Military Review

White armor and colored armor ... (part four)

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The three previous materials have caused a number of questions, which are partly an attempt to answer here. Many were interested in the reason for the change. Like, what these knights lacked? However, it is obvious that both “white” and “colored” armor from solid-forged plates, and horse armor appeared precisely because they could protect both the rider himself and also his horse from the improved throwing weaponswhose role is constantly growing. For example, in 1465, during the battle of Montleury, 38400 arrows were fired in just one day! For one! Siege Willie lasted less than a month, and during this time 10200 arrows and 1500 crossbow bolts were spent, while during the siege of Dinant lasting a week, the army of Burgundians launched 27840 arrows on the enemy, and in addition 1780 bolts, which indicates the impressive scale of their use and about the well-established process of their production, which has taken just industrial scale! David Nicole wrote, in particular, that the production of 100000 crossbow arrows required ten dry birch trunks and about 250 kg of iron. And after all they had to be cut down, delivered, sawn, forged tips for them and ... pull the feathers out of the geese!

White armor and colored armor ... (part four)

Even among landsknechts one could find cuirass covered with realistic engraving. Landsknecht armor approx. 1510 - 1520 Master Kohlman Helmschmidt. Metropolitan Museum, New York.

But if the data on the numbers of arrows consumed today is well known, then the question of the time when very heavy steel crossbows began to be used (which in turn became the answer to the “white armor”) is still controversial, although it is believed they could be used in combat already in 1370 year. A bow made of steel made the crossbow more compact, and made it possible to reduce the length of the bowstring tension only to 10 - 15, see. Nevertheless, charging it, as before, was a slow affair, and its design became more complicated. The early stirrup, the “goat’s foot”, the manual block with the tension hook and the double crank — all this was simpler than the so-called “pinwheel” or “Nuremberg gate”. So it is obvious that almost immediately after the “white” armor, and then the “colored” armor, more powerful long-range weapons immediately appeared. And the decoration itself only emphasized the high quality of the armor itself - they say, they are not only outwardly spectacular, but also well protected. Although there were already strictly ceremonial armor, exclusively for beauty.


Border cuirass of a landsknecht from the Metropolitan Museum

In order to shoot at smooth metal armor, new arrowheads were also needed. So, the tips, which have a leaf-shaped form, completely corresponding to their purpose in the twelfth century and even in the middle of the thirteenth century, were used now except for hunting. Only on the ships did the arrows still use moonlike blades, but only because they allowed cutting the tackles on the ships. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. the main thing was a styloid tip, supplemented by three or four blades, capable of piercing metal armor. The English historian Michael Nicholas wrote about them that they were not specifically fixed firmly on the shaft of the arrow and, hitting the target, usually remained in the wound. He refers to the data of modern experiments, which confirmed that the effect of hitting such arrows at a distance of a direct shot was very significant. But when shooting at a great distance, the arrows fell on the riders from above and at an angle, so the knight had only to tilt the torso forward a little, so that they would just bounce off his helmet and on the shoulder pads of the armor. Another thing is that with such a “rain of arrows” the head, neck and croup of a horse turned out to be vulnerable, which is why they also began to be protected with plate armor.


Typical knight of the war of scarlet and white roses. Large bascinet with buvier (chin) and “necklace” (1). Visor with multiple breathing holes (2). Lancaster Necklace (3). Knightly belt, adorned with precious stones, on which hangs a sword and dagger-rondel (4). Sword from the tomb of Heinrich V (5). Finger plate with fingers (6). Spur wheel with an asterisk (7). Fashion first quarter of the XV century (8,9,10). Fig. Graham Türner.


Breastplate from the "white armor" with a spear hook ("Lance-rest"). Metropolitan Museum, New York.

The experience of the Hundred Years War showed that it was impossible to force a horse to run on stakes, behind which English archers used to hide, while the latter did not cause any special damage to the riders, but they did multiple and serious wounds to the horses. They fell, shied away in different directions, rested and did not obey the horsemen, simply became distraught from pain and ... destroyed the dense knightly structures, turning them into a completely uncontrollable dump. For example, in the Battle of Crecy, the wounded horses simply lay down on the ground — a completely natural reaction for a bleeding animal that could not run anymore. Well, if the cavalry system was broken, and many horsemen were in a hurry or even lay on the ground, then the advantage was clearly transferred to the enemy’s infantry — lighter and more maneuverable, which in this situation had a margin over the knights!


Knight 1525 g. The figure is made according to the real 1527 armor, made, most likely, for Henry VIII in Greenwich. A helmet with a flange collar, thanks to which it turns with the head. The rear of the disc most likely closed the chin strap fastener (1). View of the armor from the inside (2). A typical Greenwich halfdron of lame plates riveted to leather belts inside (3). Detail of the armor 1540 g .: Grangarda - an additional plate for the left side of the chest, pasgarda - for the elbow and the armor - closing forearm and wrist. The connection manier and gauntlet closed disc (4). Competitive gauntlet "with constipation", not allowing to lose a weapon (5). Helmet with visor like a sparrow beak (6). Sword with rings for fingers (7). Clothes of this time: a long shirt and a doublet with pants tied to it with laces (8,9). Sabaton type "bear's paw" (10). Fig. Graham Türner.

The traditional question was also asked, “but where did they learn from?” So today, modern research methods allow us to find out not only how the armor was trimmed and what technologies were used for this, but also go much further, learn the features of technological methods of their manufacture and, of course, more accurate dating. This task was set by two British historians Alan Williams and Anthony de Reik, who prepared a very interesting study: “The Royal Arsenal in Greenwich 1515 - 1649: история his technology ”, which complemented the work of K. Blair, written by him earlier. Today it is the only work of this level, based on the study of the armor of the Renaissance using the methods of metallographic analysis. In total, more than 60 samples of armor were investigated, which revealed many new and previously unknown facts regarding their manufacturing technology. The book 180 black and white drawings and photographs, as well as four color illustrations.


Landsknecht armor approx. 1510 - 1520 Master Kohlman Helmschmidt. Metropolitan Museum, New York.

It was possible to strike a knight in "white armor" not only with an arrow, but also with a sword. It is well known that in 1300 - 1500's. in medieval Western European swords, not only the shape of the blade, but also the hilt and pommel changed. Handles, for example, between 1410 and 1440. acquired, which became characteristic of them, the bottle form, and the tops were made of the traditional form in the form of a lenticular disc. At the same time, new, previously non-existent, most advanced species also appeared: “cork from the carafe”, “fish tail”, “pear”, etc.


"The sword and a half hands" 1400 g. The length of the blade 95.8, see. The total length of 120, see. Metropolitan Museum, New York.

The crosshairs became thinner, but longer, and received a characteristic bend from the handle to the side of the blade, although straight crosshairs were also used. Some swords in the first half of the fifteenth century, from the side of the blade, a cross-section appeared at the cross-hair, into which the index finger protruded. Then they added one to the second ring, so as not to think which side to take up the sword in the heat of battle.

Swords of the sixteenth century, according to E. Oakeshott, should be divided into three main types. The first ones are piercing and also slashing swords, having a simple handle for one hand, which were worn directly on the belt. Then one should call “swords with one and a half hands,” also known as saddle, as they were driven from the saddle and, last of all, they were the legendary two-handed swords, which were used not by knights, but by the infantry of the Swiss confederates and the German landsknechts. The average weight of an ordinary sword in the X and XV centuries. reached 1,3 kg; and in the sixteenth century. it was reduced to 900. But bastard swords (“one and a half hand swords”) could have a weight on the order of 1,5 - 1,8 kg, but the weight of two-handed swords rarely exceeded 3 kg. The latter reached their zenith between the 1500 - 1600 years, but they were precisely infantry weapons.


Sword of type XI by E. Oakshott. Typical stabbing sword. Metropolitan Museum, New York.


Sword of the XV century with the handle of the bottle. Metropolitan Museum, New York.


1520 two-handed sword - 1530 The length of the blade 132, see. The total length of 180, see. The figure of the German landsknecht 1510 - 1540. Museum of Bern. Switzerland.

Interestingly, while watching how firearms develop, some people were so inventive that they thought it was possible to combine them even with a knight’s sword. In the famous collection of the Royal Arsenal in the Tower there is, for example, a saddle sword (or another name for it - estk) with a handle, which is a rifle barrel. The heads were removed from her, and the powder charge inside was ignited manually with the help of a wick through the hole at the handle, closed with a sliding cover. It is difficult to say how this sword could be used in battle, and whether Henry VIII himself ordered it to one of the gunsmiths - as you know, a great lover of all sorts of weapons wonders, or one of the masters came up with "it" to please the monarch, but the very existence of the noble the sword, combined with the "weapon of the devil," indicates a change in attitude towards this knightly shrine. After all, even Bayard himself, recognized as a model for medieval knighthood, ordered to hang up everyone who fell into his hands with an arquebus in his hands, and here in the royal Tower we see such an “unholy” weapon in the arsenal of the king himself!


St. Eustace with the image on the altar of Albrecht Dürer, 1500. Before us is a typical landsknecht.

By the way, it was at the same time that the armor of the cavalry of the Reiters began to be painted black with ordinary paint, which in joints was erased to shine. Even there was no longer any strength or opportunity to bury them, and why? After all, the time of the proud knights was passing away right in front of the contemporaries of this process.


Reiter lati of the late 16th century The Higgins Museum. Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.
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  1. zuleb
    zuleb 22 July 2016 06: 03
    0
    The decoration of combat armor served primarily to indicate the rank of owner. A man in richly gilded armor in a velvet purple cloak in ostrich feathers in a helmet is the commander in chief or the king. And in armor with a rare silver notch, not more than ten.
  2. Ingvar 72
    Ingvar 72 22 July 2016 07: 08
    +1
    A visor with many breathing holes
    Yeah, breathing in battle is such a problem, a habit is required. In a mask for a melee or paintball you suffocate, and then there are such holes.
    1. gladcu2
      gladcu2 22 July 2016 16: 05
      +1
      Ingvar

      There are positive aspects to negative things. But having bought such armor, you are afraid to recover.
  3. igordok
    igordok 22 July 2016 07: 21
    +2
    St. Eustace from the image on the altar of Albrecht Durer, 1500. Before us typical landsknecht.

    As far as I know, Landsknecht is an infantryman. Why do infantrymen need spurs? Or a spur, the second is hard to see, although there seems to be a mount.
    1. otto meer
      otto meer 22 July 2016 08: 46
      +4
      Quote: igordok
      As far as I know, Landsknecht is an infantryman.

      In principle, it is true - the landsknecht is an infantryman. But not always. The landsknechts also had "officers" captains, lieutenants, perhaps rarely, sergeant-major, but these figures hardly walked on the march. Yes, and the holder of the regimental patent, the colonel-nobleman, the same hardly bothered his legs. Charles VI also had Scots shooters, in fact the same landsknechts, so they generally had noble rights, with all the consequences.
    2. Igor39
      Igor39 22 July 2016 08: 52
      0
      I read that they were mercenaries.
      1. Chiropractor
        Chiropractor 22 July 2016 13: 00
        +5
        Quote: Igor39
        I read that they were mercenaries.


        Right.
        Initially - German mercenaries. German cannon fodder has been actively traded at all times.
        At the head is the captain who assembled the company - the "company" company. He also negotiated with the employer and entered into a contract - condotta. Hence the condottieri. The number is up to several thousand. Therefore, for management, there were usually two lieutenants - deputy. Well, the commanders of the units - sergeants and sergeants of all sorts.
        Typical protection is armor 3/4. Although it is more typical for the "iron-sided" Cromwell.
        The captain also knew the treasury. Those who stood in the front row received a double salary as a bonus for more frequent injuries and injuries. And also warriors out of action with two-handed ones - they are ahead of the line with their weapons must upset the orders of the enemy infantry, and then retreat behind the spears of companions. Well, who's lucky.
        Landsknechts were a response to the successes of the Swiss infantry and they hated each other, did not bow at a meeting, did not take each other prisoner.

        In fact, the photo of Landsnecht's armor with a two-handed arm is extremely dubious. this is clearly a cavalry armor - with an open codpiece for landing in the saddle. The codpiece of the landsknechts was additionally booked, shoving wallets with coins there. And on top there is an iron "skirt". And in the photo, a comrade with a two-handed man runs the risk of hitting the bells with any pebble and leaving the stage of the theater of military operations.

        The article mentions the steel bow of crossbows. I will not tire of recalling that steel in acceptable quantities appeared only in the early 19th century. And in industrial quantities - in the second half of the 19th century. after 1864 with the receipt of Bessemerovskaya steel.
        So forget about steel armor, steel sheets and so on. Maskmimum is a "kladenets" knife with a sharp miracle blade.
        1. gladcu2
          gladcu2 22 July 2016 16: 09
          +1
          Chiropractor

          Fencing with a two-handed sword requires good mobility. Perhaps that is why the skirt has a neckline.
      2. otto meer
        otto meer 22 July 2016 13: 26
        +2
        Quote: Igor39
        I read that they were mercenaries.

        That is yes. But not just an unorganized crowd of Holodrons, but a well-structured community with their charters and rank tables. So in order to create a foot regiment of mercenaries, it was necessary to acquire a special patent that every rich nobleman and even, very rarely, a wealthy commoner could acquire.
        And then, having a patent in his hands, his owner was immediately equated with a colonel and legally had a share in the loot. The colonel needed to bring several loyal people who received the rank of captain. These people were hiring new soldiers for the detachment. exact instructions on how many people to recruit in a company, what salary they should be paid. They could also appoint lieutenants and sergeants, etc. etc.
        Such a squad brought good cash income to its commander and political dividends to the emperor. For what Maximilian I actually spun it all.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 22 July 2016 07: 50
    +1
    Reytarsk armor of the late XNUMXth century Higgins Museum. Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. XNUMXth Century Sword with Bottle Shape Handle. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York..etc. trophies of American soldiers during the Second World War ..? .. A. Dürer - is incomparable ... As a child, he collected stamps ... there were series, paintings from various world art galleries .. Was and Dürer ... Thank you, Vyacheslav .. very interesting ..
  5. Stilet
    Stilet 22 July 2016 08: 09
    +1
    I dare to assume that the decoration of armor is the influence of the Renaissance. Europe survived the plague in the 15th century. And then bourgeois revolutions began in the Netherlands and Flanders, plus the exhausting 30th war. Mass armies began to emerge. And where there is a mass, there the art of decorating weapons and armor had to be sacrificed (because it is difficult and expensive, and the bullet of the arquebus does not care which armor to pierce), giving way to practicality and cheapness of manufacture. After all, the more "elegant" a knight looks on the battlefield, the more he attracts attention from the shooters, and accordingly he will not be able to wear richly decorated armor for a long time :) Although, for sure, there were especially stubborn "specimens".
  6. pigkiller
    pigkiller 22 July 2016 10: 07
    +1
    Thank you for the wonderful work! Perhaps it would be nice to make reviews of the largest collections of European medieval defense complexes of the Louvre, the Tower, the Hermitage, La Valletta, etc.?
  7. geologist
    geologist 22 July 2016 10: 15
    0
    St. Eustace with the image on the altar of Albrecht Dürer, 1500. Before us is a typical landsknecht.

    A noble, courageous, intelligent face ... I want to say right away; German and aristocrat ...
    Tournament armor in the style of Landsknecht, in my opinion ... a shell with a hook for a spear, a spear with a peculiar handle, a sword closer to one and a half for riders, one spur for a tournament ...
    Something is missing, but a person can pose without a helmet, protection of hands and hips ...
  8. Verdun
    Verdun 22 July 2016 11: 51
    0
    but the weight of two-handed swords rarely exceeded 3 to
    Bullshit! My friend’s mother is a doctor of historical sciences. And once, a friend and I stopped by her at the storerooms of the Historical Museum. In the room where we ended up, on the floor, neatly wrapped, lay a two-handed sword. And I, a man who was far from weak (I was engaged in rowing in my youth), tried to lift him. I must say that according to my, even subjective feelings, the weapon weighed at least 20 kg. Moreover, if you carefully study the sources, it becomes clear that it was on the great weight of the two-handed sword that the technique of owning it was built. Weapons were dispersed to the required speed, and then all movements were based on maintaining this speed. With what is shown in most films, this technique has little in common. Three kilos is more like the weight of an ordinary sword. In general, high-quality steel, which has good strength and cutting characteristics, weighs a lot. And just a good cutting knife weighs no less than half a kilo. Double-edged combat swords weigh more than a kilogram.
    1. otto meer
      otto meer 22 July 2016 13: 37
      +2
      Quote: Verdun
      I must say that according to my, even subjective feelings, the weapon weighed at least 20 kg.
      Your feelings are deceiving you. The weight of the two-handed rarely exceeded 3 kg. And this is a historical fact.
      Quote: Verdun
      Moreover, if you carefully study the sources, it becomes clear that it was on the great weight of the two-handed sword that the technique of owning it was built. Weapons were dispersed to the required speed, and then all movements were based on maintaining this speed.
      How much do you personally as a person
      Quote: Verdun
      far from weak (in his youth he was engaged in rowing)
      can maintain a speed of 20 kg. piece of iron? I doubt that for a long time ...
      The two-handed technique is based on the principles of leverage (remember the big shoulder, small shoulder), which is why such incredibly long handles and a blunt (sometimes wrapped in leather) blade in the first quarter.
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 23 July 2016 20: 39
        -1
        Quote: otto meer
        Your feelings are deceiving you. The weight of the two-handed rarely exceeded 3 kg. And this is a historical fact.
        You needlessly believe the opinion of inflated "experts". I myself am interested in melee weapons and have read more than enough of various nonsense on this topic. Even if we put aside my feelings and leave the bare facts, we get the following:
        The specific gravity of steel is 7,7 - 7,9 grams per cubic centimeter. If you calculate, albeit approximately, the size of only the sword blade, whose image is presented in the article, is 132 cm long, about 10 cm wide and about 1 cm thick , you get 1320 cubic centimeters. Multiply by 7,8 - the specific gravity of medium quality steel - and we get 10,296 kg. And that's just the blade. But the total length of the sword is 180 cm, and the two-handed handle was specially weighted down to maintain balance. So just within 15 - 20 kg the result comes out. So the "historical fact" is not a fact at all.
        The two-handed technique is based on the principles of leverage (remember the big shoulder, small shoulder), which is why such incredibly long handles and a blunt (sometimes wrapped in leather) blade in the first quarter.
        I have seen such a technique. It is demonstrated by fans of medieval battles at various festivals. And, we have to admit that these people have about the same idea of ​​the true technique of wielding a two-handed sword as ballerinas do about the technique of throwing a hammer. Possessing such a "technique", you will not be able to cut through a thick rope, not just a man. But the main task of a warrior armed with a two-handed sword is to create gaps in the formation of spearmen. The spear shafts were cut with a sword, which were often reinforced with metal plates. At the crosspiece, many swords are dull, because with the correct grip one or more fingers (depending on the size of the weapon) go behind the crosspiece. And yes, in some cases the two-handed was taken with the other hand in front of the crosspiece. Long handles are made so that the swordsman can intercept the already untwisted sword and change the trajectory of its movement.
        How much you personally as a person ... can maintain a speed of 20 kg. piece of iron? I doubt that for a long time ...
        So, therefore, the two-handed sword masters were valued and one such warrior could receive as much as a company of Landsknechts.
        1. nerd.su
          nerd.su 23 July 2016 23: 27
          +2
          Quote: Verdun
          Even if you put aside my feelings and leave the bare facts, you get the following:
          The specific gravity of steel is 7,7 - 7,9 grams per cubic centimeter. If you count, albeit approximately, the size of only the sword blade, whose image is presented in the article - 132 cm length, about 10 cm width and about 1 cm - blade thickness , then get 1320 cubic centimeters.

          Where are your facts besides the blade length of 132 cm? The average width of the blade in the photo is three fingers. This is six centimeters. Even if we take the maximum thickness of the blade for 1 cm at the handle, then to get the average thickness, given that the thickness decreases from the handle to the tip and from the axis to the edges, it is necessary to divide 1 cm by 4. We get 0,25 cm. Then the volume of the blade is 198 cube cm X 7,8 g / cc = 1544,4 grams. With a handle just 3 kg will be.
          1. Verdun
            Verdun 24 July 2016 11: 29
            0
            Quote: bot.su
            With a handle just 3 kg will be.

            You greatly underestimate the size of a two-handed sword. A width of 3 fingers is not even a sword, but a combat sword. At the same time, at the base of the handle, the thickness of the blade of a real two-handed sword (rather than modern crafts) reaches 4, and sometimes even 5 cm.
            1. nerd.su
              nerd.su 24 July 2016 13: 21
              +3
              Quote: Verdun
              You greatly underestimate the size of a two-handed sword. A width of 3 fingers is not even a sword, but a combat sword.

              In the picture, both the sword and fingers are clearly visible.

              Quote: Verdun
              At the same time, at the base of the handle, the thickness of the blade of a real two-handed sword (rather than modern crafts) reaches 4, and sometimes even 5 cm.

              Maybe you are right. Although this is a clear overspending of scarce steel.
              1. Verdun
                Verdun 24 July 2016 13: 41
                -1
                Quote: bot.su
                Maybe you are right. Although this is a clear overspending of scarce steel.

                There will be a desire, visit some media club and try to pick up even modern crafts. You will immediately realize that three kilograms does not smell there. hi And about the cost overrun of steel ... After all, this is the weapon on which the life of its owner depended. It was possible to fork out. At the same time, one should not discard the moment that in the calculations I took as a basis the density of ordinary cast steel. And the blades of swords were compacted by forging, so that their specific gravity was higher.
  9. Altor86
    Altor86 22 July 2016 11: 54
    +1
    Thank you for the article! Very interesting! But mind you, the men were healthy. Not only that, it was necessary to carry, but also had to fight in this scrap metal good
  10. Verdun
    Verdun 22 July 2016 12: 13
    0
    Quote: Altor86
    But mind you, the men were healthy.

    Alexander Nevsky - a confirmed fact - swung the rider in armor to the saddle with a sword. The Russian princes had such a standard - they molded their resin and straw, stuffed their chain mail and ... Alexander Yaroslavovich’s height was not at all the same as that of actor Nikolai Cherkasov, who played his role in the movie. Just 164 cm.
    1. otto meer
      otto meer 22 July 2016 13: 44
      +3
      Quote: Verdun
      Alexander Nevsky - a confirmed fact - swung the rider in armor to the saddle with a sword.
      And also this is true, Nevsky could burn a dozen dogs-knights with one glance, and also had the ability to levitate. smile Excuse me generously! But the truth - smiled!
      Quote: Verdun
      There was such a standard for Russian princes
      And for the fulfillment of the standard, the TRP badges were given? That's where the legs of the TRP are growing! I apologize again! No offense. drinks
      1. your1970
        your1970 29 July 2016 22: 03
        0
        Quote: otto meer
        Quote: Verdun
        Alexander Nevsky - a confirmed fact - swung the rider in armor to the saddle with a sword. And also this is true, Nevsky could burn a dozen dogs-knights with one glance, and also had the ability to levitate. Excuse me generously! But the truth - smiled!

        Well, let’s say, the Ural Cossacks (a 100% confirmed museum acquaintance) in the WWI chopped an infantryman almost from shoulder to pelvis along the spine (without crossing it), with an oblique impact (with the transition of the spine), the cut did not go below the nipple line. in any case, it weighs much lighter than a two-handed one, though here it should be noted that part of the weight of the person joined the weight. Even the foot Cossacks cut off the arm in a collision with infantry.
  11. gladcu2
    gladcu2 22 July 2016 16: 20
    0
    It must be said that many historical novels or, say, newfangled alternative stories described the life of the Landsknechts in sufficient detail.

    I read it with the author, a professional historian, and compared with books. Noted for myself.

    But chasing on the armor is surprising. All the lines are very correct and beautiful. After all, the right to make a mistake is not given. You won’t rub it with rubber or sandpaper.