Military Review

How Alexander the Blessed rewarded

34
Signed by Napoleon and Alexander I in the summer of 1807, the Tilsit world, as well-informed and visionary people understood well, was in fact only a disguised truce, a pause between rounds of battle, and not a final Franco-Russian confrontation. Forces on both sides were temporarily exhausted, they should have thoroughly put themselves in order before a new mistake, and at the same time also ensured that at a crucial moment no one, as often happens, strikes in the back.




Russia at that time had two such nimble neighbors: Turkey and Sweden. With the Ottoman Empire since 1806, a sluggish war was waged, which should be stopped as soon as possible, and best of all not by diplomatic, but by force, in order to discourage the waiter to swing the scimitar for a long time. Nikolai Kamensky coped well with the last task until his unexpected death (they said that this general was poisoned), but in the end he had to hurry, so Mikhail Golenishchev-Kutuzov, who replaced Kamensky, did not have the honor to hang a shield on the gates of ancient Tsargrad. Instead, our great strategist obtyap (no other word) surprised the whole world in May, 1812, i.e. on the eve of World War II, Bucharest Peace Agreement. According to it, Russia and Turkey, having made minor concessions, in fact, remained in their previous positions. All, however, it was clear what advantage the Russians had gained: the whole army freed up from them for action in the western direction.

With Sweden, things were different. In St. Petersburg, many more remembered the 1788 – 1790 war, unexpectedly unleashed by the half-crazed romantic king Gustav III. Then the cannonade of the Krasnogorsk sea battle was heard already in Tsarskoye Selo. And who could guarantee that in the event of a new battle with Napoleon, the Swedes would not want to take advantage of the temporary weakness of the Russians in the Baltic?



True, the situation in the Baltic kingdom itself was now somewhat different than twenty years before. Gustav IV, formally the son of Gustav III, sat on the throne, and in essence, his wife and his chief master Adolf Munch, as the romantic king was not interested in the weak sex. Another Gustav, as well as the previous one, was considered “our man” in Stockholm. And this time it is not unreasonable: the king really was largely pro-Russian, and he apparently chose Paul I with his ideal of discipline and training as a role model.

Catherine II even wanted to arrange the personal life of the young king, for which he was summoned to North Palmyra, accompanied by an uncle regent. Gustav would perhaps not mind sharing the marriage bed with Catherine's granddaughter, but this pedant flatly refused to give the future spouse the opportunity to freely practice the Orthodox faith, which the Swedish Constitution directly prohibited. As a result, the lawyer sent back home. But they didn’t spoil relations with him and in the future they always relied on his meticulous loyalty.

Gustav, following in the wake of Russian politics, quarreled with England under Paul I and with France under Alexander I. In 1806, Swedish troops even landed in Pomerania and took part in battles with the Prussians. Although the royal army has long been a pale shadow of the mighty power that made Europe tremble in the Thirty Years War, and Russia - in the Northern War, before Poltava. Not surprisingly, the Swedes were soon defeated. Here they had to get acquainted with Napoleon's marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadot, the Gascon and d'Artagnan of his time. The consequences of this acquaintance that are important for Sweden will have an effect later, but for now the marshal showed a shrewd humanity - he took care of the captured Scandinavians in such a way that he charmed with his personality all of their severe northern homeland.

Perhaps only King Gustav was not subject to sentimentality. Despite the military weakness of his country, he remained the mortal enemy of Bonapartism. And in 1807, having learned about the conclusion by the Russians of the treacherous, in his opinion, peace, he indignantly sent back the signs of the Orders of St. Andrew and St. Alexander Nevsky belonging to him as a gentleman.

By agreement with Napoleon, Emperor Alexander I was now forced to compel the Swedes to make peace with the French, and even force them to join the continental blockade of England, which, of course, fundamentally contradicted Russia's own interests, since Russia in this case deprived itself of the last major ally in the coming collision with uncontrollably, it seemed spreading across the continent by France. But meanwhile, the idea to take at least some benefit from defeat seemed very tempting and, taking advantage of the moment, move the state border away from vulnerable St. Petersburg.

Despite a long negotiations, it was not possible to come to a friendly agreement with Gustav, and in February 1808, without declaring war, Russia began hostilities.

According to the recollection of Philip Wiegel, although biased, but not uninterestingly memoirist of that era, not a single war has provoked so little patriotic frenzy and so much sympathy for the enemy in the Russians. The northern neighbor looked so unmilitary that the majority considered it quite sufficient if the Russian army entered Swedish territory: Gustav’s citizens would surrender at once.

The beginning of the war justified this forecast. The regular Swedish army really did not want to fight seriously. Already at the end of February, the hapless defenders of the well-fortified Sveaborg threw out the white flag. However, in the rear of the advancing Russian troops, the Finnish partisan, who was distinguished by extreme unbridledness, looked up. The Finns flew into separate small Russian units, attacked carts, destroyed everything to the last man. They did not spare either the prisoners or the wounded. Here is what another memoirist, Faddey Bulgarin, wrote about this: “All Finnish villagers are excellent shooters, and in each house there were guns and spears. Strong pedestrian and equestrian crowds were formed, led by pastors, landmen ... and Finnish officers and soldiers ... attacked weak Russian troops, hospitals, and killed unhappily sick and healthy ... The outrage was in full force, and the people's war was in full swing with all their horrors ".

In the spring the Russians got stuck in a lake country. In addition, the Swedes gradually came to their senses and gave an unexpectedly strong rebuff - from Siikajoki, from Revolax and in several other places. Behind them loomed England, pledged to pay 1 million pounds a month, if only Gustav continued the war. It came to the point that the Russian commander-in-chief, General Fyodor (Friedrich Wilhelm) Buxhevden, concluded a temporary truce with the enemy in September, which, however, was not approved in St. Petersburg.

The war continued. A decisive break came at the beginning of the next year, 1809, and it was marked by an unprecedented feat: divided into columns, the Russian corps marched across the ice of the Gulf of Bothnia and for the first time in all history entered the Swedish coast proper. Cossack patrols appeared in the vicinity of Stockholm. The Swedish capital was in panic. On March 13, a coup d'état took place here, as a result of which Gustav IV was deposed and peace negotiations began, ending with the signing of the Treaty of Friedrichs, under which all of Finland was ceded to Russia.
The Russian autocrat began to be called now also the Grand Duke of Finland, and two medals were sold to his soldiers. One of them, "For the transition to the Swedish coast," was presented to the soldiers of the units of General Michael Barclay de Tolly. On the obverse side is the monogram of Alexander I under a large imperial crown. On the back side there is a five-line inscription: “FOR - TRANSITION - ON SWEDISH - BEACH”. Below the figured trim date: "1809". In total, the St. Petersburg Mint minted 5443 pieces of such silver "beckoning".



Another medal, “For the passage to Sweden through Tornio”, established simultaneously with the “Barclayevskaya”, was given to soldiers of the detachment of Count Pavel Shuvalov, who forced a large Swedish detachment from Kaliks. This medal differed from its “sister” only in the inscription on the reverse. To wear it in the same way should be on the blue ribbon of the Order of St. Andrew. "Shuvalov" medals produced more - 6269 pieces.

So, the border from St. Petersburg was pushed back to a safe distance, Gustavsson deprived of the crown under the name of Colonel Gustavsson went to eternal exile, and his uncle, Duke Karl Südermanland, who inherited the last, sat down on the throne that was liberated ... Jean-Baptiste Bernadot Yes, it is the very French marshal. Such was the gratitude of the Swedes for the Gascon philanthropy! Hence the lesson for all of us: do good - it will pay off a hundredfold later.

By the way, unexpectedly having appeared in the 1810 th Swedish crown prince, and then the king, the Frenchman in the future always acted solely in the interests of his new fatherland. With him, who actually ruled the country since his arrival, Sweden in 1812, decisively broke with France and entered into an alliance with Russia. That's it! In the 1813 – 1814 campaigns, Prince Bernadot fought Napoleon with such success that the former Napoleon Marshal was awarded the Russian Order of St. George of the I degree for the battle of Dennewitz in Prussia. And before that, he received what poor Gustav refused, the Order of St. Andrew the First Called.

We will briefly tell you about the other most important medals of the Alexander Age, as the historical events associated with them are widely known.
The 1812 year turned out to be so rich in grandiose blood-lettings that it was considered impractical to coin a medal for everyone, even if it was the Battle of Borodino. Instead, in February of the next 1813, the Imperial Decree issued an award to all participants of the liberation of their native land of the award medal "In memory of the Patriotic War of 1812 of the Year." Here is his remarkable text:

“Warriors! a glorious and memorable year in which you were impudent and roughly impressed and punished to enter your Fatherland as a lyutho and strong enemy into the Fatherland, this glorious year has passed, but your loud deeds and exploits have not passed and will not be silent: you saved your Fatherland with your blood from many of the nations and kingdoms that had joined in against him. You earned gratitude from yours and respect from alien Powers through your labors, patience and wounds. You showed your courage and courage to the light that where God and faith are in the hearts of the people, there at least enemy forces were like Okiyan’s waves, but all of them, like a firm, unshakable mountain, would be scattered and crushed. Out of all their rage and savagery, there will be only one moan and the noise of perdition. Warriors! in commemoration of your unforgettable exploits, we have commanded We knock out and consecrate the silver medal, which with the inscription on it of the past, so memorable 1812 of the year, should decorate your breast with an irresistible shield of the Fatherland on a blue ribbon. All of you are worthy to bear this memorable sign on yourself, this is evidence of works, courage and participation in glory; for you all bore the same weight, and with unanimous courage breathed. You can justly be proud of this sign. He reveals in you God-blessed true sons of the Fatherland. Your enemies, seeing him on your breast, will tremble, knowing that bravery burns beneath him, not based on fear or greed, but on love of faith and the Fatherland and, therefore, nothing invincible. ”



On the obverse of the silver medal there is a “all-seeing eye” in the rays, and under it is the date - “1812 God”. On the reverse side, the Biblical maxim was placed in four lines: “DON'T NAM, - DON'T NAM, - AND NAME IS TO YOUR NAME.” 250 thousand copies of this expressive award were worn by direct participants in the hostilities - from field marshal to private soldier and warrior-militia.

For another year, the medal of the same design, but first made in bronze, was, as stated in the corresponding Manifesto, “our noble nobility ... now expressed unprecedented jealousy with a generous donation of not only property, but also of its own blood and life”. Nobles should carry the award on the red-black ribbon of the Vladimir Order. Not forgotten, and "eminent merchants, who took in the general jealousy and zeal noble participation." Merchants relied the same medal, but on Anninsky tape.



Another sign medal of that glorious time is “For the capture of Paris”. It was established on August 30 1814 of the year in honor of the capture of the French capital by Russian troops 30 in March of the same year. On the obverse - bust image of Alexander I in a laurel wreath under the "all-seeing eye". On the reverse, on the medal around the medal, there is a five-line inscription: "FOR - TAKEN - PARIS - 19 MARCH - 1814". True, the distribution for political reasons (in France, the Bourbon dynasty had just been restored to the throne and did not want to “expose” it to the critics of the unfinished Bonapartists in this way) started 12 years later under the new emperor. Nicholas I ordered to issue more than 160 thousand copies to the surviving veterans, after having consecrated a medal at the tomb of the deceased brother. The medal ribbon is curious: it was double, made up of two order ribbons - St. Andrew and St. George.
"For the capture of Paris" was the last large-scale award medal of the Alexander Age. After it, until the death (at least official) of this king, mostly completely peaceful "manets" were minted, such as the medal "For Distinction", intended mainly for artists, singers or dramatic actors.

A new era was approaching, including in the Russian medal story, the story of which is in our subsequent chapters.
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  1. PKK
    PKK 24 July 2016 06: 37
    -4
    Two brothers, On the field, he and Alexander the 1st, in Tilsit, agreed to make their way together to the Volga-Caspian region, capturing Muscovy and get colossal trade with Tartaria and Persia. The French began to build an invasion fleet, and Alexander built canals along river beds, in side of Tver, Smolensk and Novgorod. Since no one moved by land at that time. Those who wish can calculate the length of the French column on the road. And how much forage was required for the Army. If the horse ate 10-15 kg of oats per day. And carried 100 kg. Next than for three days they didn’t leave the supply barges. Barges could carry unlimited guns and supplies. Modern jeeps do not go especially in the mud, but how could they pull art on the roads in those days? It’s clear that this is impossible. Read details from Igor Grek, the only adequate researcher of that war.
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 24 July 2016 08: 26
      +3
      Quote: PKK
      to break into the Volga-Caspian region, capturing Muscovy and get colossal trade with Tartaria and Persia.

      Stop smoking sir, recently, in the comments on the article about the participation of A. Suvorov in suppressing the Pugachev rebellion, the adherents of the new chronology we were announced about the defeat of the forces of Tartaria, led by Pugachev. Over the past 35 years, a new Muscovy-Tartaria has arisen? Then why Kutuov M.I. it was necessary to arrange the Smolensk and Borodino battles with Napoleon’s troops? Open to us, with a raw and meager mind, your great secrets of history!
      Quote: PKK
      The Frenchman began to build an invasion fleet, and Alexander built canals along river beds,

      French squadron on the Moscow river? Arriginally! Grandiose!
      1. PKK
        PKK 24 July 2016 11: 20
        -1
        There are really a lot of riddles and not all so immediately and inexplicable. The battles are just more or less clear. All battles took place on the shifts from one channel to another. Smolensk, this is the Dniester route. Borodino is the same on the shifts. Recall Voloko Lamsk. Napoleon in the Navy the invasion rose to the Berezina, then it was possible that the movement was along the rivers. The French squadron could not walk along the Moscow river, for this barges were used with a draft of not more than 40 cm, a width of 30 m and a length of 70 m.
        Yes, the defeat of Tartaria, who is it?, And the War of the Capture of Muscovy does not fit. The riddles are also the decrees of the Tsar from Tobolsk. But all these puzzles, only for me, knowing people already understood everything. The discovery was the use of smallpox for biological weapons. After This cemetery began to be made away from settlements. To study Smallpox, a children's shelter was built in St. Petersburg, and children were vaccinated, vaccinated. The Tsar's family and troops working in this direction were vaccinated.
        You from your TI know that the Americans threw blankets and toilet articles of smallpox sick to the Indians. After this, the Indians died out faster than from guns. Question, an unvaccinated person can work with infected material without fear of getting sick.
        1. V.ic
          V.ic 24 July 2016 14: 08
          +1
          Quote: PKK
          There are really many riddles, and not everything is immediately and inexplicable. About battles is just more or less clear.

          At this point in time you have a rating (minus) of 1. I didn’t put it.
          I know from experience that it makes no sense to argue with sectarians (for example, Jehovah’s), trolls and Fomenko-Nosovists.
          In defiance of your reasoning, read about Reanov Nikolai Petrovich, who died in 1807 and was buried in Krasnoyarsk. Think carefully how the confidant of Alexander 1 freely "breaks through" through the possessions of "Tartary-Muscovy"? DIXI.
          1. PKK
            PKK 24 July 2016 15: 02
            +1
            I’m not going to argue, especially when they raise secondary topics divorced from reality. There are things, such as arithmetic, with which you can calculate the column length of 130 thousand Napoleon’s troops and the length of the supply convoy of this army. The length of the horse and cart is known, the needs are known, simple actions and it turns out an unrealistic picture. Even when the Soviets were surprised that the carts were taken in the same carts? How many carts are needed to provide at least one day of battle. Smolensk is exhausted with the cores. The guns themselves also need gunpowder. any number of cores, any caliber. I look forward to your arithmetic calculations. You could correct and level the left minus.
            1. Verdun
              Verdun 24 July 2016 16: 13
              -2
              Quote: PKK
              .And on barges it is realistic to carry any number of cores, of any caliber.

              Especially crossing the Alps or somewhere in the Borodino field, where navigable rivers are a problem. At the same time, it is completely incomprehensible how to bring together, from your point of view, the cores and gunpowder, and the guns on wheeled carriages, which were transported along the roads with the help of horse traction.
            2. V.ic
              V.ic 24 July 2016 17: 04
              0
              Quote: PKK
              You could correct and level the left minus.

              Quote: V.ic
              I know from experience that it makes no sense to argue with sectarians (e.g. Jehovah's), trolls and fomenko-nosovtsy.

              Dixi.
      2. Pavel1
        Pavel1 24 July 2016 17: 08
        0
        Quote: V.ic
        Over the past 35 years, a new Muscovy-Tartaria has arisen?


        There was a lot of Tartary, after the defeat of Great Tartary there remained still Independent with the capital in Samarkand and Chinese Tartary.
        Independent Tartaria was conquered under the campaign of Khiva campaigns already under Alexander2, and the Chinese Tartaria was conquered under the name of the Opium Wars. The presence of both Tartaria can be seen on HUNDRED CARDS of that time.
        Well, with regard to the Napoleonic Wars, oddities erupt and here Napoleon wanted the Moscow boyars to give him the keys to Moscow, but how could he not know that Peter had dealt with the boyars 100 years ago? This desire of his looks silly, if we assume that Napoleon is du_rak, but Napoleon was not a fool, so the boyars were still in the early 19th century. But then it means that we do not understand at all what was happening in those days.
        The story was different back in the 19th century, not the one that the Germans prescribed for us in textbooks.
        The card is of course a fake, but it is a fake of that time -19v, so it still contains part of the truth.
        1. PKK
          PKK 24 July 2016 18: 37
          -1
          The theme is that if Suvorov defeated Pugachev and Siberia was Russian in the mid-18th century, then why did you have to conquer Muscovy again in 1812?
          1. V.ic
            V.ic 25 July 2016 19: 17
            -1
            Quote: PKK
            , then why did you have to conquer Muscovy again in 1812?

            Well, finally, glimpses of consciousness have been outlined!
        2. The comment was deleted.
        3. Verdun
          Verdun 24 July 2016 18: 38
          0
          Quote: Paul1
          Napoleon wanted Moscow boyars to take out the keys to Moscow, but how could he not know that Peter had dealt with the boyars 100 years ago?

          If many Europeans and Americans still believe that bears walk the streets of large Russian cities, then one can only guess what kind of country our country was represented in the 19th century. as an example, you can read "The Fencing Teacher" by Dumas - there you can understand and learn something.
          but Napoleon was not a fool
          Many very talented and intelligent people, being extremely knowledgeable in their field of knowledge, are poorly oriented in other areas. Moreover, the word boyard, which is translated into Russian as a boyar, has been borrowed and borrowed for the French language for a long time.
          1. Pavel1
            Pavel1 24 July 2016 19: 42
            -2
            Quote: Verdun
            If many Europeans and Americans still believe that bears walk on the streets of large Russian cities,


            this is a stupid propaganda of the Western media. nothing of the West people think. This is a suggestion of a demonic image to people, just the media is an inadequate supply of information, such as advertising.
          2. Pavel1
            Pavel1 24 July 2016 19: 56
            0
            Quote: Verdun
            Many very talented and intelligent people, being extremely knowledgeable in their field of knowledge, are poorly oriented in other areas.


            Yes, it does not happen, so as not to know what kind of people are in the neighboring state, which is all the more going to conquer. You thereby refute, say, numerous images of medieval artists who painted Asians (Tamerlane, Batu), like white people saying - "... but they did not know what Asians look like." And this is nonsense, or what type of antiques dressed like medieval residents, saying, "medieval artists were illiterate and did not distinguish between antiquity and the Middle Ages." These are stupid common cliches that are used by traditions.
            1. Verdun
              Verdun 24 July 2016 20: 24
              +1
              Quote: Paul1
              it doesn’t happen so that you don’t know what kind of people are in the neighboring state, which is all the more about to conquer.

              Napoleon had no intention of conquering Russia. He only needed her complete surrender to force Alexander the First to do what he needed, Napoleon. He was not going to take the throne of the Russian tsar. It was important for him to cut off Britain from the resources supplied from Russia. That is why he moved towards more distant Moscow, and not towards the closer Saint Pitersburg. At the same time, even when you read the opuses of the German generals who commanded the German army in 1941, about "General Frost", endless distances, lack of roads - you involuntarily ask yourself a question - there are plenty of those, but were these gentlemen going to fight with Russia?
              1. Pavel1
                Pavel1 24 July 2016 20: 32
                -2
                Quote: Verdun
                Napoleon was not at all going to conquer Russia. He needed only her complete surrender to


                you will not get bored with you, you are simply soaked through with traditional propaganda, how is it "complete surrender without conquest"? This again does not happen, and you are just playing with words, because they are the same thing.
                1. Verdun
                  Verdun 24 July 2016 21: 45
                  -3
                  Quote: Paul1
                  So again, it doesn’t happen, and you just play with words, because it is one and the same.

                  All Bonaparte's previous actions, including the Tilsit Peace, only confirm that he wanted to get Russia as an ally, albeit controlled, but not at all like conquered territories, which he himself would have to rule. The French were completely unprepared to control such vast territories. The Spanish guerillas, which Mossen could not handle, were quite enough for them. That is why Napoleon absolutely did not want to destroy the system of government already existing in Russia, to free peasants from serfdom, etc. From his point of view, Russia was just a major figure in the chess game, the result of which was the surrender of Britain.
                  1. Pavel1
                    Pavel1 24 July 2016 23: 32
                    -2
                    Quote: Verdun
                    All Bonaparte's previous actions, including the Tilsit Peace, only confirm that he wanted to get Russia as an ally, albeit controlled


                    do not invent ...
    2. Beefeater
      Beefeater 24 July 2016 14: 43
      -1
      These are the Romans and Greeks with the Vikings moving along the rivers. You have been mad for a thousand years
      1. PKK
        PKK 24 July 2016 15: 05
        0
        Cossacks lived on the same rivers. From there they went to the seas, crossed into other rivers, and through rivers fell into rivers and seas. Remember the Cossack shuttles.
        1. Verdun
          Verdun 24 July 2016 16: 15
          -1
          Quote: PKK
          . Remember the Cossack shuttles.

          So on the Cossack shuttles - seagulls - spawning there was no large artillery and they didn’t use anything more serious than beggars in battles on the water.
          1. PKK
            PKK 24 July 2016 18: 29
            0
            Where did the topic of the transportation by the Cossacks of field tools on the shuttles arise? I did not give a reason. Borodino is on the heights, you need to look at which rivers.
          2. Pavel1
            Pavel1 24 July 2016 20: 07
            0
            Quote: Verdun
            Quote: PKK
            . Remember the Cossack shuttles.

            So on the Cossack shuttles - seagulls - spawning there was no large artillery and they didn’t use anything more serious than beggars in battles on the water.


            if you stand on the position of TI, that the Cossacks are "fugitive peasants", then yes, poorly armed, dressed in shantrop rags.
            It’s just not clear how this chantropa piled on the Turkish sultan during the time of the Azov Seat, or how Bogdan Khmelnitsky, the leader of this gobble, was able to reach Warsaw and take 20 Polish cities, defeat many times the strongest European army - the Polish.
            Or how the ataman Pugachev, at the head of the "fugitive peasants", was able to take several large cities of Romanov Russia, and so scared Katka and the rest of the Germans that they wanted to flee abroad. How this can be if, in addition to small-caliber, handicraft squeakers, the Cossacks have never had, it is not clear. But only the enemies of the Russian people, who are waging an information war against them, think so.
            1. Verdun
              Verdun 24 July 2016 22: 15
              -1
              Quote: Paul1
              How can this be if, in addition to small-caliber, artisanal squeals, the Cossacks never had, it is not clear. But only the enemies of the Russian people who wage an information war against him argue this way.
              My words should not be misinterpreted. I wrote that the Cossacks had nothing bigger than the beeper on their ships - Cossack gulls. What about
              , defeat many times the strongest army in Europe - the Polish.
              then don't tell my slippers. Where have you seen this "world's strongest army"? Near Grunwald, where she gave a streak until the Smolensk regiments stopped the advance of the crusaders? Or in the Battle of Warsaw, where even the allies-Tatars could not help them?
              1. Pavel1
                Pavel1 24 July 2016 23: 28
                0
                Quote: Verdun
                Near Grunwald, where she gave the striker, until the Smolensk regiments

                what time are you talking about? The Battle of Grunwald began in the 15th century, and I'm talking about the times of the Cossacks, about what you started talking about the Azov Seat — the first half of the 17th century, the Accession of Ukraine — the middle of the 17th century, the Pugachev Uprising — the 18th century. Namely in the 17th century, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was the most powerful state in Europe, respectively, and the army was powerful, but the Cossacks about whom you know nothing could defeat this Poland, but this according to TI, in real life it was not so ...
      2. Verdun
        Verdun 24 July 2016 16: 56
        +1
        Quote: Beefeater
        These are the Romans and Greeks with the Vikings moving along the rivers. You have been mad for a thousand years

        Strictly speaking, the movement along the rivers ended with the development of the cavalry. The armies, a large part of which were mounted troops, could not move along the rivers.
        1. PKK
          PKK 24 July 2016 18: 44
          0
          Horses began to appear among Cossacks from the 1770s, and by the time of the war they hadn’t gained mass.
          1. Verdun
            Verdun 24 July 2016 18: 51
            0
            Quote: PKK
            Horses began to appear among Cossacks from the 1770s, and by the time of the war they hadn’t gained mass.

            But Napoleon had it all in perfect order. Lancers, dragoons, hussars, cuirassiers ... Where to put them? And the point here is not only that transporting horses on water was not very convenient. Horses still need to be constantly fed, and not with grass, but with grain. Around the moving army, a significant part of which is the cavalry, there must constantly operate units of foragers who procure food for horses.
      3. Pavel1
        Pavel1 24 July 2016 17: 23
        -1
        Quote: Beefeater
        These are the Romans and Greeks with the Vikings moving along the rivers. You have been mad for a thousand years


        Aleksandr Makedonskov, on what "rivers" did he move, can you say?
        1. Verdun
          Verdun 24 July 2016 18: 46
          -1
          Quote: Paul1
          Aleksandr Makedonskov, on what "rivers" did he move, can you say?

          And the Romans built their famous roads solely because they preferred to move along the rivers. smile In fact, either merchants or robbers moved along the rivers (like the Vikings or the ushkuniks who lived by robbery). Merchants - because it was more convenient to transport goods over long distances in areas where it was bad with roads (for example, Russia). Vikings and ushkuniki - because it was on the rivers that rich trading cities were located, which made sense to rob. Napoleon, moving towards Moscow, hoped to give a general battle as soon as possible and, having defeated the Russian army, force Russia to peace. How could he do this by moving along the rivers?
      4. PKK
        PKK 24 July 2016 18: 33
        -2
        The Romans were before the time of Suvorov, even awarded him something appropriate.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 24 July 2016 07: 46
    +4
    The Tilsit world .. Nobody condemns Alexander I for him .. They don’t write how Russia could conclude an agreement with France .. They don’t condemn, because at that time Napoleon and Alexander divided Europe .. into their zone of interests .. But in Moscow Treaty of 1939 between the USSR and Germany .. so many stones thrown ..
    1. Gardamir
      Gardamir 24 July 2016 09: 12
      +1
      But in the Moscow Treaty of 1939 between the USSR and Germany .. so many stones were thrown ..
      the same thought is one to one.
  3. Max_Bauder
    Max_Bauder 24 July 2016 10: 42
    +4
    The Masonic sign is the all-seeing eye, like the eye of Tolkien's sauron - the source of evil and darkness, on the medal ??? Hmm ... interesting. This explains why Alexander did not go against England - he is a Mason! And perhaps Paul was killed by the Russian masses with the help of the British spies. It may also be because of the masses of leaders that the Russian Empire supported the Americans in their war for independence and the Yankees in a civil war. It looks like the US project, with its dollar, has deep and web-like world roots. It was not for nothing that France supported them as well, and the gift of Eiffel (and he was definitely a Mason) - the Statue of Liberty, the disguised ancient Greek goddess of darkness and nightmares, Hekate, another symbol of the Masons, flaunts on the shores of New York. History sheds light on many of today's events.
    1. Lyubopyatov
      Lyubopyatov 24 July 2016 13: 31
      +2
      Pavel Ι was killed by Russian Masons, bought by the British Embassy.
      1. Beefeater
        Beefeater 24 July 2016 15: 07
        +1
        Quote: Lyubopyatov
        Pavel Ι was killed by Russian Masons, bought by the British Embassy.

        Rather, bought by the Russian merchants and the landowner lobby.
    2. Beefeater
      Beefeater 24 July 2016 15: 02
      +2
      Quote: Max_Bauder
      The Masonic sign is the all-seeing eye, like the eye of Tolkien's sauron - the source of evil and darkness, on the medal ??? Hmm ... interesting. This explains why Alexander did not go against England - he is a Mason! And perhaps Paul was killed by the Russian masses with the help of the British spies.

      Russia could not confront England for one simple reason - England was Russia's largest trading partner. Bread, timber, iron went to the English market in huge quantities. Pavel, by flirting with Napoleon, undermined the Russian economy
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 24 July 2016 16: 20
        0
        Quote: Beefeater
        Russia could not confront England for one simple reason - England was Russia's largest trading partner.

        The case when I completely agree with you. In this context, I had to choose from two trading partners which one was more profitable.
  4. PKK
    PKK 24 July 2016 11: 24
    +1
    Quote: V.ic
    35 years old a new Muscovy-Tartaria arose?

    Russia is currently in conflict again with America, and 16 years have passed. 35 years are enough to gain sovereignty.
  5. Poplar505
    Poplar505 24 July 2016 12: 22
    +3
    A triangle with an eye and rays inside is a symbol of Lucifer. In St. Petersburg, Kazan Cathedral flaunts and in the Vatican, but many where else. By the way, it forms the central part of the EMERCOM emblem introduced by S.K. Shoigu.
    1. On October 4, 2013, President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin becomes a member of the Order of St. Charles, a branch of the Order of Malta for the European aristocracy,
    2. On November 25, 2013, Vladimir Putin paid a visit to Pope Francis, a member of the Jesuit Order, while the President of Russia was met by the Grand Masters of the Jerusalem and Vatican Orders, and then, surrounded by an honorary punishment, was escorted to the pope.
    On July 6, 2012, two months after the inauguration of Vladimir Putin, the governor of the Moscow Region, S.K.Shoigu, became a knight of the Order of Malta, receiving an award from the hands of the Grand Master M.Festing, and on November 6 of that year S.K. Shoigu headed the Ministry of Defense, replacing A. Serdyukov, whose task was to prepare the army and military-industrial complex for rearmament and financial recovery, eliminating the corruption of the general.
    That’s why we have such emblems.
    All this is from open sources. (Including from the Internet).
    No one is going to hide it. So it goes...
    1. Beefeater
      Beefeater 24 July 2016 15: 13
      +2
      On the emblem of the Ministry of Emergency Situations a wind rose. Such a symbol is often found. In NATO too.
      Awarding the leaders of different states with orders of higher degrees is a common practice. Brezhnev of such medals had kilograms. Probably was a freemason.
      1. Gardamir
        Gardamir 24 July 2016 15: 38
        -1
        On the EMERCOM emblem a wind rose
        look closely at the center of the eight-pointed star.
    2. Max_Bauder
      Max_Bauder 24 July 2016 21: 32
      0
      Quote: Poplar505
      No one is going to hide it. So it goes...


      Then do not be surprised at this ancient Egyptian Masonic picture smile
  6. Vladislav 73
    Vladislav 73 24 July 2016 15: 53
    +1
    some strange impression of this opus request Well, for example :
    Instead, our great strategist flopped (you can’t get another word) that surprised the whole world in May 1812, i.e. on the eve of World War II, the Bucharest Peace Agreement.
    Flopped, you know ... Apparently, according to the author, the Battle of Ruschuk, the defeat and surrender of the Turks near Slobodzeya were somewhere in one distant, distant galaxy .... request
    1. Verdun
      Verdun 24 July 2016 16: 33
      0
      Quote: Vladislav 73
      Flopped, you know ... Apparently, according to the author, the Battle of Ruschuk, the defeat and surrender of the Turks near Slobodzeya were somewhere in one distant, distant galaxy ....

      So I did not like this description of Kutuzov's actions. In general, it should be noted that "Alexander the Blessed", as some call Alexander the First, was vain and stupid. Had he listened to the ideas of Kutuzov, let Bonaparte go back to Europe and did not get further into the European showdown, the British would have been poking around with the French for a long time, and we would have had a completely different Russia.
    2. Kenxnumx
      Kenxnumx 3 July 2017 11: 12
      0
      Take the trouble to at least look at the results of this contract on a wiki. Russia returned so many points that it captured. And even so, Turkey could drag out negotiations for a long time. Kutuzov had the task to finish the negotiations faster and at least leave something behind. And he really chopped off a contract in the best sense of the word.
  7. Gvas1174
    Gvas1174 25 July 2016 09: 15
    0
    The moment when both the material and the comments were pleasing