Military Review

Belarusian partisan regions and zones 1941-1942.

32



From the first days of the occupation of Belarus, a partisan movement developed in the rear of the enemy, which was gaining ever wider scope by day. The struggle of the Soviet patriots took a massive character. By the beginning of 1943, 512 of partisan detachments, which united more than 56, thousand partisans, were active in Belarus.

People's avengers attacked enemy objects and garrisons, smashed police stations, in a tense struggle expelled the fascists from settlements, sometimes winning back whole areas where they restored Soviet power. These territories, liberated by partisans in the rear of the enemy troops, were called partisan zones and territories.

The guerrilla zone included settlements of one or several regions, the territory of which was maintained and controlled by the partisans, and organs and institutions of Soviet power were restored there. Guerrilla edge united two partisan zones and more. Since the autumn of 1941, such partisan zones have appeared in the Polesye, Mogilev and Minsk regions. The edges began to form on the basis of partisan zones since the winter of 1942 / 1943; the largest number was in 1943.

In September, the Red October guerrilla unit of the Hero of the Soviet Union, F. I. Pavlovsky, defeated strongholds, police stations and small garrisons in the 11 villages of Oktyabrsky and Glusky districts of Polesia region, and by the end of the year freed them from occupants. In the first half of 1942, the partisan detachments of F.I. Pavlovsky, I.G. Zhulegi, A.T. Mikhailovsky, A.F. Kovalenko, and others were almost completely cleared of the occupiers of the territory of Kopatkevichi and partially of Petrikovsky, Domanovichi, Parichsky, Zhitkovichsky areas. As a result, the October partisan zone was formed in Polesie. Its center was the village Rudobelka Oktyabrsky district.

In October 1941, the creation of the Klichevsky partisan zone was started in the Mogilev region. Guerrillas, led by I. 3. Izokhoy, defeated a number of fascist garrisons and liberated several settlements. Until the spring of 1942, by the partisan detachments of I.3. Izokhi, V.P. Svistunova, P.V. Syrtsova was completely liberated from the enemy Klichevsky and partially Berezinsky, Kirovsky, Mogilyevsky, Belynichsky, Bobruysky, Osipovichsky districts. There was an extensive Klichev guerrilla zone with a population of about 120 thousand people.

In the Minsk region to the beginning of 1942, the Luban partisan zone was formed. At first, it included part of the Lyuban and Starobinsky districts, and by the autumn of the same year, the territory of the zone expanded. Starodorozhsky, Slutsk, Gressky, Uzda, Krasnoslobodsky and Kopyl districts were partially freed from the Germans. The center of the zone was located on Vyslav Island in the Zagalsky Village Council of the Lyubansky District.

Belarusian partisan regions and zones 1941-1942.


Surazhskaya, Rossonsko-Osveyskaya, Ushachskaya, Polotsko-Syrotinskaya partisan zones were formed in the Vitebsk region. The creation of the Surazh partisan zone began in February 1942. It included the Surazh district (except the Surazh district center), part of the Mekhovsky, Gorodok, Vitebsk and Liozno districts; liberated from the Nazis, the territory was about 3000 square. km The zone was located in the Surazh-Vitebsk-Gorodok-Usvyati quadrilateral, near the front line. She was being held by the 1-I Belorussian partisan brigade, commanded by M.F. Shmyrev (Old Man Minai) and some other partisan brigades.

In the summer of 1942, the Rossony-Osveisk partisan zone was formed, which included the entire territory of the Rosson and Osveisk districts and a large part of the Driessensk region. The center of the zone was located in the district center of the Rossony. In the same period Ushachsky partisan zone was created. Already by the autumn of 1942, the partisan brigade commanded by F. F. Dubrovsky, together with other detachments, won the Ushachsky district, large parts of the Lepel and Vetrinsky districts, and a part of the Plissky, Beshenkovichsky and Chashniki districts. By the end of the summer of 1942, the Polotsk-Syrotinsky zone was formed, which included almost the entire Syrotinsky district and part of the territory of the Polotsk, Mekhovsky, Rossony districts, the Vitebsk region and an insignificant part of the Nevelsky district, the Kalinin region. The center of the partisan zone was located in the village of Zuyevo, the Sirotinsky District, where the headquarters of the S. Korotkin brigade was stationed.

In June 1942, the Chechersk Partisan Zone finally formed in the Gomel Region, which included 103 settlements of five districts: Chechersk, Svetilovichsky, Kormyansky Gomel (81 populated area), Krasnopolsky district of Mogilev (11 settlements), Krasnogorsky district of Orlovsk region. areas. The zone occupied an area around 11 square. km

Guerrilla groups commanded by A.P. Savitsky (Petrovich), V.3. Korzh (Komarov), and the name of N.T. Shisha in the first days of September 1942, the enemy garrison, located in the town of Lenin, Pinsk region, was destroyed, and then almost the entire Leninsky district was liberated from the enemy. Here was formed the first partisan zone of Western Belarus.

Thus, during the year, from October 1941 of the year to November of 1942, the 9 of extensive partisan zones was formed in the enemy's rear in the occupied Belarusian territory: 8 in the eastern part of the republic and 1 in the western part. The predominance of partisan zones in the eastern part of the republic is explained by the wide development of the partisan movement here.



12 June 1942 of the German security police and SD reported on partisan activities in Belarus: “Large partisan groups are active in the areas of Berezino, Bobruisk, Gomel, Pochep, Shirgatino, Vitebsk, Lepel, Surazh ... These partisan groups have developed a lot of activity. .. In a number of areas, the partisans established the Soviet government and created permanent directorates ... "Naturally, the German command was not going to put up with the loss of entire areas of major operational and tactical and economic importance, matters Lo everything possible to drive out the partisans and destroy them. For this purpose, various military actions were undertaken (raids on individual points, large punitive expeditions, often with the participation of front-line military units). As a result, the guerrillas could not always keep under their control all the settlements of their zone. Sometimes the guerrilla forces under the influence of superior enemy forces had to temporarily leave the conquered areas and go to other places. But then they returned to their zones again. Attempts by the enemy to eliminate partisan zones remained unsuccessful.

The partisan detachments bravely defended the territory reclaimed from the invaders, disrupted the fascist attempts to penetrate the liberated areas. In the partisan zone, at the direction of the headquarters of the partisan formations, a separate sector of defense was assigned to each detachment, which it was obliged to hold. On important areas, the partisans built defensive fortifications (they built bunkers, dug trenches, communication lines, made rubble, destroyed bridges on the roads). At the remote approaches to the partisan zones, sentinel posts were set up, and well-armed partisan groups were on duty around the enemy’s likely approach. In addition, guerilla reconnaissance forces have always been at the forefront of the defense, as well as beyond its borders. This excluded the sudden appearance of the enemy. The patrols and the ambulance groups on duty were the first to take the battle and ensure the partisan leadership could push the main forces to the dangerous area.



The fighting had to be conducted almost daily, often at different sites simultaneously. For example, D. Raitsev's squadron from 20 to 27 on June 1942 participated in 14 battles with superior enemy forces attempting to penetrate settlements of the Surazh zone. Partisan detachments named after Chapaev and Shish, as well as under the command of Korzh 4 of the day (5-8 of November 1942) fought fierce battles with the Nazis in the village of Baranova Gora, Leninsky district of the Pinsk region for the retention of the liberated territory. Both groups of the enemy suffered losses and retreated. There are many similar examples.

It must also be said that the partisan units and detachments that provide control in the rear of the Germans over a significant territory, fought not only a positional defensive struggle. The partisan zones served as a base from which the partisan forces carried out offensive operations. Subversive and subversive groups, combat detachments, specially formed units of several detachments went hundreds of kilometers away from their main base for conducting major combat operations. We give some typical examples.

The subversive group of the partisan detachment N. B. Khrapko (October partisan zone) 8 of May 1942 of the year in the section Zhlobin - Mozyr blew up the enemy train from 68 wagons with ammunition and infantry. Guerrillas detachment D.F. Raitsev, located in the Surazh zone, 28 June 1942 blasted two bridges: one across the river Lugesyanka, the second on the road in the region of Putilovo.

The 1st Belorussian partisan brigade, deployed in the Surazh zone, conducted 1942 military operations in early 50. Its units during the same period derailed four enemy trains, thirteen bridges, destroyed more than 25 vehicles with cargo and German soldiers, knocked out three tank. The fighters of the 2nd partisan Belarusian brigade, based in the Surazh zone, defeated the fascist garrison at the Bychikha railway station at night on July 15, 1942. In this battle, partisans blew up a warehouse with fuel and lubricants and 4 cars with communication equipment, 5 bridges, damaged the roadbed and wired communication lines, and also captured rich trophies. The same brigade from February 18 to July 18, 1942 carried out 9 raids on the garrisons of the enemy, destroyed 3 tanks, 2 wedges, 30 vehicles, blew up 9 warehouses with ammunition and fuel, 36 bridges, 18 bunkers. On September 7, 1942, the joint forces of the 2nd and 4th Belorussian partisan brigades (Surazh and Polotsk-Sirotinsk zones) defeated the enemy’s Ezerishchen garrison. Partisan detachments S.A. Mazur and I. 3. Izoha (Klichevskaya partisan zone) at night on September 9, 1942 blew up the railway bridge on the Nacha River, west of the railway station Krupki, Minsk Region, located on the main communication of the Nazis Minsk-Ovsh.



On the territory liberated from the Germans, the command of the partisan formations, relying on the population, restored the organs of Soviet power. It is worth emphasizing that in the partisan zones of Belarus, along with the Soviet authorities (district executive committees, village councils), the command of partisan brigades and detachments played an important role. District executive committees, village councils were restored in the districts of the Oktyabrskaya, Lyubanskaya, Surazhskaya, Checherskaya, Klichevskaya, and partisan zones. In Ushacha, Rossonsko-Osveyskoy, Polotsk-Sirotinskoye, Leninskoy zones, in a number of areas of the October, Lyubanskaya, Klichevskaya, Surazhskaya, Chechersk partisan zones, the pre-war authorities were not restored. Their functions were carried out by the command of the partisan units and detachments, and appointed by the partisan command from the local population and partisans by the authorized representatives of the village soviet, partisan commandants, partisan elders.

In some settlements, where conditions allowed, the work of industrial and domestic enterprises resumed - power plants, mills, shoemakers, sewing, armory workshops, bakeries, creameries, laundries, baths, etc. Exceptionally great attention was paid to agricultural work. Collective farms did not revive in the partisan zones. The peasants jointly solved many production issues, helped each other in work, but under war conditions they did not conduct the entire economy on a collective basis. In 1942, spring sowing and harvesting, winter sowing were carried out by individual peasant farms. Soviet bodies, the command of partisan formations assisted the peasants in carrying out agricultural work, allocated people, carts, horses, organized the work of forges, put up barriers to ensure safety. The peasants also set up observation posts themselves.

The commissars of the partisan formations carried out extensive agitation and political work with the population of the partisan zones. For agitators and propagandists were fixed specific settlements. For example, the agitators of the 1 Belorussian partisan brigade in August 1942 of the year covered political mass work about 3000 people. The agitators of the Death to Fascism brigade in October 1942 conducted political work in 328 settlements of Ushachsky, Vetrinsky, Polotsk, Beshenkovichsky districts.

Artistic agitation groups, amateur artistic groups of brigades and groups also carried out cultural and educational work among the population. In some localities of the Vitebsk region, even watching movies was organized. In the autumn of 1942, schools were opened in the settlements of the October, Luban, Surazh partisan zones.

One of the most important tasks facing the partisan command was to save the population from the atrocities of the invaders and hijacking into fascist slavery. Partisans guarded the population and provided assistance during blockades, punitive expeditions, and enemy raids aviation. Women and children went from the partisan airfields to the Soviet rear. Residents of the partisan zones, in turn, showed exceptional concern for their defenders. They not only supplied the partisans with food, but also participated in the construction of fortifications, airfields, helped the partisans to obtain intelligence, took care of the wounded. At the expense of representatives of the local population, the ranks of partisans replenished.

Great help from the Red Army was carried out by the population of the partisan zones: the residents collected money for the defense of the motherland, for the construction of air squadrons and tank columns, participated in government loans, harvested bread, potatoes and fodder. For example, from the Surazhsky and Mekhovsky districts in the spring of 1942, it was sent to the country's defense fund for almost 75 000 rubles. bonds and 18039 rub. in cash. From partisan areas near the front line, for the Red Army, horses and vehicles were sent, young people of military age were sent to the Great Land. In the spring of 1942, only from Surazhsky and Mekhovsky districts, 5000 people joined the army.



The partisan zones, formed as a result of fierce battles with the fascists, were the support bases of the partisans and the Soviet power in the enemy rear. They were a kind of rear for the partisans. It housed guerrilla airfields, which were delivered weapons, ammunition, explosives, medicines and other goods. Individual groups and detachments pursued by punishers came here, not only from other regions of Belarus, but also from the territory of Ukraine, Russia, and the Baltic states. From here they made combat raids.

The formation of partisan zones in the deep enemy rear and their retention is one of the bright pages of the heroic struggle of the Belarusian people during the war years.

Sources:
Arbuzov A., Balandin K., Belyaev A. and others. Guerrilla and underground struggle in the occupied territory of Belarus // the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet people. Minsk: BNTU, 2011. C. 76-89.
A group of authors. Nationwide partisan movement in Belarus during the Great Patriotic War. T. 1. Minsk: Belarus, 1967. C. 186-209, 272-291, 649-651.
Zalessky A. In partisan territories and zones. M .: Publishing house of socio-economic literature, 1962. C. 43-97.
Gortsev V., Kupreeva L. Partisan zones and actions of partisans in Belarus // VIZH. 1971. No.6. C.89-94.
Kalinin P. Guerrilla Republic. M .: Voenizdat, 1964. C. 85-235.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Joint action with the guerrillas of the Consolidated Detachment in the enemy rear .
Guerrilla intelligence. Impudent and omnipresent .
[http://topwar.ru/91481-sovetskie-partizany-v-lesah-verdena.html] Soviet partisans in the forests of Verdun [/ leech].
Fire raids by Soviet partisans.
32 comments
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  1. Rezident007
    Rezident007 22 July 2016 06: 16
    +13
    I read somewhere about a story that happened in Germany on the Oktoberfest holiday: in general, there Russian guys won in one beer competition and when their host asked to introduce themselves, they replied that they were from Belarus ... The Germans immediately guessed where it was: - "Oh, I-I, partisan ..". They remember, apparently from the stories of their fathers or grandfathers)))
  2. aszzz888
    aszzz888 22 July 2016 07: 05
    +6
    I recall our fellow countryman -Karyakin Stepan Kharlampievich. He also fought a partisan in Belarus.
    Everyone must remember the exploits of the partisans.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 22 July 2016 07: 39
    +6
    I remember hf "Flame" ... about how the Germans, before the Soviet offensive, tried to liquidate partisan zones ... As it was written in the credits, the film was based on real events .. Thank you, the author is interested in material ..
  4. potapych
    potapych 22 July 2016 07: 47
    +4
    Heroes, the feat of these people must be remembered and respected in memory always.
  5. drop
    drop 22 July 2016 08: 16
    +4
    My aunt Olya was in a partisan detachment in the Vitebsk region. I remember her medal, which she kept. The descendants are grateful to you, Heroes of our country. I have the honor.
  6. Fighter
    Fighter 22 July 2016 08: 55
    +1
    The mother deceased in the war with her parents was hiding in the forest of the village. Borkhov of the Rechitsa district of the Gomel region. She told me that at night there was no rest from the partisans: they came and robbed! During the day, the policemen ruled. All her life she spoke negatively about partisans: marauders are robbers. Several times. that the partisans nearly killed my father (my grandfather) for that. that he refused to give food to the partisans. What they say is that his grandfather (was wounded) has little hungry children in his arms. from which it was necessary to take food and give it to the partisans! Themselves starving!
    Father, a veteran, also spoke negatively about the partisans. I myself once witnessed how a former partisan told my father and me how they slept in the woods for weeks and hid from the Germans. So the partisans fought!
    1. Stas57
      Stas57 22 July 2016 09: 23
      +6
      no one says that all the partisans were white and fluffy.
      Until they were organized from the center, until they began to coordinate.
      It is clear that everything was - more than a million people only in Belarus.
      but draw global conclusions from this ...
    2. sq
      sq 22 July 2016 10: 54
      +11
      partisans - they were different. According to the father’s stories, they were divided into three parts in the village. the first - the partisans who were commanded from Moscow (the best for the population, they won’t take a thread), the second - local peasants who hid from the Germans (fed their families, helped if possible), the third - armed bandits who were killed as partisans and the Germans (robbed so that the police were far away).
    3. THE_SEAL
      THE_SEAL 22 July 2016 22: 34
      +1
      Wrestler, my grandmother survived the occupation only in the Stolin district of the Brest region. It's nearby. Her memories as a child are very similar. Great-grandfather tried to survive with young children (two more little brothers). And the partisans took food and did not want to know anything. She told how Kovpak passed through their village. A very ambiguous general attitude towards the partisans.
    4. THE_SEAL
      THE_SEAL 22 July 2016 22: 34
      0
      Wrestler, my grandmother survived the occupation only in the Stolin district of the Brest region. It's nearby. Her memories as a child are very similar. Great-grandfather tried to survive with young children (two more little brothers). And the partisans took food and did not want to know anything. She told how Kovpak passed through their village. A very ambiguous general attitude towards the partisans.
      1. Rezident007
        Rezident007 24 July 2016 09: 21
        0
        Quote: THE_SEAL
        Wrestler, my grandmother survived the occupation only in the Stolin district of the Brest region. It's nearby. Her memories as a child are very similar. Great-grandfather tried to survive with young children (two more little brothers). And the partisans took food and did not want to know anything. She told how Kovpak passed through their village. A very ambiguous general attitude towards the partisans.

        Well, as they say - to whom is war, to whom mother is dear ... Anything happens in a war, different people ..
      2. Rezident007
        Rezident007 24 July 2016 09: 21
        0
        Quote: THE_SEAL
        Wrestler, my grandmother survived the occupation only in the Stolin district of the Brest region. It's nearby. Her memories as a child are very similar. Great-grandfather tried to survive with young children (two more little brothers). And the partisans took food and did not want to know anything. She told how Kovpak passed through their village. A very ambiguous general attitude towards the partisans.

        Well, as they say - to whom is war, to whom mother is dear ... Anything happens in a war, different people ..
  7. ruskih
    ruskih 22 July 2016 09: 07
    +2
    Thank you for the article. It’s good that they appear on the site.
    And once again I will add, who is interested in the history of this time, find in the search engine "Bug on Fire" military literature memoirs. You will be interested in the history from the first persons. From the first days of the war to the liberation of Belarus.
    July 28, 1944 is the day when Brest was liberated.
  8. sancho16
    sancho16 22 July 2016 10: 14
    +7
    Wrestler BY Today, 08:55 AM New
    The mother deceased in the war with her parents was hiding in the forest of the village. Borkhov of the Rechitsa district of the Gomel region. She told me that at night there was no rest from the partisans: they came and robbed! During the day, the policemen ruled. All her life she spoke negatively about partisans: marauders are robbers. Several times. that the partisans nearly killed my father (my grandfather) for that. that he refused to give food to the partisans. What they say is that his grandfather (was wounded) has little hungry children in his arms. from which it was necessary to take food and give it to the partisans! Themselves starving!

    It’s just that mother didn’t know that to fight the partisans the Germans created their own, false partisan detachments from
    traitors to criminals and deserters. Their purpose was through outrage against the civilian population.
    instill distrust and hatred of the partisans in the citizens, while real partisans made a guerrilla oath and
    for any crime against a partisan, civilian or prisoner, was Shot, just did not have the partisans
    prisons for the maintenance of criminals, and the partisans themselves were from the same people for whom they fought and
    Sorry, I won’t be there anymore. They simply didn’t act.
    And CONSCIENCE, in those days it was not just a sound.
    1. The comment was deleted.
  9. grandson of the hero
    grandson of the hero 22 July 2016 10: 26
    +6
    Thank you so much for the article.
    Several times, the commander of the Raitsov detachment was mentioned, in the ranks of which my grandfather (my father’s uncle) fought in 1941-1942. He died covering the withdrawal of the detachment.
    A week ago, we were with his children at his grave (recently I rarely visit Belarus). It's nice that the grave is taken care of by students. School of his name, there is a museum.
    Glory to the guerrilla heroes !!!
  10. Kostya Andreev
    Kostya Andreev 22 July 2016 10: 27
    +3
    But it’s interesting how now in history books in Belarus they write that the partisans defended: Belarus or the Soviet Union?
    1. Starik72
      Starik72 22 July 2016 18: 05
      +6
      KOSTYA ANDREYEV. For us, Belarusians, that Belarus, that the USSR, was one state until the USSR was torn apart.
  11. tiaman.76
    tiaman.76 22 July 2016 10: 34
    +2
    thanks for the article ... the Belarusian partisans really gave heat to nemchur and punishers .. in terms of the scope of the movement, is it comparable with the Yugoslav partisans ... glory to the defenders of the fatherland!
  12. Arkan
    Arkan 22 July 2016 11: 10
    +3
    Glory to the heroes!!! This is how to deal with the invaders, this is the clearest example of courage and perseverance! In Ukraine, the inhabitants of Donbass are glorious continuers of the cause of protecting their homeland then the Nazi occupation. And let those who live west of the Donbass take an example from them, and do not wait for release, along the way repairing equipment for the ATO zone (punitive), it may not happen.
  13. Ilhar
    Ilhar 22 July 2016 11: 21
    +1
    And who knows what kind of machine gun in the photo?
    1. Igor V
      Igor V 22 July 2016 11: 29
      +1
      It looks like ShKAS with a homemade butt. Caliber 7,62, aircraft machine gun.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 22 July 2016 12: 45
        +1
        Trophy MG 08/15 or 08/18 with attached homemade butt!
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 22 July 2016 12: 44
      0
      Trophy MG 08/15 or 08/18 with attached homemade butt!
    3. hohol95
      hohol95 22 July 2016 12: 49
      +1
      Below put a photo from a different angle!
    4. The comment was deleted.
  14. Igor V
    Igor V 22 July 2016 11: 34
    +1
    The American storyteller Toffler, recently deceased, at whose behest half of the world now lives, ranked guerrilla actions in the third wave. Actions deep behind enemy lines in headquarters, communications, warehouses, communication lines. This "specialist" apparently knew nothing about the partisans. That would be surprised!
  15. hohol95
    hohol95 22 July 2016 12: 48
    +1
    Photos from a different angle !!!
  16. Divandek
    Divandek 22 July 2016 13: 49
    +2
    My wife's grandmother helped the partisan detachment near Leningrad. She was dragging a pan with food, and a German shell pulled nearby and partisan rations flew away with the pan. Leningraders were not lucky, they were just starting, there was no experience and the troops were defeated. At the grandmother, the Nazis in the barn burned their daughter.
  17. hohol95
    hohol95 22 July 2016 15: 03
    0
    Partisan WEAPONS!
  18. Lyubopyatov
    Lyubopyatov 22 July 2016 16: 01
    -2
    Wonderful land and wonderful people whom the power lover and separatist Lukashenko is now pushing.
    1. Savl
      Savl 23 July 2016 00: 16
      0
      I don’t support Lukashenko in many ways, they call him names differently, but why the separatist?

      You know the skin of Belarus, who has a nose drop
      Fuerrski Saplivy Vus
      I bald with nachos
  19. Eugene
    Eugene 22 July 2016 19: 35
    +1
    Excellent article !!! Sensible. Grew up in the Luban district ... Compact and capacious! Zyslav visited the island ...
  20. KOMA
    KOMA 8 July 2017 02: 15
    0

    My relative. Soviet partisan miner Stepan Yankovich. Partizan armed with captured Steyr-Solothurn S1-100
    Jankovic Stepan Semenovich was the youngest miner of the Chkalov partisan detachment, in his 19 years he derailed the German echelons 12 and blew up 3 vehicles with enemy manpower.