Military Review

Sveaborg uprising of the year 1906

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Sveaborg uprising of the year 1906



110 years ago, in July 1906, there were uprisings in Sveaborg and Kronstadt. They were attended by thousands of soldiers and sailors. The garrison of the Sveaborg fortress, located on the 13 islands at the entrance to the Helsingfors harbor, numbered about 6 thousand sailors and soldiers. Among the gunners, miners and in the naval crew were many former factory workers. The Bolshevik military organization relied on them.

The situation prevailing in Finland at that time favored revolutionary work. The power of the Russian gendarme department in Helsingfors extended only to military garrisons. The Finnish Red Guard became a notable force, with over a thousand 20 in its ranks, many of whom had weapon. The Bolsheviks attached great importance to the capture of Sveaborg and Kronstadt. The uprisings in these fortresses were considered as an integral part of the general uprising of workers, soldiers and sailors in the largest centers of the country, supported by the peasant movement. The capture of the Sveaborg and Kronstadt fortresses, the uprising of the St. Petersburg workers would make it possible to turn Finland and the Baltic into the military base of the revolution. General uprising in the Baltic navy was scheduled for July 29, 1906, but in Sveaborg the uprising began prematurely.

The Bolsheviks created a fighting center for the preparation of the uprising in Sveaborg and Helsingfors, which, in addition to the employees of the Central Group of the military organization, included representatives of the Finnish Red Guard and Sveaborg serf military committee. The group of employees of the military organization that made up the “reconnaissance commission” was engaged in studying the situation and conditions for the upcoming uprising.

Most of the miners and gunners of Sveaborg, the sailors of Skatuden, a significant part of the infantrymen in Sveaborg, Helsingfors and other garrisons (Abo, Wilmanstrand, Perki-Järvi), were influenced by the Bolshevik agitation. Such phenomena as poor quality shoes, frequent searches in barracks, including at night, etc., contributed to the growth of soldiers' discontent. However, there were no favorable conditions for the uprising. Meanwhile, only depending on the general situation in the country could the issue of the date of the uprising be properly resolved. The military-technical support of the uprising was still far from over. Therefore, despite the mood of the soldiers, the Bolshevik military organization held them back. In the face of increasing provocations by the authorities, this was a difficult task. Provocations also came from the Socialist Revolutionaries, who had influence in the garrison. It was not by chance that in July 1906, a member of the Central Committee of the Socialist Revolutionary Party, the head of their military organization E. Azef, arrived in Helsingfors, who was later exposed as a major secret police agent.



The immediate reason for the beginning of the uprising was the order to stop the issuance of the so-called "wine money" to soldiers of a mine company. In response to this order, the miners refused on July 16 to put minefields on the approaches to Sveaborg, for which they were arrested. Artillerymen rose to the rescue. After a failed attempt to free a mine company, the gunners seized guns, machine guns and rifles, crossed from Lagerny Island to Mikhailovsky, from where it was more convenient to attack and defend, and on the night of July 18 they gave a signal to revolt with guns. The central group of the military organization of the RSDLP in Helsingfors tried to stop the untimely performance. The Bolsheviks argued that the uprising would be isolated, offered to postpone it at least until the fleet returned to Helsingfors, but they could not prevent the performance.

Having received news of the exacerbation of the situation in Sveaborg and the possibility of a spontaneous explosion, the Petersburg Committee of the RSDLP accepted written by V.I. Lenin's draft resolution on the urgent dispatch of a delegation to Sveaborg to clarify the situation and help the Finnish military organization. The delegation was to achieve a postponement of speech, and in case of impossibility to do it - to join the leadership of the uprising. The St. Petersburg Committee issued a directive to the districts to establish permanent duties on safe houses, so that at any time it would be possible to raise the St. Petersburg workers for a strike.

The spontaneous, poorly prepared uprising, which was started by the artillerymen, could not be prevented. The delegation sent to Sveaborg could not. The uprising was directly led by members of the committee of the Bolshevik military organization of the fortress, second lieutenants A. Yemelyanov and E. Kokhansky, soldiers and noncommissioned officers T. Delynich, M. Ivanov, P. Gerasimov, V. Tikhonov. The 8 artillery companies from 10, the Sveaborg naval company and the 20 th naval crew in Helsingfors (about 2000 people) joined it. By the morning of July 18, the rebels captured four islands. The headquarters of the uprising was on Mikhailovsky Island, which was a strong and convenient position, both for attacking the central fortress, where Commander Lyming was headquartered, and for defense.

Initiative and desperately acted special teams on the Commandant Island. Immediately after the signal for the uprising, they managed to seize an artillery arena and deliver 20 machine guns to Mikhailovsky Island with a supply of ammunition, then carried out a successful attack on the guardhouse and freed the arrested. The artillerymen tried to win over the serf infantry units guarding the headquarters of the fortress on Komendantsky island. But negotiations with them ended in a shootout. Having picked up two dead and several wounded, at night the rebel soldiers moved from Commandant to Engineering Island. On the bridge connecting the two islands, guard posts with machine guns were set up.



In the evening and night of July 17, the rebels were preparing for a decisive battle with government forces: they distributed calculations to cannons and machine guns, counted the presence of ammunition, prepared guns for shooting at the Commandant and Lagerniy islands, determined the positions of soldiers from other islands.

Lieutenant Emelyanov night went to the Central Group (Helsingfors) for instructions. It was also necessary to agree on the delivery of food and medicine. The central group took immediate action to bring sailors on the Skatuden peninsula and crews on the Emir Bukhara, Finn and other ships on alert. The naval committee was given the task of raising a rebellion in the port and on ships at the signal.

Sveaborzhtsam had to develop energetic offensive actions, paralyze the island of Lagerny, closest to Mikhailovsky, and, putting an ultimatum to the fortress headquarters for surrender, concentrate fire on the Commandant Island, where the infantry units of the fortress garrison sat down. In the garrisons of Vyborg, Wilmanstrand, Perki-Järvi, Tusbiu, the members of the group LA Vorobev and N.M. Fedorovskiy with the task of raising soldiers and starting an uprising upon receiving a conditional telegram.

On the morning of July 18, according to the conditional signal of the Central Group, a revolt was raised on the Skatuden Peninsula. The sailors, led by the naval committee, on an alarm signal seized weapons and ammunition, lined up in the courtyard of the barracks, raised a red flag in the port, arrested the officers. A squad of Red Guards (about 100 people) arrived to help the sailors. To the rebels were to join the ships. However, overnight there were big changes: all the "unreliable" sailors were locked in the holds, and the crews were brought in conductors, midshipmen and officers from other ships. Instead of the expected support, the sailors came under fire from machine guns and guns. Part of the rebels, together with the Red Guards, managed to move to the city, while others retreated to the barracks and were arrested. About five o'clock in the evening Skatuden was occupied by the royal troops.



The rebels of Sveaborg from the Artillery and Engineer Islands at dawn on 18 July opened fire on the Commandant Island from 9-pounder field guns and machine guns. The bombing was led by E. Kokhansky. Numbers of calculations worked clearly and fired accurately, as on the landfill.

By noon, he returned from Helsingfors A. Emelyanov. He brought the directive, which ordered to develop an uprising and go on the offensive. The soldiers were delighted and excited by the news of the uprising on Skatuden and help from the Finnish Red Guard. In the Mikhailovsky Fort, on the most elevated place of the fortress, a large red flag brought by Yemelyanov was raised. By this time, Mikhailovsky Island was defined as the center of the uprising. Here the main forces, the main fortifications were concentrated, from here the shelling of the headquarters of the fortress and the apartment of the commandant of Layming was made artillery. Only the shooters responded from the Commandant Island. Shootout lasted all day.

The rebels had the opportunity to seize the Commandant Island, liquidate the headquarters of government forces and isolate infantry troops, but, following expectant tactics, they postponed the assault until the arrival of the squadron. This tactic helped the government gain time and move troops with artillery and machine guns to Helsingfors and Sveaborg.

Leading the fighting, the headquarters of the uprising had to take care of food. Many fighters have not eaten for about a day. The headquarters sent the ship “Shot” to Helsingfors for food. At night, he managed to break through the area illuminated by searchlights of cruisers. It was also transported to Sveaborg around 200 Red Guards, sailors from Skatuden and Russian workers. They were armed and dispersed along the shoreline of the Mikhailovsky Island in the rear of the batteries to repel fire and infantry attacks from Lagerny Island.



On the morning of July 19, the battle broke out with a new force. At this time, government troops began to arrive in Helsingfors. The rebels did not receive reinforcements. They continued to fire at the fortress and prepared for the assault. The idea of ​​an immediate assault was especially strengthened after receiving the commandant’s response to the surrender ultimatum on the surrender, in which he threatened with cruel reprisals. In response to the threat of the commandant, the artillerymen again began the fierce bombardment of the central fortress and Lagerniy Island. Several houses caught fire, the Komendantsky Island was clouded with smoke.

But at that moment, when the rebels thought that victory was already near, an explosion of terrible power rang out on Mikhailovsky Island. One of the shells flew into the powder magazine, where the 3500 poods of gunpowder were stored. The explosion caused severe destruction and casualties. About 60 people were killed and seriously injured. Among the wounded was one of the main leaders of the uprising, Lieutenant Emelyanov.

In the 6 hours of the evening of July 19 a squadron appeared on the horizon. However, the ships did not come to the aid of the rebels, but the commandant of the fortress. As it turned out, the command was able to prevent the uprising of the squadron by decisive measures. The crews of the ships were re-equipped with midshipmen and trustworthy sailors.

Departing 11-12 km (beyond reach, artillery "rebels"), the battleship Tsesarevich and the cruiser Bogatyr fought a fierce fire on the rebels for two hours, causing great damage and causing fires. At the same time, the troops bombarded them with guns and machine guns from the Commandant, Lagerny, Aleksandrovsky and Nicholas islands.

The position of the rebels was very difficult. And yet they decided to storm the central fortress. At this time there was a new strong explosion. Ammunition exploded from a shell hit. From the assault had to be abandoned. The rebels began to once again strengthen their positions and cover the guns, resumed shelling. During 18 and 19 July, they spent on the central fortress and the ships of the squadron 646 shells and 90 thousand rounds. However, it was clear that a single bombardment could not ensure success. In addition, government forces continuously received replenishment. To continue the struggle was pointless. In the evening, the artillery duel stopped. But the machine gun and rifle shooting on both sides continued.

Late at night, the wounded Emelyanov assembled representatives of the companies on the military council. After discussing the situation, the leaders decided to stop the fight and take steps to save the lives of the participants in the uprising. Some of them in boats still broke through artillery and rifle fire into the city and the skerries. About 80 soldiers and sailors, the Bolsheviks with the help of Finnish comrades transported across the border.

On the morning of July 20, the troops who had suppressed the uprising went on the offensive and captured the position of the rebels. About 1000 uprising participants were disarmed and arrested. The uprising uprising was defeated due to a number of general and particular causes. It occurred during the recession of the revolution, was not supported by other one-time mass demonstrations. The rebels made a number of serious mistakes that precipitated their defeat.

The uprising in Kronstadt, which was initiated upon receipt of a conditional telegram from the co-liberators, was directly connected with the uprising in Sveaborg. By the summer of 1906, almost all military units of the Kronstadt garrison had Bolshevik cells and circles, battalion and regimental committees that were part of the city committee of the military organization. Since May 1906, on the instructions of the Petersburg Committee of the RSDLP, an experienced organizer D.Z. Manuilsky, who won great prestige among the soldiers and sailors. The Bolsheviks ensured the connection of soldiers and sailors with the workers of the city.

In preparing for a joint armed uprising of the workers, soldiers and sailors, the Bolsheviks fought hard against the adventurism of the Socialist-Revolutionaries, who had a fairly strong military organization in Kronstadt. But the Social Revolutionaries still managed to raise the sailors and soldiers to the uprising, which was not prepared. When the uprising became inevitable, the Bolsheviks did their best to make the performance organized. To this end, representatives of the Petersburg Committee of the RSDLP and its military organization arrived in Kronstadt. But for the remaining few hours it was difficult to do anything. It was not even possible to notify about the beginning of the uprising of the artillerymen, the serf infantry battalions, the electrical engineering company.

The uprising in Kronstadt, launched on July 19, lasted for 5-6 hours. Most of the sailors of the 1 th and 2 th naval divisions that went outside did not have a weapon - the authorities had taken it back in advance. Managed to get only 100 rifles, and those without cartridges. Having no general leadership, the sailors soon retreated to the barracks and fired back for a while. Soldiers of the minefield and the sapper company, who captured the coastal fortification "Litke" and the fort "Konstantin", were successfully operating. However, under the action of the superior forces of the consolidated detachment of government troops, the miners and sappers were forced to raise the white flag. In Kronstadt, about 300 soldiers of the mine and sapper company were arrested, about 3000 sailors.

On the night of July 20, the crew of the “Memory of Azov” cruiser standing in the bay also performed. The sailors led the cruiser to the Revel raid, hoping to establish contact with the workers and raise an uprising on the training ship "Riga". However, their intentions were not fulfilled. The cruiser crew’s speech was crushed, the sailor’s 223 was arrested.



The Bolsheviks tried to maximize the use of performances in the army and navy. July 20 The Petersburg Committee of the RSDLP received instructions from VI. Lenin on the strike to support the Kronstadt uprising. On July 21, the strike began and embraced more than 100 thousands of St. Petersburg workers. However, the uprisings in Sveaborg and Kronstadt were quickly suppressed, they did not serve as the beginning of the all-Russian uprising.

On the verdict of the military court of 28 July, the leaders of the Sveaborg uprising were shot. In August and September, four more trials of soldiers and sailors, pastors, took place. As a result, 18 people were sentenced to death, 127 were sent to penal servitude, more than 600 were sent to disciplinary battalions.

In Kronstadt, 36 people were executed, 130 was sent to hard labor, 316 was imprisoned, 935 was sent to correctional and detention centers. 18 active participants in the uprising on the cruiser "Memory of Azov" were also shot.



Sources:
Sokolov V. Military uprising in Sveaborg in 1906 year // First assault on autocracy. 1905 - 1907 years. M .: Politizdat. 1989. C. 470-503
Semenkevich N. Sveaborg M .: Voenizdat, 1966. C.118-146, 232-280.
Shigin V. The case of the “Memory of Azov”. M.: Veche, 2012. C. 77-194.
Y. Korablev. Uprising in Sveaborg and Kronstadt in July 1906. // visage 1975 No.7. C.86-91.
Kolonitsky B. The memory of the first Russian revolution in 1917: cases of Sevastopol and Helsingfors. // Emergency ration. 2009. No. 2 (64). C.37-46.
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40 comments
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  1. The comment was deleted.
  2. Bumka
    Bumka 25 July 2016 06: 35
    +12
    "Tsarist troops" - These were Russian troops who remained faithful to the oath. Preparations for the February Maidan of 1917 were in full swing.
    1. Akselruur
      Akselruur 26 July 2016 16: 29
      +1
      oh well already
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 25 July 2016 07: 26
    +8
    I remember the Sveaborg Film Festival .. Well filmed for that time ... Thanks to the author for the article ..
    1. alexej123
      alexej123 25 July 2016 23: 57
      0
      In the main Roles, in my opinion, starred V. Solomin.
  4. baudolino
    baudolino 25 July 2016 07: 39
    -1
    The impression is that I plunged into the USSR. In a bad way. The author did not call the rebels only fiery heroes. All these "fighters for a bright future", what then, what now on all sorts of Maidans, one field of berries. And now in Donbass we are raking up the legacy of these "heroes" who were destroying the country no matter what.
    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist 26 July 2016 16: 09
      0
      Think correctly. And about the article, in my opinion, I tried to constantly present the material. But why did he hide his last name?
  5. Amurets
    Amurets 25 July 2016 08: 13
    +3
    Why on earth did 620-ton destroyers suddenly become cruisers? Http: //nik191.mirtesen.ru/blog/43514287350/Eskadrennyie-minon
    ostsyi-ro
    ssiyskogo-Imperatorskogo-Flota

    << Displacement 620 t.Dimensions 72.5x8.2x2.9 m
    Armament 2 - 75 mm, 6 - 57 mm, 4 machine guns, 3 NTA 456 mm
    Since 1910 2 - 102/60, 1 - 47 mm, 3 NTA 456 mm, 20 min barrage
    Since 1915, 3 - 102/60, 1 - 40 mm (zenith.), 6 machine guns 3 NTA 456 mm
    No booking
    Mechanisms 2 vertical steam engines of triple expansion 6391 hp
    German company Schihau, 4 Schulz-Tornicroft boilers, 2 screws
    Maximum speed on tests 26.03 knots Cruising range 1050 miles. Crew of 5 officers and 86 sailors. >>
    At the same time, while suppressing the Sveaborg uprising, it was proved that the shells for the 2nd Pacific Squadron did not explode due to the waterlogged pyroxylin. But this is a different story.
    1. Moore
      Moore 25 July 2016 08: 25
      +3
      Well, yes, the Emir of Bukhara and Finn are the destroyers of the Putilov factory. They became cruisers only on this page.
      1. qwert
        qwert 25 July 2016 11: 14
        +6
        Quote: Amurets
        Why on earth did the 620-ton destroyers suddenly become cruisers?

        Quote: Moore
        Well, yes, the Emir of Bukhara and Finn are the destroyers of the Putilov factory. They became cruisers only on this page.

        You need to be more careful, colleagues, before clever.
        Mine CRUISERS type "Finn"... After October 10, 1907, they were reclassified as destroyers. A total of 4 ships of this type were built: "Finn", "Emir Bukharsky", "Volunteer", "Moskovityanin". Given that the article deals with the events of 1906 (which means until October 10, 1907), then the author is right in classifying them as at that time as a cruiser !!!!
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 25 July 2016 12: 48
          0
          Quote: qwert
          You need to be more careful, colleagues, before clever.
          Mine CRUISERS type "Finn". After October 10, 1907, they were reclassified as destroyers.

          I expected such a development of the plot, so I looked at what I have on this topic. R.M. Melnikov's ships are like destroyers and destroyers. I have no reason to doubt your information, I just have no other information. in 1907 the ships were reclassified, I know. The quote above is from Melnikov's book "Volunteer class destroyers."
        2. Moore
          Moore 27 July 2016 05: 45
          0
          Quote: qwert
          You need to be more attentive, colleagues, before being clever. Mine CRUISERS type "Finn".

          If you read in the book "The elephant fell on the unsuspecting Masha ...", you will not feel that the author has missed some definition in relation to the elephant? For example, that he is a toy?
        3. The comment was deleted.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 25 July 2016 13: 00
      +4
      Quote: Amurets
      Why on earth did the 620-ton destroyers suddenly become cruisers?

      For the reason that destroyer The 620-ton ship in 1906 cannot be called.

      According to the classification of that time, "destroyers" are small carriers of torpedoes with a displacement of 80-180 tons.
      Next came "destroyer fighters" (tracing paper from the British destroyer) in 200-350 tons.
      And behind them - mine cruisers of 350-600 tons. The "Finn", "Emir of Bukhara" and other large mine ships were classified as mine cruisers.
      It was only with the introduction in 1907 of a new classification that mine cruisers "moved" to the destroyer class (and the former fighters became destroyers).
  6. qwert
    qwert 25 July 2016 08: 15
    +4
    Quote: Bumka
    "Tsarist troops" - These were Russian troops who remained faithful to the oath.

    Why do you put any other meaning into the phrase "Tsarist troops"? To me, "tsarist troops" sound the same as "Soviet troops". A fairly stable phrase that has become familiar over the years.
    Quote: baudolino
    Only the author of the rebels did not name the fiery heroes.

    So the Technician Engineer in the article simply outlined historical events. In sufficient detail, without imposing our assessments on those events. That's why I love his articles on controversial historical moments, that, unlike many, he does not try to impose his opinion on us, which often suffers from some authors. By the way, this is the so-called "golden rule", which, as Americans say, the news media programs should adhere to - to give information, and the viewer (listener, reader) should make the conclusions themselves, although the Americans themselves, and our media never follow this rule , but impose their opinion.
    Therefore, the article is a plus. A filmets, I generally download. Especially given the participation of the Finns.
  7. Lieutenant Teterin
    Lieutenant Teterin 25 July 2016 08: 44
    +6
    The article is informative. Reading it, you understand - it’s a pity that all the Bolshevik and Socialist-Revolutionary provocateurs were not identified then, because a lot of blood was shed through their fault.
    1. Blackgrifon
      Blackgrifon 25 July 2016 18: 23
      +4
      And they were not particularly identified - the legislation was then extremely liberal. Suffice it to recall how the trials of the "revolutionaries" ended and the congratulations of the Japanese emperor on the victory in the Tsushima battle from St. Petersburg students. And this in the face of the colossal terror that was waged against the police, army officers and trustworthy citizens. So yes, the tsarist government greatly underestimated the internal enemy and it is not surprising that the tsar was first overthrown by the financial-aristocratic clique that passionately wanted power, and then by the Bolsheviks.

      Quote: timyr
      the authorities could not and did not want

      Just the same reforms the authorities carried out. The country was developing very fast (oddly enough - economically and productively), so already before the WWII there were plans for the reform of education and health. And the army was actively changing before the war - it is a pity no one then could imagine what this war would be like - everyone was sure of its transience.
      She didn’t want to weaken the power of the emperor, and as it turned out later - not in vain - it cost only one of the "for all good and against all bad" to get the post of Minister of Internal Affairs, so control over the situation was finally lost.
    2. Akselruur
      Akselruur 26 July 2016 16: 33
      +3
      Do not mistake Mr. Sir. people to revolt always hold power provoking themselves.
  8. timyr
    timyr 25 July 2016 09: 38
    +7
    Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
    The article is informative. Reading it, you understand - it’s a pity that all the Bolshevik and Socialist-Revolutionary provocateurs were not identified then, because a lot of blood was shed through their fault.

    Yes, the sense is, well, they would have revealed, they were shot. It would not help. The Russian Empire was sick. Reforms had to be carried out, but the authorities could not and did not want to. In the village in 1905-1907 almost all started plants, in 10 years a new generation grew again.
  9. Berkut24
    Berkut24 25 July 2016 10: 36
    0
    The Bolsheviks tried to maximize the use of performances in the army and navy

    On the verdict of the military court of 28 July, the leaders of the Sveaborg uprising were shot. In August and September, four more trials of soldiers and sailors, pastors, took place. As a result, 18 people were sentenced to death, 127 were sent to penal servitude, more than 600 were sent to disciplinary battalions.

    In Kronstadt, 36 people were executed, 130 was sent to hard labor, 316 was imprisoned, 935 was sent to correctional and detention centers. 18 active participants in the uprising on the cruiser "Memory of Azov" were also shot.


    And Vladimir Ilyich retired to Europe on vacation to write theoretical articles. I recognize the handwriting of the "Marxist-Leninists". All means are good to seize power, no one counted human lives.
  10. Basil50
    Basil50 25 July 2016 10: 52
    +7
    Some comments are written just like members of a noble assembly. The impoverishment of the peasantry and regular hunger pushed the peasants to speak, and HOW the speeches were suppressed did not lend popularity to the Tsar. At the same time, the causes of impoverishment and hunger were not eliminated. Ask about * buybacks *, a lot of interesting pops up.
    And in the Navy and in the army almost legalized theft, under the high patronage of the Grand Dukes. At the same time, they did not hesitate to impose * kickbacks * on officers' salaries. It was Grand Prince theft that later gave the leaders of February 1917 a moral justification * of the rrrevolution *, and the seizure of power.
    1. Berkut24
      Berkut24 25 July 2016 11: 23
      +4
      And you did not read how the peasant uprisings were suppressed by the Bolsheviks?
      For example, the uprising of 1920-1921. in the Tambov region?
      On April 27, 1921, the Politburo of the Central Committee of the RCP (B.) Appointed M.N. Tukhachevsky as commander of the troops of the Tambov province, I.P. Uborevich as his deputy, and N.E. Kakurina as chief of staff. G.I.Kotovsky was also sent to the Tambov region, G.G. Yagoda and V.V. Ulrich were sent from the Cheka. Tukhachevsky received a directive - to liquidate the Tambov uprising no later than within a month.

      The order of the Plenipotentiary Commission of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee on the beginning of repressive measures against individual bandits and their families sheltering

      N 171, Tambov
      11th of June 1921

      To the commissions of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
      Starting from June 1, a decisive fight against banditry gives a quick reassurance of the region. Soviet power is gradually being restored, and the laboring peasantry is moving to peaceful and quiet work. Antonov’s gang was defeated by decisive actions of our troops, scattered and caught separately.
      In order to permanently eradicate the Socialist-Revolutionary gang roots and, in addition to previously issued orders, the Plenipotentiary Commission of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee
      orders:
      1. Citizens who refuse to give their name, shoot on the spot without trial.
      2. For the villages where the weapons are hiding, the authorities of the political committee or the district political committee shall pronounce the verdict on the seizure of hostages and shoot them in case of non-delivery of weapons.
      3. In the case of finding the hidden weapon to shoot on the spot without a trial, the senior employee in the family.
      4. The family in whose house the bandit took refuge is subject to arrest and expulsion from the province, her property is confiscated, a senior worker in this family is shot without trial.
      5. Families that harbor family members or property of gangsters are treated as gangsters, and the senior employee of this family is shot on the spot without trial.
      6. In the event that the gangster’s family escapes, distribute the property among the peasants loyal to Soviet power and burn or dismantle the houses they left behind.
      7. This order is enforced severely and mercilessly.

      Chairman of the Plenipotentiary Commission of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee Antonov-Ovseenko
      Commander Tukhachevsky
      Chairman of the Executive Committee Lavrov
      Secretary Vasiliev

      ORDER
      Commander of the troops of the Tambov province No. 0116 / operational-secret

      Tambov

      12th of June 1921

      The remnants of the broken gangs and individual bandits who fled from the villages where Soviet power was restored, gather in the forests and from there raid civilians.
      FOR IMMEDIATE CLEANING OF FORESTS I ORDER:

      1. Forests where bandits are hiding should be cleaned with poisonous gases, precisely calculated so that a cloud of suffocating gases spreads completely throughout the forest, destroying everything that was hidden in it.

      2. The artillery inspector should immediately bring in the required number of toxic gas cylinders and the right specialists.

      3. The commanders of the battle areas persistently and vigorously carry out this order.

      4. Report on measures taken.

      Commander Tukhachevsky
      Chief of Staff of the General Staff Kakurin
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 25 July 2016 13: 07
        +3
        Quote: Berkut24
        1. Forests where bandits are hiding should be cleaned with poisonous gases, precisely calculated so that a cloud of suffocating gases spreads completely throughout the forest, destroying everything that was hidden in it.
        2. The artillery inspector should immediately bring in the required number of toxic gas cylinders and the right specialists.
        3. The commanders of the battle areas persistently and vigorously carry out this order.
        4. Report on measures taken.

        But this order only remained a paper order.
        Gas cylinders were filed - but to the warehouse. They were not taken to places or used for fear of poisoning their own troops. For in the entire Red Army, only on the Northern Front, General Samoilo had an excellent chemical preparation (which was facilitated by the British regularly using toxic substances).
        Chemical shells were brought in and used several times. Result - live and healthy tethered horses were found at the site of the shelling. However, this is not surprising - for the filler of chemical shells was chloropicrin, well known and tested on itself by all those who served in the army - which was used and is being used to test gas masks.
        1. Berkut24
          Berkut24 25 July 2016 13: 20
          0
          Here, please be careful with the facts.
          Documentary evidence has been preserved regarding the use of chemical weapons. In particular, in the diary of the combat operations of the artillery battalion of the Zavolzhsky Military District brigade, it was recorded that on July 13, 1921, three-inch grenades — 160, shrapnel — 69, chemical grenades — were consumed in battle. Go combat site, that when shelling the island on Lake Kipets released 47 shrapnel, 3 grenades and 6 chemical shells. According to some studies, the chemical shells used by the Bolsheviks in May-June 65 led to the deaths of not only the rebels, but also the civilian population.

          What I mean ... Compare the methods regarding the "tsarist army" !!! And this is a reprisal against those whom the Bolsheviks were so eager to protect!
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 25 July 2016 15: 55
            0
            Quote: Berkut24
            Documentary evidence has been preserved regarding the use of chemical weapons. In particular, in the diary of the combat operations of the artillery battalion of the Zavolzhsky Military District brigade, it was recorded that on July 13, 1921, three-inch grenades — 160, shrapnel — 69, chemical grenades — were consumed in battle. Go combat site, that when shelling the island on Lake Kipets released 47 shrapnel, 3 grenades and 6 chemical shells.

            These are the very chloropicrin shells.
            And operations with their application documented only 3:
            The first episode occurred in the zone of the 2nd combat unit. After receiving the chemical shells sent, the commander of the ZVO Smok legdiv (who also performed the duties of launching), with his next report on the movement of ammunition, informed Inspector Kasinov that “... 13 chemical shells were used up for the period July 20–15 ...”
            (...)
            On July 16, the start of 6 Rodov reported to Inspector Kasinov: “... July 14, 22 hours, a Belgorod horse battery fired at a forest south of Lake Ilmen. Issued 7 shrapnel and 50 chemical shells ... "
            (...)
            The first and perhaps the only operation where gas bombardment was planned in advance was the cleaning of the Parevsky forest, which was carried out during the period from August 1 to August 10, 1921 by forces of the units of the 6th combat unit.

            The artillery of the brigade of the Zavolzhsky Military District is troubled - there are too many errors in the documents on this formation, nonexistent people and formations, as well as anachronisms.

            And with gas cylinders there was a case typical for the army. In the spring of 1921 in the Red Army there were only three chemical units capable of conducting gas attacks. Of these, only one - a separate chimrot - could be transferred to the area of ​​the uprising. According to the papers, this was a warhead ... exactly until the command received a report sent to the company with a gas engineer inspection: 11 points, the last of which sounded like an epitaph:
            11. The company does not have any military chemical weapons; chemical reconnaissance and meteorological observations are not conducted ...
            (...)
            Due to the foregoing, namely: constant outfits and lack of command personnel and uniforms, training sessions are not conducted, people are completely untrained, and the chemical production unit in relation to gas fighting is absolutely unprepared and not combat ready. Gas engineer V. Puskov

            As a result, the company was sent to the Moscow Military District.
            1. Lekov L
              Lekov L 25 July 2016 16: 54
              +2
              Chloropicrin irritates the skin and mucous membranes. It causes lacrimation, eyelid closure, bronchitis and pulmonary edema. The strongest uncontrollable convulsions of the muscles of the diaphragm begin in the affected. Liquid chloropicrin causes severe skin lesions.
              For most people, the concentration of 0,002 mg / l over 3 — 30 s causes lacrimation and closure of the eyelids, the concentration of 0,05 mg / l is intolerable. Higher concentrations lead to stomach pain, vomiting and loss of consciousness. A concentration of about 0,2 mg / l for a few seconds or minutes leads to a complete loss of combat capability.
              Damage to the respiratory system appears at a concentration above 0,1 mg / l. As a lethal concentration, 2 mg / l is indicated with an exposure of 10 min. With such a concentration, death occurs within a few minutes....
              Chloropicrin fumes have strong tears, and in high concentrations, they have a choking and poisonous effect. In this regard, chloropicrin was limitedly applied in the First World War as chemical agent ...

              Due to the annoying effect and ease of handling, chloropicrin is used as a training (imitation of gas attack) and verification testing of chemical protection of agents. For this in the army tent moderate amount of flacrin, about 50 ml is heated in a water bath
              ...
              The whole thing as always in terms and concentration.
              And, compatriots!
              Do not swear. For all of us our story.
              She must be known and treated with respect.
              Argue one thing for the sake of truth, and you do not need to swear ..
              Now, it seems to me, all of us will have relatives on both sides of that Civilian.
              The blood of descendants mixed up.
              Regards .. to you, gentlemen and comrades!
              And to our and your ancestors!
            2. Berkut24
              Berkut24 25 July 2016 18: 58
              0
              I basically repeat that. I wrote about the Tambov story only so that it would be possible to compare the methods of suppressing uprisings under the Bolsheviks and what happened in Sveaborg. To whom this comparison is not enough, you can read more about the events in Novocherkassk in 1962.
              Compared to what was done under the communists, Nicholas II in 1906 was a liberal and a humanist.
              You can love the Bolsheviks in a hickey and hate the Romanov monarchy. But events must be considered in comparison and taking into account the time at which they took place. History - it is as it is. It must be remembered, and treat it not biased as a fact, and not put a minus sign just because there was a break in the head in the template. But I can put minus signs. I allow and no offense.
              1. Rastas
                Rastas 25 July 2016 20: 39
                +1
                Mr. nobleman, listen to the worker-peasant man, never Nikolay 2 was a humanist. In February 17th, he sent General Ivanov against Petrograd, only then the misfire came out - the soldiers refused to shoot at their people. In the first Russian revolution, exactly as much blood was shed as was needed to suppress. By the way, and until January 1905, blood was shed. The events in Zlatoust in March 1903, for example, where 69 workers died.
              2. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA 26 July 2016 10: 46
                +1
                Quote: Berkut24
                I basically repeat that. I wrote about the Tambov story only so that it would be possible to compare the methods of suppressing uprisings under the Bolsheviks and what happened in Sveaborg. To whom this comparison is not enough, you can read more about the events in Novocherkassk in 1962.

                And you can still read about the methods of suppressing peasant uprisings in 1905-1907.
                ... to immediately destroy, by force of arms of the rebels, and in case of resistance, to burn their homes ... Arrests now do not reach the goal: it is impossible to judge hundreds and thousands of people

                Those villages and villages whose inhabitants allow themselves any kind of violence against private economies and lands will be fired by artillery fire, which will cause destruction of houses and fires
          2. Rastas
            Rastas 25 July 2016 20: 33
            +3
            Gentlemen, noble monarchists, I don’t understand something. You shout that the Socialist-Revolutionaries needed to be hanged, or you reproach the Bolsheviks for the suppression of the Tambov uprising, at the head of which the Social Revolutionaries stood. You, gentlemen, noble monarchists, do not cling to the Tambov uprising. It appeared quite under Soviet slogans and the peasants were not going to return the land to the former owners.
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    3. qwert
      qwert 25 July 2016 11: 28
      +6
      Quote: Vasily50
      Some comments are written just like members of a noble assembly.
      Join
      Quote: Vasily50
      And Vladimir Ilyich retired to Europe on vacation to write theoretical articles. I recognize the handwriting of the "Marxist-Leninists". All means are good to seize power, no one counted human lives.
      Duc, the Bolsheviks were trying to just stop the uprising. And then, when they realized that it had nevertheless begun and could not be stopped, we went there to head it. Sorry, this is not a vacation at all, but quite the opposite. They knew that suppression would be suppressed, they knew that leaders would be judged and, most likely, given a tower. And let's go. No, gentlemen, you cannot measure those Bolsheviks according to the current democrats in any way. Others were people, they strove for something else, they had other values. And to measure them by today's grabbers and hangers-on is from the evil one ....
      1. Basil50
        Basil50 25 July 2016 16: 32
        +2
        About the Tambov uprising * peasant * can only be written with a hangover or being * a democrat *. WHAT * the rebels * started with is called sadism. Teachers and doctors were brutally tortured, along with their families, and then they took up those who could profit, the * former * and the merchants. The Antonov brothers never peasant, like their closest * accomplices *.
        1. Rastas
          Rastas 25 July 2016 20: 43
          +3
          It touches me more that the gentlemen, the noblemen, attribute the monarchical color to the Tambov uprising. Like, if against the Bolsheviks, then it’s necessary for the tsar-priest. For example, one of the slogans read: "Long live the Soviet government on the platform of the October Revolution!" Well, the tsar father would probably be glad. They even refused the help of the Mammothites, since they were not on the way with the whites.
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      3. Basil50
        Basil50 25 July 2016 16: 34
        0
        the door.
        Please do not * me * supplement * and ascribe to me the unwritten.
      4. Rivares
        Rivares 25 July 2016 18: 48
        0
        Quote: qwert
        Duc, the Bolsheviks were trying to just stop the uprising. And then, when they realized that it had nevertheless begun and could not be stopped, we went there to head it.

        Straight Jewish wisdom. You can’t stop an uncomfortable phenomenon - then head it ...
  11. Aleksander
    Aleksander 25 July 2016 12: 15
    +1
    In August - September, four more trials of soldiers and sailors - Sveaborzhians took place, as a result of which 18 people were sentenced to death,
    36 people were executed in Kronstadt,

    A total of 50 people were executed and this is from 6 thousand traitors oath и Finnish separatists! What did you do with those in 1941? They destroyed it completely and did it right.

    And these unfinished pardons again crawled out after 11 years and they already did not stand on ceremonyIt’s enough to remember which Wild brutality the REAL Kronstad uprising (and not the ridiculous speech mentioned in the article) was crushed by the red beast: MEMBERS of the rebels were taken hostage, thousands of participants in the uprising were shot and RESIDENTS of Kronshtadt, 6 thousand were exiled to concentration camps, almost the entire population of the city was evicted.
    It was impossible to treat the traitors in 1906 so gently, this led to much greater casualties later ...
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  13. alexej123
    alexej123 26 July 2016 00: 14
    +1
    And I was surprised by something else - the reason was not the payment of "wine money" by a part of the garrison. And then it whirled, carried away. That is, part of the rebels began to shoot at their colleagues because they did not drink as much as they were used to? Yes.
  14. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 26 July 2016 09: 13
    0
    I read the article and comments late yesterday. I couldn’t write anything --- such difficult events. Some time before I saw a TV show on the History channel about the mutiny in Kronstadt. It roughly coincides with what is written here. Among our friends there is a descendant of the rebellion, and such stories have survived in his family.
    At the same time, among my ancestors, there are revolutionary red sailors, it is known that one of them participated in the storming of the Winter Palace.