception was revealed when they could not interrupt the evacuation of the Germans from Crimea, Prussia and Courland.
          All this is in the materials of checks and reconciliations after the war according to German sources. And in the materials of the criminal case of Novikov and the headquarters of the Air Force.
      2. Lyubopyatov
        Lyubopyatov 24 July 2016 13: 01
        0
        S'il vous plait67, you are a muddler more abruptly than Bukharin!
      3. v02000
        v02000 24 July 2016 19: 22
        -3
        Particularly pleased with the loss of fascists on the way to Moscow - 12 German aircraft were shot down. Anti-aircraft air defense systems destroyed 10 enemy aircraft. - out of 220 ... Maybe the hats will end ??? Well, someday? After all, grandfathers died ... Just to restrain others to stop, some drove to fascism, the fourth survived ... Maybe it's wrong ... But 10% losses on the way ...
      4. kara61
        kara61 16 August 2016 19: 13
        0
        And two times. Even Goebbels said, I can’t lie like the Red Star. Ortenberg set a record for brechology.
    2. Beefeater
      Beefeater 24 July 2016 12: 46
      -5
      It's nice that you are such a patriot, but estimate that a dozen planes with a minimum load, in principle, can not cause any damage in the German capital. Probably these planes could come in handy somewhere else.
      The Americans achieved any effect by the 44th group under the thousand proven B-17 strategists.
      As for the number of aircraft shot down by the Germans, this is solely due to the acute shortage of aircraft in German aviation. Pilots had to fly around the clock, constantly participating in battles, and having more opportunities to replenish their combat score.
      1. Lyubopyatov
        Lyubopyatov 24 July 2016 13: 05
        +1
        You can’t eat so much beef, uncle!
      2. Verdun
        Verdun 24 July 2016 13: 18
        +4
        Quote: Beefeater
        As for the number of aircraft shot down by the Germans, this is solely due to the acute shortage of aircraft in German aviation. Pilots had to fly around the clock, constantly participating in battles, and having more opportunities to replenish their combat score.

        And at that time, Soviet pilots ate black caviar and rested on soft feather-beds? And did our Air Force have any aircraft at all? what You, dear, sometimes give out such pearls that at least stand, even fall.
      3. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 24 July 2016 13: 38
        +4
        The word "round the clock" is touching. I wish you continued success in promoting the "achievements" of the Nazi pilots.
  2. Fei_Wong
    Fei_Wong 24 July 2016 07: 06
    +3
    Quote: svp67
    Quote: Fei_Wong
    I envy the German counting system

    Do not confuse information disseminated by the Goebels service and what was actually considered in parts. We also have a similar picture, since according to the Sovinformburo, our army destroyed the Wehrmacht and the Luftwaffe back in 1941, and in full force.

    We have one figs never so selflessly lied (and sometimes they did not even believe in individual, outstanding and confirmed cases of major victories, even at Headquarters). Probably because instead of Goebbels was Levitan. And that the system for calculating enemy combat losses in the USSR was much stricter - it is a fact.
    Subscriptions - well, they are inevitable for all armies in the world, of course. But as for the USSR army (let's say, why we so loved to ascribe hundreds of Tigers and Ferdinands to ourselves), they are more likely caused by economic benefits, and not at all by the "stupidity" of a Russian soldier who cannot distinguish between Groove IV with screens from the "Tiger" or "Vespe "from" Ferdinand ". For the destruction of heavy tanks and self-propelled guns of the enemy, a very significant monetary reward for those times was relied on, up to 1500 rubles. And part of it went to the commanders. So everyone won (if the accounting system was successful).
    1. svp67
      svp67 24 July 2016 07: 26
      +10
      Quote: Fei_Wong
      We have one FIG never so selflessly lied

      Blessed is he who believes. Facts are a more stubborn thing.
      Quote: Fei_Wong
      Probably because instead of Goebbels was Levitan.

      By this statement you show that you do not understand this issue.
      Goebbels is the leader of the entire Reich propaganda machine. And Levitan is just the announcer of one of our news agencies. As they say, feel the difference. One led the entire system, and the second just read out what they brought him.
      Quote: Fei_Wong
      But as for the army of the USSR (let’s say, why we so loved to attribute hundreds of Tigers and Ferdinands to ourselves) - they are more likely due to economic benefits. For the destruction of heavy tanks and self-propelled guns of the enemy relied on a very significant monetary reward for those times, up to 1500 rubles.

      Not only this, but sometimes it was very necessary to explain their heavy losses, and it was easier when the enemy’s overstated losses were shown. One way to register was as follows. For example, an anti-tank battery or division was assigned to a rifle regiment, as a result of the battle, six damaged tanks remained opposite the regiment's positions, this six were assigned to themselves by the Regiment and anti-tankers, since these are different parts, as a result of reporting data to a higher headquarters, the number of destroyed tanks in this section was obtained 12 units.
    2. Beefeater
      Beefeater 24 July 2016 13: 07
      0
      The T-4 with screens really looks like a Tiger. After all, the soldier did not examine him at the museum, but in a combat situation through the scope.
      The reason for the additions was also the fear of the higher authorities - if you destroyed 1 unit of equipment and lost 10 of yours, then you should not serve as a unit commander, but as a shepherd in a train. That is why Stalin ordered the creation of a "turntable" government communications service, under the auspices of the State Security Service, which made it possible to directly contact division commanders in any sector of the front without going through the front or army headquarters. Which sometimes was the case.
  3. Fei_Wong
    Fei_Wong 24 July 2016 07: 36
    0
    Quote: svp67
    By this statement you show that you do not understand this issue.
    Goebbels is the leader of the entire Reich propaganda machine. And Levitan is just the announcer of one of our news agencies. As they say, feel the difference. One led the entire system, and the second just read out what they brought him.

    No, probably you.
    I put Levitan and Goebbels on the same level only because both were "talking heads". Levitan - naturally - was only an announcer, but Goebbels also liked to give out blown victories on air. One did not interfere with the other for him. And it is in This - was my sarcasm. Goebbels was the head of propaganda и announcer. Levitan is just an announcer. Catch it?

    As for the ways of adding up - here everyone is always and always expired as soon as they can. All. But German military accounting has always had a big problem with a real estimate of the enemy’s irreparable losses (and even the Luftwaffe pilots sometimes just ... took a word!).
    1. svp67
      svp67 24 July 2016 07: 52
      +4
      Quote: Fei_Wong
      I put Levitan and Goebbels on the same level only because both were "talking heads".

      Listen to you at least read in neta information about Hans Fritsch, who was the "talking head" of the Third Reich, so to speak for internal use. This is with whom our great Levitan should be compared.
      Quote: Fei_Wong
      Goebbels was the head of propaganda and the announcer.

      No, you're wrong. Goebbels did not read other people's texts, he wrote them himself, and so he is no longer an announcer. Catch it?
      1. Lyubopyatov
        Lyubopyatov 24 July 2016 13: 11
        -2
        Sil wu ple67, calm down, bitte shane. Why are you so nervous?
  4. bionik
    bionik 24 July 2016 07: 56
    +2
    The Junkers Yu-88 (Ju 88) aircraft with code F6 + AK (number 0285) was shot down on July 25.07.1941, 3 by pilots of the XNUMXrd fighter air corps near Istra and made an emergency landing in a clearing. Five days later, it was installed on Sverdlov Square (now Theater Square) in Moscow.

    Yu-88 belonged to the 2nd long-range reconnaissance squadron of the 122nd reconnaissance group (2. (F) / 122), made a reconnaissance flight to the Moscow-Kaluga area.

    Crew:
    Lieutenant Wilhelm Stuckmann (Wilhelm Stuckmann) - pilot;
    sergeant-sergeant Wilfred Anders (Anders, Wilfred) - navigator;
    Corporal Bruno Sievert (Bruno Sievert) - radio operator;
    Corporal Ludwig Werner (Werner Ludwig) - shooter.

    There is no information about the fate of the crew; the German archives are reported missing.
    1. bionik
      bionik 24 July 2016 08: 06
      +1
      Aircraft Junkers Yu-88 (Ju 88).
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 24 July 2016 13: 24
        +1
        Quote: bionik
        Five days later, it was installed on Sverdlov Square (now Theater Square) in Moscow.

        There were many such aircraft. At first they were put on display in the same Gorky park for example, and then, when there were too many of them, they simply dragged them to landfills. I still have a couple of pieces of aluminum pipes (and there were much more) in my house that, though after the war, my grandfather and father were removed from the downed Heinkel. These pipes were cable channels through which wires stretched.
  5. Fei_Wong
    Fei_Wong 24 July 2016 08: 11
    -2
    Quote: svp67
    No, you're wrong. Goebbels did not read other people's texts, he wrote them himself, and so he is no longer an announcer. Catch it?

    No, you still do not catch. Wikipedia definition, for example:
    An announcer (lat. Dictor - “speaking”, derivative from lat. Dicere - “speaking”) is a person who reads informational, political, artistic, advertising materials at the microphone on the air and in magnetic recording.

    Text authorship here is completely unimportant. Well or so, I’ll simplify it very roughly for clarity: from 9-00 to 14-00 of his working day Goebbels is the Minister of Propaganda, and from 15-00 (after a break for a meal and rinsing the neck) until 19-00 he is a newscaster.
    And about Hans Fritsche I am in the know. I repeat once again, you just didn’t eat my passage saturated with sarcasm.
  6. aba
    aba 24 July 2016 08: 17
    +1
    In addition to weapons, over 600 floodlights and 124 barrage balloons covered the sky of Moscow.


    Since childhood, this picture has eaten into my brain with newsreels and documentary photographs. They also forgot to add that during raids on Moscow, firefighters and civil defense fighters (a significant part of whom were women) who were on duty on Moscow rooftops to combat incendiary bombs actively participated in air defense.
    1. igordok
      igordok 24 July 2016 11: 10
      +5
      You should not forget about sound finders. It seems like an antediluvian system, but it worked.
      Photo of the besieged Leningrad. According to the article, I didn’t find a photo of Moscow sounding devices in a hurry.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 24 July 2016 11: 27
        +1
        Quote: igordok
        You should not forget about sound finders. It seems like an antediluvian system, but it worked.

        There is a good book by Lobanov.M.M.My-Military Engineers, which tells about the history of the creation of detection tools for air defense forces in the 30s of the last century, sound catchers, TPS, and radars.
        1. Beefeater
          Beefeater 24 July 2016 13: 12
          +1
          But with the increase in aircraft speed, this system began to give too much error
  7. V.ic
    V.ic 24 July 2016 08: 34
    +2
    Air defense of the Moscow region worked perfectly, there are no words ... But, due to the weakening of the resources of the Kalinin and Western fronts.
    1. avt
      avt 24 July 2016 08: 44
      +1
      Quote: V.ic
      . But, due to the weakening of the resources of the Kalinin and Western fronts.

      Well, you don’t need to freak out in search of “But.” Even if there was an attraction of forces and means, it was justified - they concentrated at the right time and in the right place. Moscow really was
      not only a political symbol, but also the most important hub of transport communications, and the center of military production. The massive bombing strike of the Germans in the capital was to become both propaganda and purely military success of Hitler.
      and also the strategic goal of the 1941 campaign for the Germans. Moreover, it remained so even after the evacuation with the approach of the Germans.
      1. Bongo
        Bongo 24 July 2016 10: 03
        +4
        Quote: avt
        Well, you don’t need to freak out in search of “But.” Even if there was an attraction of forces and means, it was justified - they concentrated at the right time and in the right place. Moscow really was
        not only a political symbol, but also the most important hub of transport communications, and the center of military production. The massive bombing strike of the Germans in the capital was to become both propaganda and purely military success of Hitler. And besides the strategic goal of the 1941 campaign of the year for the Germans. Moreover, this remained even after the evacuation with the approach of the Germans.

        After the Germans approached Moscow, a significant part of the anti-aircraft artillery was sent to the front line to deal with enemy tanks. As for this publication, the specifics are not enough and it contains a number of inaccuracies; in places, the author does not understand what he writes about:
        The anti-aircraft corps defending the capital in July 1941 of the year consisted of 1044 anti-aircraft guns and 336 mounts of four machine guns,
        What was the use of quadruple 7,62-mm machine guns, they could not hit planes flying at an altitude of more than 500 meters, at the same time not a word about the more effective 12,7-mm DShK.
        Next:
        As the means of early warning, the first domestic airspace monitoring station RUS-2 was used, created a year before the start of the war and deployed near the city of Mozhaisk. It allows you to pre-detect the movement of enemy aircraft, and then could transmit information for guidance of fighter aircraft and anti-aircraft artillery target designation.
        As for the target designation of the RUS-2 FOR "far-fetched", and considering the radio frequency in 1941, it is doubtful about fighters.
        1. avt
          avt 24 July 2016 10: 39
          +1
          Quote: Bongo
          and contains a number of inaccuracies,

          Well, about the barrage balloon system as it is also not disclosed.
          Quote: Bongo
          After the Germans approached Moscow, a significant part of the anti-aircraft artillery was sent to the front line to deal with enemy tanks.

          request Well again
          Quote: avt
          concentrated at the right time and in the right place

          from the presence of what is at this time, but actually the one who did the same during the defense of Leningrad did the campaign.
          1. Amurets
            Amurets 24 July 2016 13: 46
            +2
            Quote: avt
            Quote: Bongo
            After the Germans approached Moscow, a significant part of the anti-aircraft artillery was sent to the front line to deal with enemy tanks.

            request Well again

            I read about anti-aircraft gunners in my youth, I don’t remember the name of the book, a collection of memoirs from the history of the Moscow air defense zone. So there were in the memoirs of one of the anti-aircraft battery commanders. From the very beginning, how this battery was put in position in the late 30s years, so she in that place and stood the whole war and they had to shoot at planes and tanks and infantry. Why am I doing this? Yes, and the fact that both VNOS posts and anti-aircraft batteries were often at the front and rear of the Germans, because they were not warned in time.
        2. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 24 July 2016 10: 39
          +1
          The Germans had just a few bombers. 200 pieces is not enough.
          400-500 bombers flew to London, more than 400 to Coventry.
          The Germans in 1941 had not yet recovered from the great losses of bombers over Britain.
          1. Beefeater
            Beefeater 24 July 2016 13: 27
            +1
            Quote: voyaka uh
            The Germans had just a few bombers. 200 pieces is not enough.
            400-500 bombers flew to London, more than 400 to Coventry.
            The Germans in 1941 had not yet recovered from the great losses of bombers over Britain.

            In general, after the Battle of England almost a year passed during this period, the German aircraft industry completely made up for the losses. But, firstly, the Germans lost a lot of cars in the fight against Soviet aviation, and secondly, the Germans did not have strategic long-range aviation.
            1. voyaka uh
              voyaka uh 24 July 2016 14: 26
              0
              "In general, after the Battle of England, almost a year passed during this period, the German aircraft industry
              completely made up for the losses "////

              In the bombers - did not make up, until the age of 45.
              In the "Battle of England" (4 months 1940), the Luftwaffe irretrievably lost 792 bombers over Britain.
              And another 492 is damaged.
              1. user1212
                user1212 24 July 2016 17: 17
                +3
                Quote: voyaka uh
                In the bombers - did not make up, until the age of 45.
                In the "Battle of England" (4 months 1940), the Luftwaffe irretrievably lost 792 bombers over Britain.
                And another 492 is damaged.

                Either 200 bombers for one raid are not enough for you, or the loss of 1000 in 4 months is a disaster. Decide already. Wikipedia produced bombers in Germany
                He 111 - produced 7603
                He 177 - 1094
                Thu 17 - 2139
                Ju 86 - 822, including passenger options
                Ju 87 - 6500
                Ju 88 - 15001
                Ju 188 - 1076
                1. voyaka uh
                  voyaka uh 24 July 2016 18: 01
                  -2
                  All Ju are not bombers, strictly speaking. Divers, multi-purpose aircraft.
                  After losses in Britain, the Germans never managed to concentrate
                  a large number of bombers for operations. And then they were all "kids" in comparison with American and British cars.
                  Therefore, they, with grief, switched to V-1 in order to somehow get the rear of the enemy.
                  1. stalkerwalker
                    stalkerwalker 24 July 2016 20: 01
                    +4
                    Quote: voyaka uh
                    All Ju are not bombers, strictly speaking.

                    Lesha .....
                    hi
                    You, at least occasionally, but look - what you post ... laughing
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        4. Amurets
          Amurets 24 July 2016 11: 20
          +2
          Quote: Bongo
          As for the target designation of the RUS-2 FOR "far-fetched", and considering the radio frequency in 1941, it is doubtful about fighters.

          Sergei! Hi. About RUS-2. It was used in the interests of the Moscow Air Defense Front. In principle, they were used as a missile defense center and could not work as a DSS or guidance station. Here, the author turned down.
          << The first domestic early warning radars RUS-2 and RUS-2s (stationary) were deployed in the 337th separate radio battalion (ORB) of the VNOS of the Moscow air defense corps region. The 1942th ORB VNOS was part of the Moscow Air Defense Front and provided radar reconnaissance of the air situation in the area of ​​responsibility of the Air Defense Ministry. At the beginning of 2, it had ten aircraft radio detection stations deployed in Kaluga, Maloyaroslavets, Mozhaisk, Mytishchi (station RUS-2), in Klin, Pavshin, Serpukhov (station RUS-105s), in Kubinka, Vnukovo, Khimki (stations MRU- XNUMX). >>
        5. Beefeater
          Beefeater 24 July 2016 13: 16
          -1
          Machine guns stood on the roofs of the tallest buildings, where there was a good view.
          As for the caliber, a moot point. Somewhere they preferred small-caliber automatic guns, somewhere machine guns, but in large numbers.
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 24 July 2016 11: 00
      +2
      Quote: V.ic
      Air defense of the Moscow region worked perfectly, there are no words ... But, due to the weakening of the resources of the Kalinin and Western fronts.

      And what, in the aviation of the Western and Kalinin regiments there were night-time pilots? Apart from the air defense units, test pilots from the LNII and military test pilots of the Air Force Research Institute who were not included in the special regiments were involved in the reflection of the first raids.
      << 401st Fighter Aviation Regiment of Special Purpose On August 16, 1941, after the battles, according to the order of the head of the 1st Directorate of the Main Directorate of the Red Army Air Force, it was transformed into the 263rd Fighter Aviation Regiment. All test pilots have been recalled from the front. >> http://www.lii.ru/v_gazete_zhukovskie_vesti_ot_22_fevralya_2015_goda_v_rubrike_a
      viatsiya_v_tsikle_publikatsij_priurochennyh_k_prazdnovaniyu_70-letya_pobedy_v_ve
      likoj_otechestvennoj_vojne_opublikovan_material_letchiki-ispytateli_lii_v_vozdus
      hnyh_boyah_v_nebe_stolitsy_.html
      Link to the actions of the 2nd separate air defense squadron. Pilots of the Kalinin and Western fronts were involved in the Moscow air defense later.
      1. avt
        avt 24 July 2016 13: 18
        +3
        Quote: Amurets
        ? In addition to air defense units, test pilots from the LNII and military test pilots of the Air Force Research Institute who did not make up the special regiments were involved in the reflection of the first raids.

        Yes, as in the memoirs Galla read about his night sorties, again Shcherbakov’s son, later a test pilot, began his service in Moscow’s air defense and only then in 1945 to the front.
  8. bionik
    bionik 24 July 2016 13: 22
    +1
    Aerostat air defense of Moscow on the Revolution Square. Balloons were widely used in air defense as a barrier: fearing a collision with ropes and shelling of balloons, German planes were forced to rise higher, which reduced the accuracy of the bombing.
  9. bionik
    bionik 24 July 2016 13: 34
    0
    Anti-aircraft installation (three 12,7 mm DShK machine guns) in the center of Moscow, on Sverdlov Square (now the Theater). The Metropol Hotel is visible in the background.
  10. bionik
    bionik 24 July 2016 13: 41
    +1
    Battery of 85-mm anti-aircraft guns 52-K on the square of the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition in Moscow.
  11. moskowit
    moskowit 24 July 2016 20: 12
    0
    Address to a respected Author. Maybe you have information about the MPVO actions to protect Moscow?
  12. drop
    drop 26 July 2016 08: 27
    +2
    RUS-2 radars were created by my teachers. In addition to Moscow, they brought invaluable assistance in protecting Sevastopol and Leningrad. In Leningrad, this station was installed in the village of B. Izhora and on 21 on September 1941 of the year 386 recorded a star raid on fascist bombers on Leningrad and KBF 22. The raid was repelled like 23, 72 of September. The Nazis lost 2 aircraft. My teachers I.M. Vekslin, S.V. In addition to participating in the creation of RUS-1942, Spirov already in XNUMX ensured the transfer of information from the screen of this station to the screen of the front-line air defense command and control.
    For reference, the first building destroyed in Moscow from an air raid is the building of the police station next to the Novokuznktskaya metro station (center). 7 people were killed. I have the honor.
    1. kara61
      kara61 16 August 2016 19: 26
      0
      In Leningrad, this wunderwaffle with an oscilloscope was installed at 16 points. Before the raids on September 19-27, 14 were completely destroyed.
      Before the Americans received 500 radars in the USSR, there was no normal station.
      Gneiss is completely homogeneous, both on ships and on airplanes. In the Air Force, they were simply shot-nothing, but there were a lot of speed and bomb load.
      After the war, all development continued on the basis of German trophies and American-British stations.
      Not when the Luftwaffe didn’t lose 72 airplanes for a raid in Leningrad. 386 it is impossible to determine by the oscilloscope, and the Germans never had so many airplanes near Leningrad.