"Social elevators" in the past and now
Some time ago an interesting topic of “social elevators” “surfaced” at the HE. Again began in the comments to appear beaten stamps about the crunch of the French loaf (well, how much can you repeat the same thing ?!), and everything, as a rule, came down to personal debating experiences. Sadly, the content analysis of the same “comments” unequivocally shows that VO visitors do not read not only the Issues of History magazine, the History of State and Law magazines (well, apparently considering them too serious), but also Rodina magazine where there are also links to archive files, and where very serious researchers are writing. Moreover, I would characterize this journal as “massive”, “with pictures”, that is, interesting in all respects and written by no means in an excessively scientific language. And there is also a rather popular (in the sense of presentation) “Military-Historical Journal” and the magazine “History in Detail”, interesting because each of its numbers is devoted to one specific historical topic. Links to these publications in the comments are missing, alas.
Therefore, it makes sense to rely not on scientific work, which few people read anyway, but on a very personal, I would say, family experience, which everyone has in this regard. This, of course, is not quite a scientific approach, because there are always exceptions, but, nevertheless, being documented, it also turns into a certain historical source. Today it has become fashionable to look for your family tree. Our state Penza archive is full of such "search engines", and many work for money. But I was lucky with the sources in this regard. Many documents are kept in my home, and many of them are simply unique.
So, “social elevators” ... What our ancestors could and could not, and when their work played a certain role in their fate, and where only “lady luck” is always desired, but windy and not constant.
The second page, no, not a passport, but ... the “passport book” (as they called it then) of my great-grandfather Konstantin Petrov Taratynov — they wrote for some reason then.
Well, I would like to start (since we are talking about the most ordinary level of reality) from the history of his great-grandfather: Peter Konstantinovich Taratynov, a tradesman of the city of Morshansk, according to an Orthodox passport, which was important for Russia then. How he was in Penza, I can not say. But I know that by the year 1882 he was already a master of the locomotive workshops of the Syzran-Vyazma railway, and he did not immediately become a master, he went all the way from the ordinary worker. But ... did not drink! Anyone who offered him a "fill up", said that he had vowed God, and people lagged behind him. He went under his command to 100 workers, and if someone brought his son to the workshops, he had to “bow with a quarter ticket”. And it was not a bribe, but “respect”. A bribe would be “Katenka” or “Peter”, because there was a line in the workshops, everyone knew each other, and bypass it was difficult to get through to the profitable place (it was followed!), And not “godly” ". My grandfather told me about it, named after his father Peter, and he was the last child in the family, and in total there were five sons and five daughters, but only many children died. There are three sons left, and the girl is only one.
One of the elevators upstairs in Tsarist Russia was faith. That is, if you are Orthodox, then you had more chances. But if you were hardworking, did not drink, and worked diligently, then, living in the city, you could easily make a career, save up for home, and educate children.
And in the year of 1882 with the money he built a house in Penza, on Aleksandrovskaya Street. And ... that night they burned down his house. Such people were kind and responsive to the success of others in Penza. True, not all burned. And from my charred logs my great-grandfather laid down a large barn, and then I was very surprised to look at him - why are the logs burning? Then the great-grandfather went to the merchant Paramonov and took out a loan, and he insured the new house in the company of Salamander. The sign on the door remained until the 1974 year, when our house was demolished and given an apartment nearby.
Continuing to work, Peter Konstantinovich gave all the children an education. Vladimir graduated from high school, teacher's institute and taught mathematics all his life. As a child (he died in the 1961 year), I didn’t like him very much, and above all, because he always addressed my grandfather patronizingly and called him “Pierre”. Sister Olga also graduated from some women's courses, learned to speak French and ... married a colonel of the Russian Imperial Army! It seems to be like? After all, the daughter of a railway master ... But somehow she came out (here it is, a social elevator!) And on the eve of World War I went with him to Paris, where "profuril" (family tradition!) A whole pot out of sour cream ("jar", yes?) gold coins! All your dowry! I saw such a pot at my grandmother, I remember a family gold coin (“on the teeth”) with the profile of Nicholas, and I simply could not believe my ears. After all, at school we were told that both the workers and their children in Tsarist Russia were all doomed to poverty and illiteracy. And the 1917 revolution is not a confirmation? But that means not all.
My grandfather, alas, turned out to be a "scorching sheep" in the herd (he said so to me!). He was born last, in the 1891 year, and in the 15 years he went to Hammer in the same workshops. Hammerman! In the family, everyone said: “Fu!” And he waved a hammer for three years until he made an inguinal hernia, and at the same time a “white ticket”, so that in 1914, he was not taken to the army. And how “the whole woman came out”, the grandfather took up his mind, finished the gymnasium, the teacher’s courses and became a teacher. And then the revolution! In the winter of 1918, the grandfather signed up for the party (!), And in the summer he was sent with a detachment to take bread from the kulaks. He shot, shot at him, but remained alive, although he was hiding from Antonovtsy in the closet. But ... the same year he left the Bolshevik Party! Mother died, there is no one to bury, but it is necessary, and again with the detachment ... "revolution in danger", or a funeral, or "a ticket to the table." He preferred the latter, his mother buried and ... went. And no one told him anything. Such then in the revolution were strange relations in the camp of revolutionaries.
Interestingly, in 1918, the decision was made to municipalize housing. That is, all housing from private became public. This provided the possibility of compaction, that is, the sharing of some people to others. After all, if your house is no longer yours, then you can do anything with it. But ... in 1926, the houses were “de-municipalized”. The government was unable to provide housing with proper care and repairs!
And his sister Olga leaned with her husband to Don, and there she went to the cart and fired a machine gun. Where does the information come from? And who knows, he heard at home, but he heard that her husband left her, “sailed to Constantinople,” and she came with a child from Crimea to Penza on foot. She came, stood under the window, where the grandfather and my grandmother were sitting, drinking tea and saying: “Pierre, look, I’m naked!” Undress the bathrobe, but there is nothing under it. And the grandfather gave her a teacher in some village and gave a bag of flour. He saved it. And she had three children: both sons, like my grandfather, died in the war, and her daughter and her and my grandfather remained and grew up.
The “Subscription” agreement was envisaged for the “de-municipalization” agreement that the owner of the returned housing undertook to repair it within a year. And then, they say, “municipalize” again!
But the funny thing is that she was never grateful to him. According to the court, after the death of “Uncle Volodya” (brother Vladimir), she chopped off part of the house, and when a dispute arose over the stove and carrying the wall, she said: “I didn’t heat my brother!” For which she received from her grandfather - "Bitch and White Guard b ..." I had to watch these "touching family relationships" in childhood, and then I firmly decided (like one of the characters in the film "Beware of the car") that "you must marry an orphan." As a result, the wall had to be moved to 15 centimeters!
In 1940, the grandfather re-entered the VKP (b) as a member, graduated from an external teaching institute, that is, received a higher education, and worked throughout the war as head of the goron, so much so that he was awarded the Order of Lenin and the Badge of Honor. But even though he was, as they said, an “order-bearer”, his family lived in terrible distress. The house had an entrance hall, a storage room, two rooms and a kitchen. Here lived my grandfather and grandmother, his two sons and his daughter. And in 1959, the grandfather was sleeping in the hallway at the door, the grandmother was on the couch at the table, and my mother and I were in a small bedroom (the door to the left). And only after the death of brother Vladimir, we got the whole house, and my grandfather had a separate room. But near the windows in the tubs were palm trees: date and fan. But many in our street lived even worse, and even poorer - by an order of magnitude.
Such certificates of honor were given to students during the Great Patriotic War.
Immediately after the seventh grade, my mother went to a pedagogical school, and then, in 1946, to a pedagogical institute, after which she worked first at school, and then she was invited to work at a university. The grandfather did not attach any "hairy hands" to this. Then, of course, it was also, but it was not very accepted. Moreover, the grandfather was in such a position that the slightest mistake could cost him and his whole family very dearly. But ... then the "elevator" apparently worked. With all the other things being equal, who would you hire to a higher education institution? Of course, a person ... with a higher level of culture, which ensures, above all, ... the position of parents. So that certain benefits of social status and then no one has canceled.
Well, as for my grandfather, his “elevator”, on the contrary, gradually carried him down. First, from the head of the school to the principal, then to the teacher of geography and labor, and then to retire, however, the republican one. But 52 of the year he gave pedagogical work, and it was strange for me, a boy, to observe how the workers who were leaving the factory, who was sitting on a bench near the gate, continually approached him and said: "But I studied with you."
This is how the school teachers of the Penza 47 school looked with their principal (center) in the 1959 year. Looking at this photo, I always think that I can only be glad that the hair has obviously not gone to my grandfather.
(To be continued)
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