From the first days of the occupation of Belarus, a partisan movement developed in the rear of the enemy, which was gaining ever wider scope by day. The struggle of the Soviet patriots took a massive character. By the beginning of 1943, 512 of partisan detachments, which united more than 56, thousand partisans, were active in Belarus.
People's avengers attacked enemy objects and garrisons, smashed police stations, in a tense struggle expelled the fascists from settlements, sometimes winning back whole areas where they restored Soviet power. These territories, liberated by partisans in the rear of the enemy troops, were called partisan zones and territories.
The guerrilla zone included settlements of one or several regions, the territory of which was maintained and controlled by the partisans, and organs and institutions of Soviet power were restored there. Guerrilla edge united two partisan zones and more. Since the autumn of 1941, such partisan zones have appeared in the Polesye, Mogilev and Minsk regions. The edges began to form on the basis of partisan zones since the winter of 1942 / 1943; the largest number was in 1943.
In September, the Red October guerrilla unit of the Hero of the Soviet Union, F. I. Pavlovsky, defeated strongholds, police stations and small garrisons in the 11 villages of Oktyabrsky and Glusky districts of Polesia region, and by the end of the year freed them from occupants. In the first half of 1942, the partisan detachments of F.I. Pavlovsky, I.G. Zhulegi, A.T. Mikhailovsky, A.F. Kovalenko, and others were almost completely cleared of the occupiers of the territory of Kopatkevichi and partially of Petrikovsky, Domanovichi, Parichsky, Zhitkovichsky areas. As a result, the October partisan zone was formed in Polesie. Its center was the village Rudobelka Oktyabrsky district.
In October 1941, the creation of the Klichevsky partisan zone was started in the Mogilev region. Guerrillas, led by I. 3. Izokhoy, defeated a number of fascist garrisons and liberated several settlements. Until the spring of 1942, by the partisan detachments of I.3. Izokhi, V.P. Svistunova, P.V. Syrtsova was completely liberated from the enemy Klichevsky and partially Berezinsky, Kirovsky, Mogilyevsky, Belynichsky, Bobruysky, Osipovichsky districts. There was an extensive Klichev guerrilla zone with a population of about 120 thousand people.
In the Minsk region to the beginning of 1942, the Luban partisan zone was formed. At first, it included part of the Lyuban and Starobinsky districts, and by the autumn of the same year, the territory of the zone expanded. Starodorozhsky, Slutsk, Gressky, Uzda, Krasnoslobodsky and Kopyl districts were partially freed from the Germans. The center of the zone was located on Vyslav Island in the Zagalsky Village Council of the Lyubansky District.
Surazhskaya, Rossonsko-Osveyskaya, Ushachskaya, Polotsko-Syrotinskaya partisan zones were formed in the Vitebsk region. The creation of the Surazh partisan zone began in February 1942. It included the Surazh district (except the Surazh district center), part of the Mekhovsky, Gorodok, Vitebsk and Liozno districts; liberated from the Nazis, the territory was about 3000 square. km The zone was located in the Surazh-Vitebsk-Gorodok-Usvyati quadrilateral, near the front line. She was being held by the 1-I Belorussian partisan brigade, commanded by M.F. Shmyrev (Old Man Minai) and some other partisan brigades.
In the summer of 1942, the Rossony-Osveisk partisan zone was formed, which included the entire territory of the Rosson and Osveisk districts and a large part of the Driessensk region. The center of the zone was located in the district center of the Rossony. In the same period Ushachsky partisan zone was created. Already by the autumn of 1942, the partisan brigade commanded by F. F. Dubrovsky, together with other detachments, won the Ushachsky district, large parts of the Lepel and Vetrinsky districts, and a part of the Plissky, Beshenkovichsky and Chashniki districts. By the end of the summer of 1942, the Polotsk-Syrotinsky zone was formed, which included almost the entire Syrotinsky district and part of the territory of the Polotsk, Mekhovsky, Rossony districts, the Vitebsk region and an insignificant part of the Nevelsky district, the Kalinin region. The center of the partisan zone was located in the village of Zuyevo, the Sirotinsky District, where the headquarters of the S. Korotkin brigade was stationed.
In June 1942, the Chechersk Partisan Zone finally formed in the Gomel Region, which included 103 settlements of five districts: Chechersk, Svetilovichsky, Kormyansky Gomel (81 populated area), Krasnopolsky district of Mogilev (11 settlements), Krasnogorsky district of Orlovsk region. areas. The zone occupied an area around 11 square. km
Guerrilla groups commanded by A.P. Savitsky (Petrovich), V.3. Korzh (Komarov), and the name of N.T. Shisha in the first days of September 1942, the enemy garrison, located in the town of Lenin, Pinsk region, was destroyed, and then almost the entire Leninsky district was liberated from the enemy. Here was formed the first partisan zone of Western Belarus.
Thus, during the year, from October 1941 of the year to November of 1942, the 9 of extensive partisan zones was formed in the enemy's rear in the occupied Belarusian territory: 8 in the eastern part of the republic and 1 in the western part. The predominance of partisan zones in the eastern part of the republic is explained by the wide development of the partisan movement here.
12 June 1942 of the German security police and SD reported on partisan activities in Belarus: “Large partisan groups are active in the areas of Berezino, Bobruisk, Gomel, Pochep, Shirgatino, Vitebsk, Lepel, Surazh ... These partisan groups have developed a lot of activity. .. In a number of areas, the partisans established the Soviet government and created permanent directorates ... "Naturally, the German command was not going to put up with the loss of entire areas of major operational and tactical and economic importance, matters Lo everything possible to drive out the partisans and destroy them. For this purpose, various military actions were undertaken (raids on individual points, large punitive expeditions, often with the participation of front-line military units). As a result, the guerrillas could not always keep under their control all the settlements of their zone. Sometimes the guerrilla forces under the influence of superior enemy forces had to temporarily leave the conquered areas and go to other places. But then they returned to their zones again. Attempts by the enemy to eliminate partisan zones remained unsuccessful.
The partisan detachments bravely defended the territory reclaimed from the invaders, disrupted the fascist attempts to penetrate the liberated areas. In the partisan zone, at the direction of the headquarters of the partisan formations, a separate sector of defense was assigned to each detachment, which it was obliged to hold. On important areas, the partisans built defensive fortifications (they built bunkers, dug trenches, communication lines, made rubble, destroyed bridges on the roads). At the remote approaches to the partisan zones, sentinel posts were set up, and well-armed partisan groups were on duty around the enemy’s likely approach. In addition, guerilla reconnaissance forces have always been at the forefront of the defense, as well as beyond its borders. This excluded the sudden appearance of the enemy. The patrols and the ambulance groups on duty were the first to take the battle and ensure the partisan leadership could push the main forces to the dangerous area.
The fighting had to be conducted almost daily, often at different sites simultaneously. For example, D. Raitsev's squadron from 20 to 27 on June 1942 participated in 14 battles with superior enemy forces attempting to penetrate settlements of the Surazh zone. Partisan detachments named after Chapaev and Shish, as well as under the command of Korzh 4 of the day (5-8 of November 1942) fought fierce battles with the Nazis in the village of Baranova Gora, Leninsky district of the Pinsk region for the retention of the liberated territory. Both groups of the enemy suffered losses and retreated. There are many similar examples.
It must also be said that the partisan units and detachments that provide control in the rear of the Germans over a significant territory, fought not only a positional defensive struggle. The partisan zones served as a base from which the partisan forces carried out offensive operations. Subversive and subversive groups, combat detachments, specially formed units of several detachments went hundreds of kilometers away from their main base for conducting major combat operations. We give some typical examples.
The subversive group of the partisan detachment N. B. Khrapko (October partisan zone) 8 of May 1942 of the year in the section Zhlobin - Mozyr blew up the enemy train from 68 wagons with ammunition and infantry. Guerrillas detachment D.F. Raitsev, located in the Surazh zone, 28 June 1942 blasted two bridges: one across the river Lugesyanka, the second on the road in the region of Putilovo.
The 1st Belorussian partisan brigade, deployed in the Surazh zone, conducted 1942 military operations in early 50. Its units during the same period derailed four enemy trains, thirteen bridges, destroyed more than 25 vehicles with cargo and German soldiers, knocked out three tank... Fighters of the 2nd partisan Belarusian brigade, based in the Surazh zone, on the night of July 15, 1942, defeated the fascist garrison at the Bychikha railway station. In this battle, the partisans blew up a warehouse with fuels and lubricants and 4 cars with communication equipment, 5 bridges, damaged the roadbed and wire communication lines, and also captured rich trophies. The same brigade from February 18 to July 18, 1942 carried out 9 raids on enemy garrisons, destroyed 3 tanks, 2 tankettes, 30 vehicles, blew up 9 depots with ammunition and fuel and lubricants, 36 bridges, 18 bunkers. On September 7, 1942, the joint forces of the detachments of the 2nd and 4th Belarusian partisan brigades (Surazh and Polotsk-Sirotinskaya zones) destroyed the enemy's Yezerishchensky garrison. Partisan detachments S.A. Mazur and I. 3. Isoha (Klichev partisan zone) on the night of September 9, 1942 blew up a railway bridge on the Nacha River, west of the Krupki railway station, Minsk region, located on the main communication of the Nazis Minsk-Orsha.
On the territory liberated from the Germans, the command of the partisan formations, relying on the population, restored the organs of Soviet power. It is worth emphasizing that in the partisan zones of Belarus, along with the Soviet authorities (district executive committees, village councils), the command of partisan brigades and detachments played an important role. District executive committees, village councils were restored in the districts of the Oktyabrskaya, Lyubanskaya, Surazhskaya, Checherskaya, Klichevskaya, and partisan zones. In Ushacha, Rossonsko-Osveyskoy, Polotsk-Sirotinskoye, Leninskoy zones, in a number of areas of the October, Lyubanskaya, Klichevskaya, Surazhskaya, Chechersk partisan zones, the pre-war authorities were not restored. Their functions were carried out by the command of the partisan units and detachments, and appointed by the partisan command from the local population and partisans by the authorized representatives of the village soviet, partisan commandants, partisan elders.
In some settlements, where conditions allowed, the work of industrial and domestic enterprises resumed - power plants, mills, shoemakers, sewing, armory workshops, bakeries, creameries, laundries, baths, etc. Exceptionally great attention was paid to agricultural work. Collective farms did not revive in the partisan zones. The peasants jointly solved many production issues, helped each other in work, but under war conditions they did not conduct the entire economy on a collective basis. In 1942, spring sowing and harvesting, winter sowing were carried out by individual peasant farms. Soviet bodies, the command of partisan formations assisted the peasants in carrying out agricultural work, allocated people, carts, horses, organized the work of forges, put up barriers to ensure safety. The peasants also set up observation posts themselves.
The commissars of the partisan formations carried out extensive agitation and political work with the population of the partisan zones. For agitators and propagandists were fixed specific settlements. For example, the agitators of the 1 Belorussian partisan brigade in August 1942 of the year covered political mass work about 3000 people. The agitators of the Death to Fascism brigade in October 1942 conducted political work in 328 settlements of Ushachsky, Vetrinsky, Polotsk, Beshenkovichsky districts.
Artistic propaganda collectives, amateur art circles of brigades and detachments also carried out cultural and educational work among the population. In some settlements of the Vitebsk region, films were even screened. In the fall of 1942, schools were opened in the settlements of the Oktyabrskaya, Lyuban, Surazh partisan zones.
One of the most important tasks facing the partisan command was to save the population from the atrocities of the invaders and hijacking into fascist slavery. Partisans guarded the population and provided assistance during blockades, punitive expeditions, and enemy raids aviation. Women and children went from the partisan airfields to the Soviet rear. Residents of the partisan zones, in turn, showed exceptional concern for their defenders. They not only supplied the partisans with food, but also participated in the construction of fortifications, airfields, helped the partisans to obtain intelligence, took care of the wounded. At the expense of representatives of the local population, the ranks of partisans replenished.
Great help from the Red Army was carried out by the population of the partisan zones: the residents collected money for the defense of the motherland, for the construction of air squadrons and tank columns, participated in government loans, harvested bread, potatoes and fodder. For example, from the Surazhsky and Mekhovsky districts in the spring of 1942, it was sent to the country's defense fund for almost 75 000 rubles. bonds and 18039 rub. in cash. From partisan areas near the front line, for the Red Army, horses and vehicles were sent, young people of military age were sent to the Great Land. In the spring of 1942, only from Surazhsky and Mekhovsky districts, 5000 people joined the army.
The partisan zones, formed as a result of fierce battles with the fascists, were the support bases of the partisans and the Soviet power in the enemy rear. They were a kind of rear for the partisans. It housed guerrilla airfields, which were delivered weapons, ammunition, explosives, medicines and other goods. Individual groups and detachments pursued by punishers came here, not only from other regions of Belarus, but also from the territory of Ukraine, Russia, and the Baltic states. From here they made combat raids.
The formation of partisan zones in the deep enemy rear and their retention is one of the bright pages of the heroic struggle of the Belarusian people during the war years.
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