From the documents of the fund of the Documentation Center stories Rostov Region: “During the occupation of the Romanovsky District (now the Volgodonsk District) by the fascist German forces (August 1, 1942 of the year - January 6, 1943 of the year) several partisan groups operated on its territory. The group of Ivan Smolyakova worked in contact with a group led by Vasily Morozov, who reported intelligence, destroyed two Romanian soldiers, conducted mass propaganda work among the population, incapacitated enemy communications and lines of communication. ”
The group consisted of eight people. It consisted of: Vasily Fedorovich Morozov, Fedor Maksimovich (“Grandfather”) Morozov, Valentin Omelchenko (pupil of 7 class), Alexey Gorelik (pupil of 7 class), Vera Bezruchko (“Wind”, student of 7 class), Ivan Moreno (pupil of 7) class), Vasily Homulin (student of 7 class), Nikolai Fomenko (student of 7 class).
From the memoirs of Valentin Demidovich Omelchenko: “Vasily Morozov, his father and Vera Bezruchko were from the village of Romanovskaya, and we were from the village of Pervomaisky. I was riding in the squad. Faith "Breeze" - connected. Ivan Morenko and Alex Gorelik - intelligence officers, Vasily Homulin and Nikolai Fomenko supplied both groups weapons».
After the death of Viktor Kuznetsov and Yasha Golodnev, the Germans and the policemen took up the partisans thoroughly. Began raids and searches. Anfisa Shmutova was arrested, the Red Army men who were hiding from her were shot. Over the partisans in danger. The Tsimlyanskoe Gestapo already knew that Vasily Kozhanov and Ivan Smolyakov were at the head of the Romanov partisans. It instructed the Romanovskiy commandant to take all measures to search for and arrest the leaders of the underground.
The headman of the village of Pervomaisky, Vasily Ivanovich Nitsenko, told the partisans that the names of Vasily Kozhanov and Ivan Smolyakov were mentioned at the meeting of the headmen. Following the report, Nicenko received confirmation from Tikhon Ivanovich Oleynikov from the farm of Salo-Ternovsky that policemen were scouring all the “smoking rooms” and were looking for partisans.
A meeting was held at the headquarters of the Romanov underground workers. There was one question on the agenda: how to proceed? Vasily Fedorovich Morozov offered to take refuge in the Martynovsky district for a while, but his proposal did not agree with the opinion of the group of Ivan Smolyakov. It was decided to act independently and in the event of failure of each other not to issue. Morozov disbanded his group, ordering to hide away from human eyes, while he himself left for Martynovskiy district. The group of Ivan Smolyakova was arrested and did not extradite children from Pervomaisky even under torture.
The subsequent fate of these people was different. Vasily Fedorovich was tried, expelled from the party. He was sentenced to ten years. He died in 1968 year.
Valentin Omelchenko enrolled in the military school of the city, became an officer, then for a long time he lived in the village of Romanovskaya.
Fyodor Maksimovich Morozov was arrested along with a group of Ivan Smolyakov, but was released. Soon after the war he was gone. Alexey Gorelik went to the army. Was a pilot. Killed in 1945 year near Berlin.
Vera Bezruchko "Breeze" after the war, married, began to wear the name Rogozhin. She lived in the city of Vinnitsa. Died in 2005 year. Ivan Morenko served in the army, died in the 1944 year in the Baltic States. Vasily Homulin and Nikolai Fomenko also fought after the liberation of the Romanovskaya village. Their further fate is not known.
Romanov underground workers helped many people. So, the red partisan Vasily Ivanovich Nitsenko (the population chose him as the elder of the Pervomaisky farm) supplied the partisan group with food. He reported on the actions of the German troops, policemen. After the war he was arrested, but released during the investigation.
Tikhon Ivanovich Oleynikov, the elder of the village of Salo-Ternovsky, the Hero of the Civil War, rendered great assistance to the underground workers.
Klavdiya Mozharova - a simple kolkhoz woman of the Boguchary farm also provided all possible assistance. Maria Shcherbakova - Brigadier of the field team of the collective farm named after Georgi Dimitrov. She helped the partisans with food, was a member of the commission investigating the death of the underground workers.
Our underground workers were not alone in the struggle, the entire population provided them with help than they could, but did not save, could not protect. And for a long time people grieved from their helplessness in those terrible days. From generation to generation, from mouth to mouth, the names of those who died defending their native land from the enemy are transmitted.
"I was 14 years old"
Sunny glade is flooded with light. Everything around shines brightly: dandelions, grass, and blue sky. White clouds of clouds are frolicking across the sky. The sun smiles, gently drops its rays to the earth. I can not sit quietly on the bench next to my great-grandmother Raisa Ivanovna Privalova. I run, play with the sun bunnies and laugh merrily.
“Grandma,” I whisper to her. - What's the matter? What happened?
- Why, granddaughter, I remembered my childhood.
- And what are you crying, my dear, honey? Is it bad?
- Yes, no, memories are good if they are good, and my bitter and terrible.
- Why are they scary?
“Because, dear child, every time I remember the warm summer of 1941, when I also ran carelessly with my friends barefoot on the grass, our happy childhood was interrupted by the damned war, she stole our childhood. War is a terrible word, it is explosions, death of people, tears, suffering, death of cities. War brings death, destruction, hunger, poverty, disease. I was 14 for years, I studied in the 7 class, when a terrible disaster struck our country. My family lived in the Kalinin region. My mother's name was Arina, and my father Ivan. In the family we had four children: two sisters, Ty and Zina, brother Vasily and I - the middle daughter. Dad and mom worked on the farm. They were simple, modest, hardworking people. The work burned in their hands, and we took an example in everything, so we always helped our parents, we studied and were happy. - For a moment, grandmother's face brightened, and a smile slipped across her lips. - And suddenly a peaceful, calm, happy life ended. Father was taken to the front, and mother was left alone with her four children.
What can I say, perhaps we were alone, now I understand that all families had to, and even worse. For days my mother was at work, the front needed food. Front approaching. And suddenly, on the radio, they reported that the Germans had entered the city, and soon a detachment of German troops appeared in the local church.
The Nazis shot civilians who were close. Mom quickly gathered scarce belongings and loaded them on a cart, harnessed a horse, Masha was fed with a cow-fed nurse. Late at night, along with other farmers, we left our houses, our farm and drove off. At night, sheltered in the woods. It soon became known that after the hard fighting of our village was gone, it was not quite clear to us children, but the adults were crying. We also learned that "our retreats". We had to retreat too. They began to dig trenches, chopped up "dryuki" - tree trunks, laid out dugouts. Everybody worked, even small children were not capricious, they obeyed and helped adults as best they could.
From cold, wind and rain, from the enemy hid in dugouts, especially when they heard the roar of airplanes. But food supplies, horse feed ended, our cow Masha saved the little ones, “Mafen'ka” - this was what her neighbor boy called her, every time when her mother, after milking her, was pouring milk. Once out of the dugout in a nearby village, to somehow get food. Several kilometers passed, and here, out of nowhere, the Germans on motorcycles. Shelling began. A lot of my fellow villagers died, children and women scared. Those who had not yet managed to get out of the forest hid, the Germans searched the area and left. And we, coming out of the shelter, came to that terrible place, and there ... - Then my grandmother sank, cried, but the story continued. - People were buried, piled a mound and returned to the dugout. Autumn was coming, and behind it was winter. We decided to return to our village, then nobody knew that it was not at all.
We go along the road, and the field is covered with Russian soldiers. Heavy going battles. When they came to their village, they were horrified: several houses survived, and even those were without windows, then without doors. Our hut is ruined. Then I thought: “Where are we going to hide from snow and frost in winter?” It was difficult, the younger ones constantly asked for food. In the barn they found some semi-rotten potatoes, but it quickly ended. Mom ventured to go to the next village, where our distant relatives on the paternal side lived. It was at night, in the afternoon, otlyezhivalas in the woods or ditch, but came and returned for us.
It turns out that there were no battles there yet, a kind of hospital was located there, if you could call it that; we went there, we were sheltered by relatives, it was close, but most importantly, it was warm and calm. But this calm did not last long; the Germans soon occupied the village. They selected everything: grain, potatoes, domestic animals. So we lived all winter, spring, and in the fall ours came, liberated the village. The front line was not far. All were sent to dig trenches, but this work was a joy to us, because we did this for ourselves, for ourselves.
They organized a hospital, I and other teenage girls began to care for the wounded, even those who were afraid of blood once, now matured and became strong. We brought water, food to the bedridden, cleaned the wards, washed clothes and bandages.
Then there was an evacuation, so gradually we ended up in Georgia. At the station Kanatovka was shelling, those belongings that were with us - destroyed. We stayed in what were. I was wounded in the leg, so I ended up in the hospital.
After the war, she went to work at the tea factory, tried to fulfill her duties conscientiously. This is how our childhood and youth passed, this is what the war did. ”
The 1942 summer of the year was dry and hot. In the farm Morozovsky, under a steep mountain in the garden of the Astashov estate, stood a squadron of the 18 Guards Cavalry Regiment. Here, behind the river Peskovatka, the headquarters of the regiment of the 6 Cavalry Division was also located. It so happened that at this time, Zhenya Astashova, an eighteen-year-old girl, returned home from Moscow, and left for the drama school before the war. The war crossed her plans; instead of college, she graduated from accelerated courses of chauffeurs and nurses in the capital. After a short rest at home, Zhenya wrote a statement to the military enlistment office and left as part of the same 6 Cavalry division, which was redeployed to the Stalingrad area.
Her father, Sergey Ivanovich Astashov, was already at the front, and her mother Tatiana Egorovna spent the girl. Only a few short letters came home from Zhenya, where she reported that she was nursing the wounded in the medical unit and even on the front line “Emke” drove the general along the front edge. And in the last letter shortly: “Let's go to Kalach”.
A funeral came in the winter, where dry lines of a regimental clerk ran across the government paper: “31 died in December 1942 of the year, performing special missions in the area of the village of Tarasinsky Surovikinsky district of the Stalingrad region”.
The father who returned from the front in September 1945 of the year could not get any information about the fate of his daughter from anyone. After the war, in memory of the deceased Zhenya Astashova, her younger sister, Claudia, named her newborn daughter Eugenia. It was she, Evgenia Voinov, who, decades after the end of the war, resumed the clarification of the circumstances and the place of death of her aunt, which for all her relatives remained forever an eighteen-year-old desperate girl.
The search through the Internet helped, during which it was possible to recover some details of the heroic death of the young Don Cossack. There were eyewitnesses to this event. It turned out that just before the 1943 year, the surrounded cavalry unit sent a liaison with the package to the neighboring military unit. According to the fellow soldiers, Ushakova, who was the last to see Zhenya Astashova, she galloped on a bay horse between two peaks of a large beam on a snow-covered meadow under crossfire. Downed from her head either by the wind, or by a Kuban bullet, then boys from the nearest farm will be found.
The fighters and farmers saw how the bay with its rider disappeared in the redwoods in the wooded girder. They never saw her again. Other details about the fate of Eugene her fellow soldier did not know.
To find out this information and find the burial of a native of the Morozovsky farm, a large circle of search engines was involved in the Rostov and Volgograd regions, the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defense. The military offices and administrations of the Surovikinsky and Chernyshkovsky districts were connected.
The burial was found in the mass grave of the farm Vodyanovsky of the Volgograd region. The administration of Chernyshkovsky district is planning to organize a meeting with the relatives of the brave girl.
Evgenia Ivanovna Voinova and relatives of the Astashov and Tsygankov families express their sincere gratitude and appreciation to Igor Grigoriev, Nikita Kakurin and their head in the CDT Lyudmila Ivanovna Moskvicheva, who found the following lines on the People's Feat website: “Astashova Evgenia Sergeyevna, 2 health instructor-poster, I’m affiliate, and I’m XTNUMX posters; Guards Regiment, awarded the medal "For Courage". In a fierce battle for the Lisinsky farm in the Stalingrad region, under heavy fire of the enemy’s guns and mortars, without sparing their lives, 18 carried out wounded soldiers and officers, while showing courage and bravery. ”
Even parents, who had been searching for the grave of their daughter, who lived a short and bright life, did not even know about it. On the memorial in the farm Morozovsky, at the feet of a soldier who bent his head, the names of the countrymen who died during the Great Patriotic War were carved on a granite plaque with gold. The first on this list is Evgenia Sergeevna Astashova.