Military Review

Big Terror - numbers, facts, and very few conclusions (part of 1)

146
The state is strongly conscious of the masses. It is strong when the masses know everything, can judge everything and go to everything consciously.
Lenin V.I.


"... the tops of spit on the bottoms, spitting fall down, the bottoms spit on the tops, spitting fall down, physics!"
Igor39


A few months ago, namely 5 in March, an article by A. Wasserman on the repressions of the Stalinist era appeared in the TOPWAR pages, in which the author gave real numbers of convicts based on relevant sources. However, these figures (and without the "millions" of those who were shot!) From his article were printed in the school textbook Dmitrenko V.P., Esakova V.D. and Shestakova V.A. "History Fatherland. Twentieth century. 11 class. M .: Drofa, 1995 year. Almost all of them are freely available, and were published a long time ago, for example, apart from a textbook, in the magazine Rodina, which is very attentive to all the facts of the distortion of national history, both on the right and on the left!

Recently, VO readers have become noticeably more attentive to the source base of articles offered to their attention, and this is a very gratifying fact. But many out of habit (especially in polemics) refer to materials from the Internet, which ... also have no references to sources, but for some reason they themselves do not use available (on the same Internet) archival materials. Lack of habit, probably, but there’s nothing terrible about it. And to the attention of those who are interested in all this, I would like to suggest one very serious source. So that any VO reader could see and read everything on his own, and not in the retelling of someone.

So, back in 2004, that is, 12 years ago, the GARF archive (State Archive of the Russian Federation) launched the release of the collection of documents “The Stalinist Gulag History. The end of 1920's is the first half of the 1950's. Collection of documents in 7 volumes. (Ed. Ed. N. Vert, S.V. Mironenko; otv. Compiler I.A. Zyuzina. - M .: Russian Political Encyclopedia (ROSSPEN), 2004.) What is included there? And here is what: Preface A.I. Solzhenitsyn (it’s not necessary to think that if his preface is there, then the documents from this became worse - far from it.); Preface R. Conquest;
"History of the Stalinist Gulag": a brief overview of the main problems and concepts;
Introduction
• Section 1. Dispensation and terror. 1930 - 1932
• Section 2. Terror and hunger. 1932 - 1934
• Section 3. "Streamline Terror". 1933 - 1936
• Section 4. "Great Terror"
• Section 5. In the conditions of military mobilization. 1939 - 1945
• Section 6. Mass repression and emergency legislation. 1946 - 1953
• Section 7. Revision of repressive policies. 1953 - 1955
• Applications
• Notes
• Name Index
• Geographical index
• List of abbreviations

Big Terror - numbers, facts, and very few conclusions (part of 1)

All volumes of this publication are freely available. Take, read and study. In the archive itself you can request copies of these documents made from the originals.

Since there is simply a lot of documents in this edition, it makes sense to look only at the most interesting ones, and everything else should be read independently, thoughtfully and carefully, otherwise ... the past may well be repeated!


Heinrich Jagoda was the first to bring terror to the stream under Stalin. Whether it is by itself or by order from above is not so important. From the point of view of the human factor, it is more important that he enjoyed high posts and honors for a short time. He was only two years Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR (1934 - 1936), and then he was removed from all posts, tried and executed in 1938. He confessed to immoral acts and that the forest sold in the United States and appropriated money. He regretted not having shot those who tried him, having great power in his hands!


In place of Yagoda, Nikolai Yezhov came to the People's Commissar of the NKVD. He was also “unlucky”, although the poet Dzhambul even “Song of a Batyr Yezhov” composed. The national akyn was able to write poems about people who are in power, which is already there. Well, Yezhov was arrested already in 1939 year, as an enemy who was preparing the coup (!), And also a homosexual who was engaged in humbling ... "acting for anti-Soviet and selfish purposes." That is, he, too, was a “hidden amoralist”, like Yagoda. In 1940, he was shot ...

So, let's start with 31 July 1937, when N.I. Yezhov, People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR (1936 - 1938), signed an order issued by the Politburo of the Central Committee (VKP / b) of the NKVD of the USSR No. 0447 “On the operation to repress former fists, criminals and other anti-Soviet elements”, which defined the task of defeating “anti-Soviet elements "And the composition of the" operational triples "to expedite the consideration of such cases. The troika usually consisted of: the chairman - the local chief of the NKVD, the members - the local prosecutor and the first secretary of the regional, regional or republican committee of the CPSU (b): “... In accordance with this - I ORDER: from August 5 1937 in all republics, territories and areas to begin an operation to repress former kulaks, active anti-Soviet elements and criminals; in the Uzbek, Turkmen, Kazakh, Tajik and Kyrgyz SSR, the operation should start from August 10 with. city, and in the Far Eastern and Krasnoyarsk Territories and the East Siberian region with 15 August p. city ​​"


... And removed from all photos! In this photo, the “slick coupler” is no longer. Retouchers worked for glory! And he was to the right of the leader ...

“I would think that if we keep the troika, then for a very short period of time, a maximum of a month ... Firstly, the front of operations in itself became more significant than it was at the height of the operation in 1937. Secondly, most of our apparatus must be immediately switched to undercover work. Working with triples is easy, simple work, it teaches people to deal with enemies quickly and decisively, but living long with triples is dangerous. Why? Because in these conditions ... people are counting on minimal evidence and are distracted from the main thing - from agent work ”(People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of Belarus BD Berman at a meeting of the leadership of the NKVD of the USSR in Moscow 24 January 1938 of the year).

Then, by decision of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) No. P65 / 116 from 17 in November 1938, the judicial triples created by way of special orders of the NKVD of the USSR, as well as the troika at the regional, regional and republican departments of the RK, the police were eliminated. Cases were referred to the courts or the Special Meeting of the NKVD of the USSR. Well, what was it guided by? Why, that's what: “To defeat our enemies, we must have our own socialist militarism. We must lead 90 from 100 to millions of Soviet Russia’s population. As for the rest, we have nothing to say. They must be destroyed. " Such a statement was made in 1918 by the head of the Communist International, Grigory Zinoviev. Again, ironically, Zinoviev was most recently purged and shot in 1936. However, the figure in 10 million "extra" citizens in Russia, he still called, so what was there to stand on ceremony?

The results of the activities of triples
From August 1937 of the year to November, 1939-th according to the sentences of triples of 390 thousand people were executed, 380 thousand people were sent to GULAG camps. In July, 1938, functionaries and NKVD officers sent the necessary information to Moscow, but did not meet the deadlines, so the data were presented only preliminary, estimated. In the same month, the regions carried out a correction in the number of people being pursued, and, of course, upwards. Interestingly, NS presented most of all candidates for execution. Khrushchev, while the first secretary of the Moscow OK WKP / b. Obviously I wanted to show myself more holy than the Pope and stay alive at all costs! As of 10 July, 41 305 “criminal and kulak elements” were counted: 8 500 was proposed to be shot (first category), and 32 805 was evicted (second category). However, here it should be noted: he himself, as is often written and said about this, was not a member of the troika, which is the data of the corresponding archive - the Central Bank of the FSB of the Russian Federation, F. 66, Op. 5. D. 2 L.155-174. Khrushchev really should have been a member of the troika, but was replaced by his deputy, Volkov, even before the operational order was issued, and the troika was formed and approved.

Here is the order, but under it are the names of the approved "troechnik"



In letters to Moscow, there were constantly requests to increase the number of the repressed. Relevant proposals concerned prisoners, special and labor settlers, “pests”, instigators, fugitives and their accomplices. Permits to persecute the clergy were also directly required. And the Politburo usually satisfied the requests of the local authorities!

The main role in the investigation belonged to the heads of republican, regional and regional departments of the NKVD. They approved the lists of candidates for arrest (and without the sanction of the prosecutor! - note of the author), and also drafted and sent indictments (often no more than a page) for review by the troika.

At one time, the royal court, a jury court, acquitted the terrorist woman Vera Zasulich, and justified solely because the lawyer defending her pointed out the mistakes made by the investigation. True, the very next day the jury's decision was protested. But Zasulich, of course, has already managed to go abroad.

Well, and here all the investigation was carried out “expeditiously and in a simplified manner”, without respecting the elementary rights of the accused. The meetings took place behind closed doors, in the absence of the accused, which left him no opportunity for defense. Of course, they did not even think about lawyers. Where did they get so many? The revision of the decisions made by the troika was not provided by the order (!), Therefore the sentences were carried out quickly. Unlike theatrical processes against representatives of the party elite, the confessions of the accused did not play any role.

In the preface to the secret speech at the XX Congress of the CPSU (1956) party and state leader Nikita Khrushchev announced the statistics of victims of Stalinism. According to the data sounded by him, about 1,5 million people were arrested during the Great Terror, of whom more than 680 thousand were executed. However, these figures did not take into account all the victims of this campaign, since they did not take into account, in particular, deaths during the investigation, transportation, or a serious excess of the “death limits” in the Turkmen SSR.


Heinrich Yagoda and the young Cossack Nikita Khrushchev - she is also a “sweet couple”!

Modern Russian historians estimate the number of prisoners only in the “kulak operation” to 820 thousand, of which from 437 thousand to 445 thousand were shot. There is also a figure of 800 thousand prisoners, of which from 350 thousand to 400 thousand shot. Thus, about 50,4% of the total number of those convicted during the "kulak operation" were doomed to death, while in the "national operations" usually more than 70% were condemned to the death penalty. That is, there was still some factor? Which one

In view of the ongoing campaigns of terror and persecution simultaneously or closely behind each other, the prisons, camps and settlements of the GULAG were overcrowded. The number of prisoners increased from 786 595 (1 July 1937 of the year) to more 1 126 500 (February 1 1938 of the year), and more 1 317 195 (January 1 1939 of the year). As a result, adverse conditions of detention have deteriorated. According to archival data in 1937, 33 499 prisoners died, and the next year - 126 585 prisoners. During the deportation and transportation in 1938, 38 killed thousands of people more than last year. According to the statistics of the time in 1938, more than 9% of prisoners, or a little more than 100 thousand people, were unable to work due to illness, disability or loss of strength. In 1939, the number of disabled people, not counting disabled people, was already 150 thousand people.

Appointed instead of Yezhov, Lawrence Beria carried out a “purge” in the NKVD and forced more than 7 thousand employees (about 22% of the total) to leave the service in the bodies. From the end of 1938 of the year to the end of 1939 of the year, 1 364 of the NKVD officer was arrested on his orders, and in addition, almost the entire leadership of the republican and district levels was replaced. The highest ranking officials were shot. And here's the question: did they fail or overdo it? But after all they executed the order? Or ... not performed?


Joseph Stalin, George Malenkov, Lawrence Beria, Anastas Mikoyan on the platform of the mausoleum.

Beria rehabilitated some of the victims of the reign of Yezhov. At the same time, the fight against “pests”, “insurgents” and “enemies” continued further, and using the same methods that were blamed on former NKVD officers. The volume of persecution decreased as the tasks of the Soviet political elite changed. Since then, mass operations were no longer carried out.

Many members of the triples were also repressed: 47 representatives of the NKVD, 67 members of the party and two representatives of the prosecutor's office were sentenced to death.

Discussions about the rehabilitation of victims of repression began during the life of Stalin during the period from 1939 to 1941, in connection with investigations into "violations of socialist legality". The question arose about the feasibility of reviewing cases and mechanisms for its implementation. The relevant orders and regulations indicated that the revision of sentences could be carried out by former investigators or their successors, and was under the control of the 1-th special department of the NKVD and the relevant departments of the NKVD republics, territories, regions. From November 1938 to 1941, the review of sentences became centralized and, as a result, slowed down. Released remained under the control of "organs". Repeated investigations rarely revealed new facts. Sometimes the NKVD interrogated additional "witnesses". Even the smallest evidence of violation of the loyalty of the accused led to the refusal of further review of the case. The formal errors found in the investigation documents did not mean a review of the case, and the cases for further investigation were not sent (the lesson with the Zasulich case was learned!), Which means the person continued to sit. In general, the revision of sentences and the release of convicts were rare exceptions.

5 March 1953, shortly after Stalin’s death, Beria ordered the release of the overcrowded and overloaded GULAG camps. 27 March was released immediately 1,2 million prisoners. Political prisoners were not amnestied, but those who were not considered a threat to society and convicted under the general articles of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR and the Union republics were released. After the arrest of Beria 26 June, this policy continued. Special commissions reviewed the cases of those convicted of "counter-revolutionary crimes." Members of these commissions were high-ranking officials from the NKVD and the prosecutor's office, as well as institutions that had previously participated in “national” and “kulak” operations. In total, about 237 thousand cases were investigated under the 58 article of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR, which accounted for 45% of all prisoners under this article. 53% sentences were upheld, 43% were softened so that the convicts could go free, 4% were canceled.


"Leaders of a lower rank." May Day parade 1941 year in Kiev. Photo from the newspaper "Pravda".

In the second half of 1955, some political prisoners were also granted amnesty. At the end of the year, the total number of people in the GULAG camps was 2,5 million, and by the XX Congress of the CPSU there were about 110 thousand people, that is, the process of liberation was truly rapid! At the end of the congress, a commission was established to review the sentences on the 58 article. By the end of 1956, about 100 thousand people were released. At the beginning of 1957, some more 15 thousand convicts under the 58 article were released. That is, there are no more political prisoners left in the USSR! So, after 20 years after the end of the Great Terror, his last victims were released. Prior to this, the terms of their conclusion were constantly extended. That is, a person was convicted for the same “crime” several times, which no law allows! In 1980, the families of those executed received false reports about the death of their relatives in labor camps. The real places and dates of burial were made public only from 1989 onwards.

Well, and the conclusion? The conclusion is this: the authorities tried to answer the calls of the 20s and ... answered. More or less well. For example, NEP. But the “challenges” of the 30s were much more difficult, and society became more difficult. And then the “answer” option was chosen - a return to the practice of civil war, to the struggle of “whites and reds”, but only in a new interpretation. It was the easiest and most effective way to manage society (precisely because of its simplicity), equally suitable for any situation and, moreover, also economically profitable!

(To be continued)
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  1. Alex_59
    Alex_59 27 July 2016 06: 48
    +29
    I can not put a minus, not a plus. Conclusions about the "option of managing society" through repression looks strained, this is possibly one of the reasons for repression, but not the only one and perhaps not the main one. The processes preceding the Great Terror are not mentioned at all, and without this, much is impossible to understand correctly. For example, there are a lot of real oppositionists, both right and left, among the party leaders who went to destroy. Moreover, Stalin fiddled with them since the 20s, as with small children. Some were expelled from the party several times, sent to hard work in remote parts of the country, those renounced their views, they were returned. But as reality showed, they renounced formally, and even went underground. Obviously, by the mid-30s, Stalin was tired of this, and the time had changed - it was dangerous to sabotage industrialization, preparations were underway for war. Here are all of them and that ... Here are examples of such oppositionists:
    Kosior, Vladislav Vikentyevich
    Goltzman, Eduard Solomonovich
    Gaven, Yuri Petrovich
    Stan, Jan Ernestovich
    Slepkov, Alexander Nikolaevich
    Efim Viktorovich Tsetlin
    Zinoviev, Grigory Evseevich
    Radek, Karl Bernhardovich
    Preobrazhensky, Evgeny Alekseevich
    Smirnov, Ivan Nikitich
    Bakaev, Ivan Petrovich
    Mrachkovsky, Sergey Vitalievich
    Kamenev, Lev Borisovich
    Syrtsov, Sergey Ivanovich
    and so on.
    1. Papandopulo
      Papandopulo 27 July 2016 07: 12
      +2
      Heinrich Yagoda and the young Cossack Nikita Khrushchev - she is also a “sweet couple”!

      for which to put a plus? not a single Russian person, and all Trotskyist "Cossacks" ...

      Under Stalin, there was first Yezhov, then Beria.
      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 27 July 2016 19: 37
        +10
        1. “I would consider that if you save the triples, then for a very short period of time, for a maximum of a month ... Because in these conditions ... people rely on minimal evidence and are distracted from the main thing - from undercover work” (People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs of Belarus B.D. Berman at a meeting of the leadership of the NKVD of the USSR in Moscow on January 24, 1938).
        He was a member of the Belarusian Republican Special NKVD Troika. Responsible for the extermination of tens of thousands of Belarusians in the Kurapaty tract.
        What is Berman's quote quoted in the article? He did not have time to give a hint about the triples, and in September he was slapped? Let's regret an honest man?
        2. “In order to defeat our enemies, we must have our own socialist militarism. We must lead 90 of the 100 million people in Soviet Russia. As for the rest, we have nothing to say. They must be destroyed. ” This statement was made in 1918 by the head of the Communist International Grigory Zinoviev. Again, ironically, Zinoviev was later purged and shot in 1936. However, he nevertheless called the figure of 10 million "extra" citizens in Russia, so what was especially ceremonial here?
        You see, the Trotskyists have 10 million extra people, and Stalin is here. Or Stalin performed in 1937. what Zinoviev croaked as much in 1918? This is juggling with facts.
    2. svp67
      svp67 27 July 2016 07: 31
      +22
      Quote: Alex_59
      Conclusions about the "option of managing society" through repression looks strained, this is possibly one of the reasons for repression, but not the only one and perhaps not the main one.

      How to say. You know, once listening to the conversation of one of the strong historians, I remembered the phrase that he turned, namely, that the archives still contain documents and letters in which people who took a little part in revolutionary events complain about their hard life, that they say they did the revolution, and they did not find a commanding position in the new state. And they wrote these letters until the mid-30s, and then they cut it off. So I think that these measures were taken to "bring to life" in particular, and such complainants. It was necessary to work, not to write scribbles.
      1. Zulu_S
        Zulu_S 27 July 2016 10: 57
        +1
        Quote: svp67
        in the archives there are still documents and letters in which people who have taken the slightest part in the revolutionary events complain about their hard life, that they say they did the revolution, but they did not find a leading position in the new state. And they wrote these letters until the mid-30s, and there it snapped


        They brought to life. All. Until now, the country cannot smell it
    3. avt
      avt 27 July 2016 08: 39
      +23
      Quote: Alex_59
      . For example, among the party leaders who went to annihilation, there are a lot of real oppositionists, both right and left. Moreover, Stalin fiddled with them from the 20s, as with small children. Some were expelled from the party several times, sent to hard work in remote parts of the country, they renounced their views and were returned. But as reality showed, they renounced formally, and even went underground.

      Absolutely right! It is stupid to consider repressions separately from the internal party practically war in the CPSU! Again, with the same berry, the conclusion of the conclusion of discord. We say one thing is a convinced Trotskyist Shalamov, who frankly survived solely by misunderstanding, another thing is dispossessed, well
      In letters to Moscow, there were constantly requests to increase the number of people being repressed. Relevant proposals concerned prisoners, special and labor settlers, “wreckers”, instigators, fugitives and their accomplices.
      sent to "communism" construction sites, mainly in remote areas.
      Beria rehabilitated some of the victims of the reign of Yezhov. At the same time, the struggle against "pests", "rebels" and "enemies" continued further,
      the author claims a hunger analysis, so be so kind as to at least indicate the number of rehabilitated officers in the army, and moreover, reinstated in the party. Moreover, the author is right in asserting
      Recently, VO readers have become noticeably more attentive to the source database of articles offered to their attention, and this is a very encouraging fact. But many out of habit (especially in controversy) refer to materials from the Internet that ... also have no links to sources, but for some reason they themselves do not use accessible (on the Internet) archival materials.
      The GULAG archive was opened a long time ago! That's just, "human rights activists", "memorialists" prefer to work off grants for a long-term, well, like, bit by bit from eyewitnesses, and a reference book ... but actually, naturally, the gospel for them is the book of one American, who was the number of repressions according to polls of emigrants ...
      1. avt
        avt 27 July 2016 08: 42
        +24
        .Well, about the conclusion
        Well, what about the conclusion? The conclusion is this: the authorities tried to answer the challenges of the 20s and ... answered. More or less good. For example, NEP. But the “challenges” of the 30s were already much more complicated, and society became more complex.
        laughing Author! I am begging you ! NEP in life gave exactly what the dashing 90s gave! Exactly the same petty hucksters roamed, but the leadership and Stalin specifically saw the prospect of such development and discrepancy
        But the “challenges” of the 30s were already much more complicated, and society became more complex. And then the “answer” option was chosen - a return to the practice of civil war, to the struggle of the “white and red”, but only in a new interpretation.
        But I would like to see some kind of “human rights activist” wringing his hands, how he would cope with persuasion with people who, since 1914, have fought continuously on their territory in the Civil Ten years without a break, when almost ALL the population is under arms and the cost of human life not even a penny in the mass consciousness. "The Iron Age, Iron Hearts ..." request This is today at a computer in a privatized apartment with a warm water closet with a cup of coffee, but knowing the result, you can paralyze on the topic of “how would I do better”.
        1. jjj
          jjj 27 July 2016 10: 03
          +16
          How the NKVD could, by its order, regulate the activities of the prosecutor's office and party bodies. No, they could have been held for the kukan, but not officially ordered. The essence of the appearance of "triplets" has not been revealed at all. But it is known that this was demanded by the delegates of the seventeenth congress of the "winners". They demanded that the issues of repression be resolved locally out of court. This was done. But the local authorities got so loose that they had to put them up against the wall. So almost all the delegates to the Seventeenth Congress were shot.
          As for the people's commissars of internal affairs, these were real bloody maniacs. Therefore, they did not rule for long. Yezhov, even Comrade Stalin was afraid. Only the appointment of Lavrenty Pavlovich brought order
          1. potroshenko
            potroshenko 27 July 2016 10: 43
            +1
            Well, then the time was terrible. The man did not have the right to his views, the party elite killed the competitors. An ordinary person could lose his life due to the fact that the local nkvdshnik was cattle or a neighbor liked his wife and he wrote a denunciation. I don’t understand how some here are trying to find excuses and whitewash the killers.
            1. Baikal
              Baikal 27 July 2016 15: 47
              +6
              Despite the fact that your personality makes me feel nauseous laughing , I can not agree - to justify the killers is stupid. However, it is also true that THEN - this is not NOW at all, and the time was really very tough and difficult. Most likely, the authorities could not act differently, no matter how regrettable.
              1. potroshenko
                potroshenko 28 July 2016 10: 15
                +1
                Quote: Baikal
                Most likely, the authorities could not act differently

                Well, you are a well-known fan of revenge and terror on the site, probably your ancestors were in the ranks of former criminals and got into how many of them were in the Cheka then in the 20s. and they shot people, otherwise where did you get the thirst for grief and the death of strangers all the time?
                1. MrK
                  MrK 28 July 2016 15: 04
                  +2
                  Quote: potroshenko
                  where do you get the thirst for grief and the death of strangers all the time?


                  And where does this thirst come from today in Ukraine
                  1. potroshenko
                    potroshenko 29 July 2016 13: 47
                    +1
                    Quote: mrark
                    And where does this thirst come from today in Ukraine

                    Are there any specific questions for me?
        2. gray smeet
          gray smeet 27 July 2016 10: 18
          +19
          In February 1954, a note was prepared in the name of N. S. Khrushchev, signed by the Prosecutor General of the USSR R. Rudenko, the Minister of Internal Affairs of the USSR S. Kruglov and the Minister of Justice of the USSR K. Gorshenin, in which the number of persons convicted of counter-revolutionary crimes was called for the period from 1921 to February 1, 1954. FROMAccording to this certificate, during this period 3 people were condemned by the Collegium of the OGPU, the "troikas" of the NKVD, the Special Meeting, the Military Collegium, courts and military tribunals, including 777 people were sentenced to death, and to detention in camps and prisons for a period of 380 years and below - 642 people, to exile and deportation - 980 people.

          Please note that this is a statistic for 32 years, and this is the Civil War, this is a very difficult era after it. This is four years of a terrible war with the Nazis. This is the most difficult period after the Great Patriotic War. This is a fight against numerous gangs of Bandera and the so-called forest brothers. Among these repressions and Yagoda with Yezhov, and other bloody executioners. Among these are the traitors of the Vlasovites. There are also deserters and marauders, self-gunners, alarmists. Members of the gangster underground. Nazi collaborators who shed blood. Here is the "Leninist Guard", which destroyed the great country to the delight of the enemies of Russia. Zinoviev and Kamenev are here. The rest of the Trotskyists are also in this number. Workers of the Comintern. The executioner Bela Kun, who drowned officers in the Crimea by thousands with stones around his necks. That is, the total number of repressed over these 32 years is very multifaceted, polysyllabic.
          1. gray smeet
            gray smeet 27 July 2016 10: 19
            +11
            Remember this figure: for the period from 1921 to February 1, 1954, 642 people were sentenced to death and this is for 980 years. This is what really happened. This must be known and remembered.

            About the allegedly repressed command staff of the Red Army from May 1937 to September 1939 in the amount of 40 thousand people. It was such a round figure that the Spark magazine (No. 26, 1986, for the first time) named for the first time, followed by Moskovskiye Novosti followed by other publications. Where did this figure come from? ... But from where.

            The fact is that on May 5 of 1940 of the year, Head of the Main Personnel Directorate of the People's Commissariat of Defense, Lieutenant-General E.Schadenko presented to I.V. Stalin the “Management Report” for the year 1939. It said that during the 1937 — 1939 years, the Red Army was dismissed from the ranks of the Red Army, 36898 commanders. I emphasize - FRAUDED !!!

            Of these, in 1937, 18 was fired 658 people. (13,1% of the payroll of the commanding and political staff), in 1938 year, 16 was dismissed 362 people (9,2% commanders), in 1939 year, 1878 people (0,7% commanders) were dismissed.

            The motives were as follows: 1) by age; 2) for health reasons; 3) for disciplinary offenses; 4) for moral instability; 5) were fired for political reasons 19 106 (of which, after complaints filed and checks made, 9247 were reinstated in 1938-1939); 6) was arrested, that is, repressed, there were 9579 people of commanders (of which 1457 people were restored in 1938-1939).

            Thus, it can be stated that the number of officers arrested in 1937-1939 (without the Air Force and Navy) is 8122 people (3% of the total commanding staff for 1939 a year).

            Of these, 70 was sentenced to be shot, 17 was shot - mostly the highest, for example, two out of five marshals (Tukhachevsky for organizing a Trotskyist military plot, Egorov for participating in espionage, preparing terrorist acts and participating in a candidate organization), also One Marshal Blucher was arrested for participating in a military-fascist conspiracy, which led to unreasonable losses and the deliberate failure of the operation on Lake Hassan, but he died in prison. Also for similar highly dangerous crimes 5 from 9 commanders of 1 rank (Belov, Yakir, Uborevich, Fedko, Frinovsky) and other representatives of the "fifth column" were shot.

            And, finally, the most vivid testimony from the mouth of the enemy:

            "... The Wehrmacht just betrayed me, I perish at the hands of my own generals. Stalin committed a brilliant act, arranging a purge in the Red Army and getting rid of rotten aristocracy" (from the interview of A. Hitler, given to him, journalist K. Shpeydelyu in late April 1945 d)
            1. gray smeet
              gray smeet 27 July 2016 10: 27
              +21
              And here is a document from where our Memorialists draw data:
              1. gray smeet
                gray smeet 27 July 2016 10: 53
                +8
                And after such leaflets, such monuments appear in Rostov-on-Don:
                1. gray smeet
                  gray smeet 27 July 2016 10: 56
                  +11
                  continuation of the "monument". We compare the numbers ... And in fifty years, even our children will know (they are being told this!) That Stalin shot 300 million people.
          2. chenia
            chenia 27 July 2016 11: 33
            +5
            I can’t understand who is minus you? That's how liberals don't like the truth.

            Your (links) objective data correlate with my conclusions on losses (see below - some also don’t like it).

            There, 4-6 million losses by the repressions and famines, the liberals consider mockingly small.
          3. Shadowcat
            Shadowcat 8 October 2016 19: 10
            0
            I think historians should write in small print how much personally Khrushchev N.S. sent as a representative of the troika ...
        3. Aleksander
          Aleksander 27 July 2016 10: 26
          +2
          Quote: avt
          Exactly the same small-grassed hucksters roamed, but the leadership and specifically Stalin clearly saw the prospect of such a development and inconsistency


          Yes, yes: Stalin, February 13 1928 g: «NEP is the basis of our economic policy, and remains so for a long historical period ... conversations that we allegedly cancel the NEP, introduce surplus-appropriation, dispossession, etc. are counterrevolutionary chatteragainst which a decisive struggle is necessary ”(Stalin, Op., vol. 11 p. 15, 17) smile

          First ALLOWED NEP and millions of people, In COMPLIANCE с By law, worked and lived.
          And then sharply banned, and people working on THEIR laws sharply became enemies and they were destroyed.
          So who is the true enemy - aren't those who allowed, forbade?
          1. avt
            avt 27 July 2016 10: 45
            +11
            Quote: Aleksander
            At first, NEP and millions of people RESOLVED, IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAW, they worked and lived.
            And then it was sharply FORBIDDEN, and people who worked according to THEIR same laws sharply became enemies and they were destroyed.
            So who is the true enemy - aren't those who allowed, forbade?

            Khodorkovsky and his comrades in the "seven-bankers" also like "did not drink anything" - "worked" in the internal offshores of Kalmykia, in particular, in accordance with the law passed on them, and what?
            Quote: Aleksander
            So who is the true enemy - aren't those who allowed, forbade?

            And for "Yabloko" for the law on production sharing according to which uss still cannot be expelled from Sakhalin 1, what can we do? Yes, in general - what are the adopted laws? What are the commandments from God stamped on skizhals? Have you ever seen collections sent out about the introduction new laws and regulations with the abolition of old? There is no campaign, since you firmly believe that the law is written once and for all, and amendments, and even more so cancellation, are not foreseen, because in your eyes this is downright sacrilege! wassatYes, and try to reflect on a simple thought - who actually was Stalin in 1928, in fact an administrator / apparatchik, albeit of the highest level, so that to overwhelm the accepted line of the party and the “Leninist guard” in full at that time?
            1. Aleksander
              Aleksander 27 July 2016 11: 46
              +2
              Quote: avt
              Khodorkovsky and his comrades in the "seven-bankers" also like "did not drink anything" - "worked" in the internal offshores of Kalmykia


              And what does Hodor have to do with the millions of repressed "enemies of the people"?
              Quote: avt
              And who, in fact, was Stalin in 1928, in fact an administrator / apparatchik, albeit of the highest level, in order to overwhelm the accepted line of the party and the “Leninist Guard” in full at that time?

              Yes, nothing to do with, of course! smile Actually, millions were destroyed, but no one is to blame! fool
              Stalin 9 July 1928 g. (Works. T.11 S.168-171,) all through Five months after the above quote about the support of the NEP:

              " We often say that it is necessary to limit the exploitative efforts of the kulaks in the countryside, to impose high taxes on the kulaks, to restrict the right to lease, to prevent the right to elect kulaks to the Soviets, etc., etc. What does it mean? It means that we crush and squeeze the capitalist elements of the village,

              Oops, NEP is no longer needed, but the people working there are enemies ?!

              OK, huh?

              Crazy human experiments ...
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                2. Aleksander
                  Aleksander 27 July 2016 14: 16
                  +2
                  Quote: avt
                  Jo-pa, are we even performing capercaillie on the current?

                  Communicate well in the answer: usual rudenessperformed on a point.
                  There is nothing to argue: Stalin supported the NEP at 1928 in February and in July The same year- already pressed.
                  And of course, people are to blame, living by law (NEP). Your answer is accurate: Jo-pa
                  Quote: avt
                  Crazy experiments on people ... Which, for a second, this experiment massively supported !

                  Only inflamed brain communism.

                  Quote: avt
                  No need to dope

                  Follow your own tips! smile

                  Quote: avt
                  Russia and its peoples who inhabited the whole of 1914 passed through World War and Civil War and without the support of the mass population, which was entirely passed through hostilities directly at the place of residence and skillfully handle weapons, don’t screw anything up - they will unscrew their heads, don’t notice who and when .No NKVDshnikov in life is not enough and machine guns for them.

                  Blah blah blah ... What is the use of these EMPTY mindsets — chatter unreasonable?
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        4. Zulu_S
          Zulu_S 28 July 2016 12: 24
          +2
          Quote: avt
          Author! I am begging you ! NEP in life gave exactly what the dashing 90s gave! Exactly the same petty hucksters roamed, but the leadership and Stalin specifically saw the prospect of such development and discrepancy

          NEP lifted the country from the ruins of devastation after the civil war. He created the conditions for the start of industrialization, fed, among other things, the country. You see only foam - NEPMAN.
          In the dashing 90s, on the contrary, a prosperous country was raided and torn to pieces. And on the surface there is still the same foam - "new Russians", crimson jackets.
          FOAM - SAME, DIFFERENT PROCESSES, DIAMETERALLY OPPOSITE!
    4. Vend
      Vend 27 July 2016 09: 58
      +10
      Any historical book has two sides: facts and personal conclusions of the author. So blindly believe everything is not worth it. You can’t argue against the facts, but you can always argue with a personal opinion.
    5. goose
      goose 27 July 2016 10: 04
      +9
      The article is minus, simply because the forgery in the data in the book is issued as truth. The overwhelming majority of triple sentences were not executed, and the number of real executions was less than 100 thousand for the entire period of repression. After the removal of Yezhov, the execution of sentences was suspended. The author is not aware of the creation by Beria of the commissions for the review of cases in 1938. Even if the commission pleaded guilty to the prisoner, capital punishment, as a rule, was canceled. The work of the commissions dragged on for 3 years, until 1941, as a result of the work of the commissions almost 95% of the cases were reviewed. 80% were completely amnestied, the number of political articles among the accused was left extremely small. The vast majority of convictions were criminal in nature for specific crimes. These articles did not have the death penalty as a preventive measure.
    6. siberalt
      siberalt 27 July 2016 20: 25
      +2
      It seems that there was another author who claims to be the ultimate truth.
      What is there just one phrase: "March 5, 1953, soon after Stalin's death ..." Well, how "soon" if Stalin died on that very day? belay
      1. chenia
        chenia 27 July 2016 20: 38
        +2
        Quote: siberalt
        Well this is how "soon" if Stalin died on that very day?


        Half an hour later, probably belay
      2. RUSS
        RUSS 27 July 2016 21: 38
        +2
        Quote: siberalt
        Looks like another author was found.

        For four years, Denis Karagodin has been collecting information about the fate of his great-grandfather, who was shot by the NKVD during the Stalinist terror in 1938. He demands that the FSB hand over the body of his great-grandfather, give the names of the executioners and draw the entire chain of those responsible for the murder: from the driver to Stalin. He created the project stepanivanovichkaragodin.org, where he collects all the information about the fate of his great-grandfather.
    7. MrK
      MrK 27 July 2016 23: 16
      +5
      Quote: Alex_59
      I can not put a minus, not a plus. Conclusions about the "option of managing society" through repression looks strained, this is possibly one of the reasons for repression, but not the only one and perhaps not the main one.


      And I can. The article is definitely a big minus. Because in such a short article it is impossible to reveal the causes, motives, motivations and thoughts of people involved in terror.
      In addition, all over the world, where there was no less repression, monuments to historical characters have been erected long ago and live tomorrow, rather than rummaging with dirty hands in their history. About which the German scientist Heinrich Simmel spoke well: - You, Russians, strange people, take off your pants and show the whole world your SCARFY PLACES - they say, look what we have. But all countries of the "Great West" have these places. But they don’t take off their pants and DON’T DEMONSTRATE YOURSELF to other nations.
      [From the book by A. Kurlyandchik “Damned Soviet Power” ... on Proza.ru]
      Why is it different with us? It seems that the whole thing is in the state of our economy. The worse things are today in the Russian economy, the more theft of appointed billionaires, the higher the mortality rate of Russian people, the more poor in the country - the more screams, articles about the tyrant Stalin and repression.
  2. 505506
    505506 27 July 2016 06: 53
    +4
    By the way, to this day the easiest way, instead of searching for a national idea, is to search for permanent enemies, moreover, purely Orwellian. Today Oceania is a friend, tomorrow is an enemy. Because you control the media!
  3. user3970
    user3970 27 July 2016 07: 32
    +10
    Not everything is so simple ... There was still the leader of the fiery stands and the creator of the Red Army Lev Trotsky (Label Bronstein), to whom almost ALL military are obliged by their career and position. The Comintern existed and flourished, for the maintenance and tasks of which an incredible amount of money was spent from a poor, ruined civil war country. Plus a hostile external environment with potential intrusion. It is very similar to the current situation in Russia, excluding Trotsky, but leaving behind him Jews - bankers (Rottenbergs, promissory notes, avenues and others), instead of the Comintern - total corruption, starting with the tandem.
  4. V.ic
    V.ic 27 July 2016 07: 55
    +2
    "Grandpa" Lenin wrote about the dictatorship of the proletariat? I wrote! The main task for this "dictatorship" = suppression of the resistance of the overthrown classes. So think: what kind of dictatorship is this if it is without repression? It's like a wedding without a bride ...
  5. parusnik
    parusnik 27 July 2016 07: 57
    +7
    But what about those who wrote denunciations? ... Almost no one writes about them .. The arrests were carried out not spontaneously, but according to statements ...
    1. AUL
      AUL 27 July 2016 09: 05
      +4
      There would be a plan, but there are statements!
      1. jjj
        jjj 27 July 2016 10: 06
        +7
        They wrote from the heart. One liked the bread position, another had a room in a communal apartment, the third was angry at the whole world.
  6. jgthfnjh
    jgthfnjh 27 July 2016 08: 21
    +5
    For those who want to seriously comprehend what happened in the 30s, including the repressions, as well as the political situation of that time, I can advise you to turn to a witness and participant in those events - the book "140 Conversations with Molotov". It is very instructive, make up your own opinion about that time, without any intermediaries in the form of authors of articles who have "their own" views on this topic.
  7. Dora2014
    Dora2014 27 July 2016 08: 31
    +2
    The article is neither mind nor heart. Something is tasteless and incomprehensible. A person simply does not understand what he is writing about, there is no desire to even discuss with him.
  8. KBACYPA
    KBACYPA 27 July 2016 08: 32
    +2
    And I have more and more thought slips through. In principle, both Bukharin, Zinoviev, and Kamenev, to one degree or another, pushed the same ideas that "took possession of the masses" in the late 80s and early 90s. We see the result with our own eyes. And were Joseph Vissarionovich and his supporters really wrong, having arranged the 37th for his colleagues? By the way, as far as I know, he acquired full power after this significant year, before that he was only the first among equals. And how would the current bureaucrats and oligarchs behave in such a "judicial system"? When any denunciation is considered in a couple of days and no lawyer will help. But quite a lot of people really want mass repressions against those who hold power and capital, not really thinking that they can fly through them. There are no completely innocent people in our country. From the word "absolutely". At least among those over 14.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 27 July 2016 17: 07
      +1
      "not really thinking that it can fly through them." ////

      The mass repression system is based on this:
      Everyone thinks: “I am not guilty of anything, but my neighbor may be.
      it can't be that he was taken just like that ... ".
      They take a neighbor, then a neighbor’s neighbor and no one protects them, nor neighbors,
      no friends. Then they come for you, and around they think: "this enemy is in - and we are away."
      That the NKBD, that the Gestapo worked the same and completely unhindered,
      no one resisted.
  9. kardan
    kardan 27 July 2016 08: 43
    +4
    Dmitry Puchkov’s Channel has a lot of talk with historians about repression, one of them:
  10. Gardamir
    Gardamir 27 July 2016 08: 48
    +5
    First
    Repression - a punishment, a punitive measure applied by state bodies in order to protect and preserve the existing system
    when thieves, rapists are imprisoned, is this repression?
    Secondly, are political repressions being carried out in Turkey now, or is the best partner of the Kremlin Erdogan entitled, but in the 30s some angels lived in Soviet Russia?
    Thirdly, there are people who believe that Kvachkov was going to take the Kremlin together with crossbows.
    In the fourth, one can long list the periods when repressions were carried out both in Europe and in the USA.
    And finally, the main thing is to sue Mr. Shpakovsky for insulting the memory of his ancestors. Many countries have periods in history that are not entirely pleasant to recall, although how to say it. For example, what can be said about the country, which during the bloody revolution executed its monarch, and then there were no less bloody repressions. You can’t say anything, every year they celebrate the day of the Bastille’s capture, they can, we don’t.
    If we constantly humiliate ourselves, then who will we be? Who we are now is humiliated by everyone who is not lazy and the inadmissibility of our athletes at the Olympics is not the last spit in Russia. Great is the country that remembers only great things!
    1. Shadowcat
      Shadowcat 27 July 2016 10: 23
      0
      Speak, comrade
      Unless I’ll correct it about Edrogan - he’d wry an oily friend of Russia and the Kremlin, but he’d better than the heresy that began to take place in a country like Egypt 2010-2015, or some other flower revolution.
  11. EvgNik
    EvgNik 27 July 2016 09: 07
    +7
    Vyacheslav, well, this is not your period of history.
    At one time, the royal court, the jury, acquitted the terrorist Vera Zasulich, and acquitted him solely because the lawyer who defended her pointed out the mistakes made by the investigation. True, it was not the next day that the decision of the jury was appealed. But Zasulich, of course, had already managed to go abroad.

    This, I understand, suggests that the court before the revolution was fair, right? In our time, the same thing - released on bail - a person flees abroad. What is justice here? The fact that the one who should sit - walks free? And no matter how you convince, the publication approved by Solzhenitsyn (an agent of the country - our enemy) by definition cannot be objective. A different interpretation of the facts is possible, even if based on genuine documents. Although you have to give you credit - you tried to advance this publication expertly, but a little awkwardly.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 27 July 2016 10: 29
      +2
      Due to various personal reasons, VO readers do not read good thick magazines, well, most readers. It is understandable, because the pace of life is accelerating, the number of cases is increasing. However, the mosaic of specially selected facts in the article is visible and understandable. As the historian Rozhkov said ----- this is just the work of the prism of your personal, indivisible consciousness. Of course, you should know more about the biography of this historian, otherwise I just read about him how and other forum users.
  12. nekot
    nekot 27 July 2016 09: 32
    +5
    "The officials in the highest positions were shot. And the question is: did they fail or overdo it? But did they follow the order? Or ... did they not?"
    "Beria rehabilitated some of the victims of Yezhov's reign. At the same time, the fight against" saboteurs "," rebels "and" enemies "continued further, and using the same methods that were blamed for the former employees of the NKVD. The volume of persecution decreased, since the tasks of the Soviet political elite have changed. "
    "In general, the review of sentences and the release of convicts are rare exceptions."
    A lot of unsubstantiated speculations and controversial claims of the author, a clear attempt to manipulate
  13. Aleksander
    Aleksander 27 July 2016 09: 43
    +2
    What is interesting is that absolutely everything that was done in the framework of the great terror was in the strictest confidence and nothing was published anywhere: the authorities understood that creates crimes.
    It didn’t concern. of course, the demonstrative Moscow trials (the same lawless ones), where Stalin destroyed the Leninist guard: in order to intimidate the "comrades-in-arms" who turned out ... "spies, traitors and conspirators" smile .

    The bulk was destroyed and repressed secretly.

    The scary thing is: well, millions of "enemies" and "rabid fists" "discovered" - well, they left you them to the border, give these Russian people chance for life and at the same time save yourself from the "threat"! And yourself, live, rejoice, enjoy with class-pure, loyal and close ones!

    But no, they shot, the rest were turned into slaves at the "construction sites of communism": there wasn’t enough brains to build without slave labor using economic methods. What a wild cynicism and sadism in relation to their own citizens ...

    The fact that the Communist Leninists killed each other is wonderful, of course, but they did not constitute the bulk of the repressed.
    In general, the entire leadership of the Communist Party until the 60s was a snake ball of wild serpentarium mortally hating each other, fearing and ruthlessly destroying each other at the first opportunity um ... "comrades-in-arms." But ordinary citizens, WHY?

    Article +, the author plus for courage, the only remark is that Stalin’s telegram about the beginning of terror was not indicated (based on the decision of the Politburo), because the 00447 order was born on the basis of the decisions of the Politburo.
    1. chenia
      chenia 27 July 2016 10: 46
      +5
      Quote: Aleksander
      But no, they shot, the rest were turned into slaves at the "construction sites of communism": there wasn’t enough brains to build without slave labor using economic methods. What a wild cynicism and sadism in relation to their own citizens ...


      You compare the present time. where did you go 70 million people, after 1990. (Ah-born, ah-died out (in almost all former republics the average life expectancy has fallen) ah-i T, D,)

      Here we can say - What a wild cynicism and sadism in relation to their own citizens .....
      1. Aleksander
        Aleksander 27 July 2016 11: 58
        +1
        Quote: chenia
        You compare the present time. where did 70 million people go after 1990 year

        That is, you one you justify a crime another crime?!

        Think about it.
        1. chenia
          chenia 27 July 2016 12: 15
          +4
          Quote: Aleksander
          That is, you justify one crime with another crime ?!


          No, I do not condone.

          But. I am a military man in the past (though not a builder, but an artilleryman), and I know the principle - to save a company. can be sacrificed by a platoon, rescue a battalion, a troop, etc.
          Then it was time to save the country, and Stalin escaped with small victims.

          And the current situation is similar to that (very similar), and look how, without "decisive" measures, to what losses this leads (and then would lead).

          Speaking of numbers, you saw them. are there any objections? (our past dispute).
        2. Alex_59
          Alex_59 27 July 2016 12: 19
          +5
          Quote: Aleksander
          That is, you justify one crime with another crime ?!

          Why exactly "justify"? Just the opposite. Are repressions condemned? Condemn! Memorials are erected, mourning. Stalin is cursed. Fairly by the way (specifically for repertures).

          We demand the same for those who organized the genocide of the people in 90's and destroyed the country! But for some reason, instead, the super-duper Yeltsin Center is being built. How so?

          Think about it.
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. Aleksander
            Aleksander 27 July 2016 15: 08
            +1
            Quote: Alex_59
            We demand the same for those who organized the genocide of the people in 90's and destroyed the country! Think about it.
            What is there to think about? I AM FOR!

            I am not "for-against" the Lenins, Stalin, Nikolaev, etc.

            I have a completely different criterion "for-against": saving, increasing and developing the Russian people and Russia.

            -Before the BOP, the Russian people are the second largest people in the world, the second and third in terms of growth. The huge Russian world, from the Vistula to the Pacific Ocean.

            -After the Thief, after only 70 years of reign of comedians, the Russian people already dying out on the remnants of the former Russian world, striped into pieces by comedians.

            Therefore, from this point of view ALL commie leaders (regardless of the grade of d-ma: Leninists, Trotskyists, Yeltsinists, etc.) are unacceptable to me.
            1. chenia
              chenia 27 July 2016 15: 46
              +5
              Quote: Aleksander
              I have a completely different criterion "for-against": the preservation, increase and development of the Russian people and Russia.


              And who is against it?

              But if we consider the alternative path, it is monarchist or liberal (democratic) Russia after 1917.

              Both would end in 1941.

              If you think Hitler was "sharpened" against communist Russia, then no.

              Germany was fed for the war with SIMPLY RUSSIA (with any social system).

              And ONLY thanks to the Communists (the tough measures), the country was made out of bast shoes (more than 80% of rural residents. Where 78% were completely illiterate) the country turned into a superpower.
              Well, they broke the horns of the Germans (albeit with heavy losses).
              By the way, if you look at the population growth chart since 20, the curve is only slightly flatter than in the Republic of Ingushetia.

              But the victory of the liberal capitalists. really leads people to extinction (especially the 90s.)
              1. Aleksander
                Aleksander 27 July 2016 21: 23
                +1
                Quote: chenia
                But if we consider the alternative path, this is monarchist or liberal (democratic) Russia after the 1917 year. Both would end in 1941.

                The key prefix you have WOULD, i.e. it is only a subjunctive mood, which is unacceptable in history.

                And I oppose your "WOULD" MILLENNIUM HISTORY OF RUSSIAwhich shows that Russia IS ALWAYS coped with foreigners, and without any Bolsheviks.

                Think about the fact that because of the Brest disgrace, Russia was not included in the composition of the victorious powers and lost the right (like England, France) to control the arms of Germany.

                And Russia would NEVER allow the armament of Germany and the Second World War; it simply would NOT be.

                What was unfinished in the WWII (and it was done at 90%) at the cost of 2 million victims, had to be completed at 1945 at the cost of 27 млн-that is the tragedy.

                Just at least guess it-and look ...
                1. Alex_59
                  Alex_59 27 July 2016 22: 04
                  +2
                  Quote: Aleksander
                  The key prefix you have WOULD, i.e. it is only a subjunctive mood, which is unacceptable in history.

                  Quote: Aleksander
                  And Russia would NEVER allow the armament of Germany and World War II-just would DID NOT HAVE.

                  Dear, you re-read your texts at least thoughtfully. The keyword WOULD appear in your case as well as in the opponents criticized by you.
                  1. Aleksander
                    Aleksander 27 July 2016 22: 52
                    +1
                    Quote: Alex_59
                    Dear, you re-read your texts at least thoughtfully. The keyword WOULD appear in your case as well as in the opponents criticized by you.


                    Where would you be ?::because of the Brest disgrace, Russia was not included in the victorious powers and lost the right (like England, France) to control German arms[/B].
                    It is a fact.
                    Then you can throw everything away: and so it is clear.
                2. chenia
                  chenia 27 July 2016 22: 15
                  +1
                  Quote: Aleksander
                  The key prefix you would have, i.e. it is only a subjunctive mood, which is unacceptable in history.


                  In history, yes. But any analysis involves considering options. and an event (that is, what happened is experience. This is how science is built.


                  Quote: Aleksander
                  MILLENNIUM HISTORY


                  The millennial history just shows the possibility of the destruction of both empires and peoples. (List or in the course).


                  Quote: Aleksander
                  Russia would NEVER allow the armament of Germany and the Second World War; it simply would NOT HAPPEN.


                  But could Britain and France not be asked?

                  The Communists couldn’t restrain the Germans in this clear weakness.

                  Tsarist Russia is Russia today - but without the legacy of the USSR (without nuclear weapons, outer space, without a technical base and technical resources, and a competent population).

                  But with a lot of social problems, inefficient agriculture and an illiterate population). The latter is very important and determines the ability of the economic breakthrough.
                  (In the USSR, this happened in the late 40s. We were at the industrial level to pull nuclear, space and other projects).

                  And who would have considered it that way?
                  1. Aleksander
                    Aleksander 27 July 2016 23: 14
                    +1
                    Quote: chenia
                    The millennial history just shows the possibility of the destruction of both empires and peoples. (List or in the course).

                    keyword millennial history RUSSIA and no one destroyed it in 1 000 years, even the Bolsheviks.
                    Quote: chenia
                    Britain and France could not be asked?

                    France was mortally afraid and tried, she didn’t have enough of Russia, England played her own game.
                    Quote: chenia
                    Tsarist Russia is Russia today - but without the legacy of the USSR (without nuclear weapons, outer space, without a technical base and technical resources, and a competent population). But with a lot of social problems, inefficient agriculture and an illiterate population). The latter is very important and determines the ability of the economic breakthrough. (In the USSR, this happened at the end of the 40 code. We were at the industrial level pulling atomic, space and other projects). And who would have really considered it?


                    Russia has a thousand-year history and the Communists are just a small piece of it.

                    The world's leading science of RI, RR, one of the best higher education in the world, the highest growth rate of production, huge human potential lead to space and atom in love case: look around: many countries have achieved this without destroying their people

                    See how Nerus populates the cities and towns of Russia: for whom everything was done, made for Arabs, Chinese, etc.?
                    1. chenia
                      chenia 27 July 2016 23: 44
                      +1
                      Quote: Aleksander
                      France was mortally afraid and tried, she didn’t have enough of Russia, England played her own game.


                      Actually, yes. The English Channel is not with the Germans. But Britain persuaded the French that if bleed
                      The USSR and the Germans can break a big jackpot, while watching from the sidelines as there is a big fight. And it could have happened if it were not for the stupid ambition of Poland (I must say that this quality of the Poles helped us).

                      In the case of RI, they would have bought the Russian elite with giblets, and it, as has happened before, forced the Russian people to pull chestnuts out of the fire for those guys. And our history in this regard is replete with facts.

                      Even when we fought for our interests, the "allies" so "joined" that a won war was like a defeat (WWI is also that example).
            2. Alex_59
              Alex_59 27 July 2016 16: 20
              +3
              Quote: Aleksander
              -Before the BOP, the Russian people are the second largest people in the world, the second and third in terms of growth. The huge Russian world, from the Vistula to the Pacific Ocean.

              You, dear, take off your rose-colored glasses. Your huge Russian world was destroyed even before the "comedians". Hint - this was in February 17. Who were the "comedians" at that moment no one really even heard.
              Quote: Aleksander
              -After the Thief, after only 70 years of reign of comedians, the Russian people were already dying out on the remnants of the former Russian world, which had been shredded into pieces by comedians.
              Formally, you are right, Yeltsin and Gorbachev are also, as you put it, "comedians." But, I do not know how it is in your universe, but in mine the concept of "communist" is not something unambiguous. The communist Stalin and the communist Yeltsin are just the opposite things. Both killed a bunch of people. But one created a superpower in which "the protection of the Russian people" took on an unprecedented scale - it almost doubled in 45 years. Those. I corrected my jambs and set the growth vector. And the second one merged this superpower, and we cannot recover in 25 years. That's how they are communists, different.
              Quote: Aleksander
              Therefore, from this point of view ALL commie leaders (regardless of the grade of d-ma: Leninists, Trotskyists, Yeltsinists, etc.) are unacceptable to me.

              If you are guided by your phrase that you are not "for-against" Lenin, Stalin, nikolaev and so on. then for justice you need to add a couple of lines about the ruler of the "huge Russian world" too. Or do you sympathize with Nikolai more? Okay, then I'll add. How is it necessary to protect and develop the Russian people in order to bring the country to a drain in a world war and allow the possibility of the Bolsheviks coming to power? On his conscience all the losses in the senseless WWI, the collapse of the state, the civil war and Lenin's rise to power. If it were not for his krivoruk rule, there would be no Bolsheviks at all.
              1. chenia
                chenia 27 July 2016 16: 35
                +1
                Quote: Alex_59
                If it were not for his curvature rule, there would have been no Bolsheviks at all.


                Maybe so, but better as it was.

                Russia winner, with straits so not needed was to our allies.
                And they would send Hitler to her anyway.

                But she would be ready for this, as Stalin had prepared her (albeit tough at an accelerated mobilization pace), she was not sure.
                1. Alex_59
                  Alex_59 27 July 2016 22: 16
                  +1
                  Quote: chenia
                  But she would be ready for this, as Stalin had prepared her (albeit tough at an accelerated mobilization pace), she was not sure.

                  Ah, what’s on their forehead, what a spell. Why think with your head and dig the truth. So what good can you get to the point that Stalin is not to blame for the repression. Then, after all, the end of the world will happen for them, division by zero will occur. And you see for yourself about the WWII level of constructive dialogue - Tsarist Russia simply would not have allowed WWII. Awesome logical conclusion against the background of the fact that PMV Nikolashka can be said to be the first to unleash by his own stupidity.
              2. Aleksander
                Aleksander 27 July 2016 22: 41
                +2
                Quote: Alex_59
                You, dear, take off your rose-colored glasses. Your huge Russian world was destroyed even before the "comedians". Hint - this was in February 17. Who were the "comedians" at that moment no one really even heard.

                A long time ago shot and commversion of history There is no for me, although it is well known, from school to scientific communism. In February, the Russian world existed normally, moreover, it received even greater freedoms, although it was a mess too, and it developed well under the Emperor, but it disappeared - it was on October 25, 1917. Kommikov was well known - read the "Short Course of the VKPb" - and in 1905 and 1914-17.
                Quote: Alex_59
                Well, how should the Russian people be protected and developed in order to bring the country to a drain in the World War and to allow the Bolsheviks to come to power? On his conscience, all the losses in the meaningless WWII, the collapse of the state, the civil war and the coming to power of Lenin. If not for his curvature rule, there would have been no Bolsheviks at all.


                Stamps, stamps ... Well, try to look at least once from the other side!
                Russia waged a terrible war with the German invaders, whose purpose was SAME as in 1941. Read the plan of Schliffen, Ludendorff, what the Germans write TODAY (http://inosmi.ru/world/20150920/230333228.html). Imagine that in 1946 Vlasov’s detachment captured the Kremlin and made peace with the invaders, giving them a third of the country, demobilizing the army and navy - and after all, Leninds did exactly that.
                That is why Stalin (unlike Nicholas and the VP) brutally destroyed all such "peace fighters" and sweet-voiced provocateurs, because KNEWhow dangerous they are in a war. There was NOT a critical state of the state (in Germany, yes, there were 780 thousand starvation), in Russia the hardships of war , erroneous softness towards the traitors-Bolsheviks, speculating on whom and "picking out" which the criminals-Bolsheviks FORCE seized power, having done this at the elections and stabbing the country in the back.

                According to demography, in just 5 years, 1928-33 women began to give birth almost two times less from 6,9 to 3,6 baby, further more. Plus hunger claimed 8,5 million, plus Gr. war 10 mdn, plus millions of exiles, hundreds of thousands of executed, deprived of rights is saving people ?!
                Who needs to take off the pink glasses and see in the DESERT of the heart of Russia-rural Non-Black Earth Region? But only a hundred years ago life was in full swing here, and the land, today overgrown with forest, was categorically NOT enough for anyone! And it was empty already by 1980.
                What to say ....
                1. chenia
                  chenia 27 July 2016 23: 24
                  +4
                  Quote: Aleksander
                  According to demography, in just 5 years 1928–33 women began to give birth to almost TWO times less from 6,9 to 3,6 children, then more. Plus, famine claimed 8,5 million


                  The birth rate has fallen, since abortion was allowed in 1920, and in 1937-8 there was a rise in the birth rate (when abortion was again banned) - the costs of civilization.

                  Well, we already talked about hunger - too much (there aren’t enough people to lose).
          3. chenia
            chenia 27 July 2016 22: 31
            +1
            Quote: Alex_59
            We demand the same for those who organized the genocide of the people in the 90s and destroyed the country!


            I agree. And I think there will also be a trial of liberals of all stripes.
  14. Mareman Vasilich
    Mareman Vasilich 27 July 2016 10: 01
    +6
    The author, you did not answer the question, but asked them even more. And the book shit, one Mironenko of what costs. The author confused readers even more, began with the investigation, and not with the cause. Before littering the brain with others, it would not hurt to tighten the knowledge of the material itself. In a normal book about that time, Solzhenitsin will not be shoved.
    1. EvgNik
      EvgNik 27 July 2016 10: 39
      +2
      Quote: Mareman Vasilich
      The author, you did not answer the question, but asked them even more.

      Yuri, Vyacheslav started a series of articles on this topic. Although, I think, there will be no answers in the sequel. It will be pure propaganda.
      Vyacheslav Olegovich, do not develop this topic. The cycle, most likely, is not from the heart, but by order.
  15. chenia
    chenia 27 July 2016 10: 17
    +5
    It should be noted that the losses associated with the “breaking” of the system after 1917 were greatly exaggerated by our liberals.

    I determined what the population might have been in 1960 (the year was chosen, because it was definitely not after repression) without taking into account any disasters, and made an approximate balance. I’ll ask Mendeleev not to disturb, the genius was mistaken, it happens).

    It turned 280 million for 1960 (here we must take into account only the factor of urbanization, which reduced the growth rate, and that’s all.)

    For 1959 - 209 million real data.

    and hence the estimated total losses do not exceed 70 million people. (This net loss - died, emigrated, and were not born from losses). This is all without taking into account natural mortality.

    In WWII, total losses will be -37 million people.
    I explain.
    In 1941, it was 197 million. The annual growth was then 2,5-2.7 million.
    So in 1945 there should have been (if there hadn't been a war) 209-209 Million
    But it was 170 million total loss -37 million people. (This is taking into account the unborn).
    For 60 years. (over 15 years) losses will still increase by 2-3 million due to those who were not born from direct losses (27 million people). i.e. become 40-42 Million

    Then for the period from 1918 to 1960 71-41 = 30 Million
    Here are about 30 million (of course, there is an error), these are losses over 40 years excluding the Second World War.

    And if we exclude those who were not born up to 10 million from these losses. then there is real loss 20 млн.

    Of these, 16 million losses in the Civil War, which include.
    loss of emigration - 4,5 million
    hence 11. 5 million dead and deceased (excluding natural attrition).
    Of them:
    - loss of "Spanish flu" pandemic (3%) - 5 million
    - direct losses of the Civil War (dead, white and red terror, typhoid and a sharp drop in the birth rate for that period, etc.) -6,5 million
    And from here on all the famines and repressions remain 4 (well, let 6) million people.

    True, combined losses must be taken into account. First of all, those who anyway enter the category of natural mortality (which is not taken into account here) died of hunger.
    1. Zulu_S
      Zulu_S 27 July 2016 11: 35
      +1
      So this is not enough, or what? What figure would impress you? The question is not in specific figures, the question is in methods.
      1. chenia
        chenia 27 July 2016 11: 55
        +2
        Quote: Zulu_S
        So this is not enough, or what? What figure would impress you? The question is not in specific figures, the question is in methods.


        No less, too much. But not so much horribly as liberals imagine (and why they lie - and because it is not impressive).

        Look at the data that gray smeet gives in your posts - objective data (correlate with mine) and it is minus.

        And the lack of "methods" led to the fact that the countries of the former USSR lost in 25 years (1991 - 2016) -UP TO 70-75 MILLION. PERSON. and it seems to be without repression.
        There may be "METHODS" were more helpful than their absence?
  16. Basil50
    Basil50 27 July 2016 10: 35
    +4
    Here is such an interesting * moment *, in the territory of the SOVIET UNION there was a civil war, Basmachis, * Old Men * of all stripes and everyone had * ideologists * from abroad. The destruction of outright enemies, as well as those who built their well-being at the expense of others, the foundation of any state, and for other countries only the SOVIET UNION recognize such a right, according to the logic of * democrats *, did not have the right to protection.
    In the United States in the twentieth century, several million people were killed, all the figures under * big secret * only indirect data on the glamor, political, ethnic and racial repression. And this is without taking into account executions under criminal sentences, when minors were executed according to a court verdict and always with invited spectators.
    In England, all those executed were brought under a criminal article and executed, and there were more of them than in the SOVIET UNION, while the British did not take into account the victims of * pacifications * when the police killed during the arrests * for attempting resistance *.
    How many died in France?
    Even in Sweden there were executions of * opposition *.
    That's just they will not discuss the big terror in Europe, just like a doping scandal, when those caught in doping are the loudest shout about * purity * of sports.
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 27 July 2016 23: 14
      -1
      As a reminder to the apologists * of Western values ​​*:
      IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY in Ireland, the British authorities trapped minors and took them to Australia, where children were sold into slavery.
      In the United States, blacks stopped lynching only at the end of the TWENTIETH CENTURY.
      In Sweden, laws on CHILD SELECTION for birth defects are still in force.
      And there are many such examples.
  17. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 27 July 2016 10: 41
    +8
    Dear Vyacheslav. As I understand it, I’ve played enough in tanks, they give pennies for knights, but they promised loot for Stalin?
    ATTENTION PROVOCATION!
    What we are offered to study is the publication of ROSSPEN. Librastic nursery.
    Foreword A.I. Solzhenitsyn (do not think that if there is a preface there, then the documents from this have become worse - not at all.OF COURSE NOT. THEY BECAME BETTER); Foreword by R. Conquest; WHO IS THIS? This is the Great Historian-Writer. He wrote "The Great Terror", "The Harvest of Sorrow", "Stalin - Destroyer of Nations". Awards "Medal of Freedom" USA, "St. Michael and George" Brita, "J. Wise" Ruin + T. Shevchenko Prize. Question: Will this ghoul teach us to love the Motherland?
    "and everything else must be read independently, thoughtfully and carefully, otherwise ... the past may well repeat itself!"
    And I do not mind that the past would be repeated. They shot the fifth column, defeated external enemies, and restored the economy.
    And why are you bustling Vyacheslav, did you sell your homeland to the Japanese-Estonians (English hoses)?
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 27 July 2016 11: 06
      -1
      Correction of a clerical error.
      And why are you bustling Vyacheslav, but you did NOT sell your homeland to the Japanese Estonians (English hoses)?
      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 27 July 2016 19: 04
        +1
        Read more.
        1. Ans. ed. N. Werth, S.V. Mironenko. Nicolas Werth is a French historian, a Soviet-Soviet adviser, list of works on the wiki. Mironenko, a prominent historian, Doctor of Historical Sciences, became famous for announcing that 28 Panfilov’s men were a legend, for which they kicked him out of retirement, but he rubs himself in historical circles.
        2. Vyacheslav, why are you promoting the work of the Anglo-American, Frenchman and freak-grantoed as important. Documents? So there are fakes, and silence, and fraud, there all this is a priori.
  18. Massik
    Massik 27 July 2016 10: 45
    +3
    Take a closer look at the Berry + Khrushchev photo. Hair at the temple, furanka two sizes larger and the neck disappeared somewhere. I even thought, not Hitler’s face inserted there wassat
  19. stivev
    stivev 27 July 2016 10: 54
    +5
    The article, to put it mildly, suffers from "inaccuracies", so the minus
  20. Petrik66
    Petrik66 27 July 2016 10: 59
    +3
    The article is indistinct. Why was it written7 Repressions - bad? Well, no one denies this, but 400 shot fists is too much. this is from a series of "truthful" studies by Solzhenitsin and Smirnov.
  21. timyr
    timyr 27 July 2016 11: 13
    +2
    What about the son of a fist, a certain citizen Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin. Strange, after all, the kulaks shot everyone, according to the author of the article.
  22. Zulu_S
    Zulu_S 27 July 2016 11: 31
    +1
    I personally FOR such articles to be in. I look forward to continuing.
    Yes, the country has been in a very difficult position since the beginning of the twentieth century. With the challenges facing the country, the tsarist government failed. The result is the Revolution and the Civil War, new challenges and the terrible threat of the next war.
    Continuous attempts to respond to internal and external military repressions are the continuation of the Civil War by other means.
    Many of our current problems are from those times. And the problems are similar. How will we solve them? There are many adherents of TECH methods in the completely polarized society of modern Russia, including and in.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 27 July 2016 11: 54
      +1
      "Many of our modern problems are from those times" - What are these?
      1. Zulu_S
        Zulu_S 28 July 2016 03: 03
        0
        Well, for example, technology - Russia has received a powerful blow to science. It's not a secret for you that N. Vavilov, a scientist with a worldwide reputation, the greatest geneticist, was repressed in 38, and in 42 he was shot. Instead, the country got Lysenko. And how many years of his life did S. Korolev lose because of the camp, who was saved from death by a sharashka? And practically the entire GIRD was repressed (most died in the camps or were shot) only because their work was supervised by Tukhachevsky. These are just a couple of examples from the field of science. But if you dig, not even "deeper", and so, on the surface, there are dozens of examples, if not hundreds. All this slowed down, if not threw back, the development of Soviet science. Searching for the 5th column where it never existed, isn't that real harm?
        Incidentally, the Germans' division of physics into Aryan and Jewish, deprived Hitler of the atomic bomb (which I am truly glad about).
        At least these are the roots of our current technology backlog.
        I will not continue any further. Time is late, and get up early.
        Best regards and respect.
        1. Outsider V.
          Outsider V. 28 July 2016 10: 51
          +1
          N. Vavilov, a scientist with the world power, the greatest geneticist, was repressed in 38, and in the 42nd he was shot


          Not certainly in that way. N. Vavilov was sentenced to be shot, but in July 1942, on the proposal of V. Merkulov, the shooting was replaced by 20 years of imprisonment with the possibility of participation in work of defense significance. Probably, they should have transferred him to sharashka, but did not have time. N. Vavilov died in the Saratov prison (dysentery, dystrophy, cardiac decline).

          And how many years of life did S. Korolev, who was saved from death by a sharashka, lose because of the camp?


          About two years - from the summer of 1938 to the summer of 1940.
  23. v.yegorov
    v.yegorov 27 July 2016 14: 10
    +1
    Remember the recent nineties, the lawlessness and lawlessness that were happening then. Can
    draw a parallel with the thirties. After the country's civilian wild quantity
    weapons, people used to solve problems quickly and mercilessly, without fear of blood. From
    the authorities do not expect anything good, and often in power, the regional and regional,
    outright bandits and lumpen. Therefore, it is not at all surprising that the cleaning began.
    Rather, it is surprising that it did not start now, when there are no fewer thieves, bandits and traitors in power. The authorities began to touch very timidly for
    udder of their representatives, but not the highest contingent and selectively. I think if
    if they really wanted to clear the bureaucracy, the numbers would have surpassed the notorious NKVD purges many times over. By the way, people would certainly applaud and support.
  24. Lord blacwood
    Lord blacwood 27 July 2016 15: 02
    0
    Yes, there were repressions. Yes, this is tough. But under Stalin, the USSR turned into an industrialized country. And the one who criticizes, let him think about how he would act then at the place of Stalin.
    1. Gardamir
      Gardamir 27 July 2016 16: 12
      +1
      Yes, there were repressions. Yes it's tough
      don't worry, just read the definition of repression. At all times and in all countries there have been, are and will be repressions.
  25. sdv68
    sdv68 27 July 2016 15: 53
    +1

    Quote: eugeniy.369
    But there’s Misha Shamonin’s business, a daddy with documents, seals, signatures lies on his shelf.
    Keep writing further

    ...

    Well, they shot, well, at 13 or 15 years old, well, for two loaves, it’s business.



    Have you read the case yourself? M. b. tell his number. And there are exactly "two loaves" in it? And the "fake age of Shamonin Misha" specifically so that he could be shot? Do not make me laugh. This is roughly like the myth "about the shooting for theft of 200 meters of sewing material" (spools of thread).
  26. vnord
    vnord 27 July 2016 16: 40
    +3
    According to VIKI, as of July 1, 2015, 656 people were detained in penal correctional institutions, and that we have repression ??? Numbers, numbers, and in fact, not so simple.
  27. alexey water
    alexey water 27 July 2016 17: 09
    -1
    This data - this is our horror - is a heavy scar on our history. And it’s not a matter of which numbers are more accurate. The estimated number of people sentenced to death is about 700 thousand people during the period of 35-41 years. The same order of numbers of deaths in custody and links. I do not mind the bandits, thieves, traitors, people whose hands were in blood. They suffered their punishment. I grieve for the innocent, decent, honest, kind people who fell into these women the number of executed. How many were there who were not legally sentenced? It is not known. It is clear that these are thousands of people.
    Everything must be done so that this does not happen again now or in the future. Because it’s impossible. If the story develops in this way, then a serious mistake has been made, then someone has done something wrong. And the payback for it is thousands of people's lives.
    And this leaves its mark for many years to come. More than 70 years have passed, and this story still excites Russian society. Until now, we cannot forget this, and we cannot. As well as we can’t forget about the thousands of lives of our compatriots who died on the battlefield during the Great Patriotic War.
    1. sdv68
      sdv68 27 July 2016 17: 28
      +2
      Quote: Alexey Vodyanoy
      How many were there who were not legally sentenced? It is not known. It is clear that these are thousands of people.
      You contradict yourself. Then, write that it is not known how many, and then "what is it thousands"? I agree with you that feeling sorry for murderers, rapists, spies, terrorists is stupid. But it is just as silly to throw the words "about thousands of innocent victims". Precisely the INNOCENT SUFFERED, and not your "illegally sentenced", because, then, too, everything was done according to the letter of the law. Another thing is how this law was applied locally. Yes. They certainly were. But just as they are now. The justice machine is not perfect. She cannot say if a person is 100% guilty or not. For example, in the 30s, acquittals were about 10%, and now about 1-2%.
      1. alexey water
        alexey water 27 July 2016 23: 25
        +1
        Sorry, but in one hour I will find a number of people among my surroundings at work, at home, just acquaintances, people who have at least one of their relatives, but have been repressed. And I can definitely say that a certain part of them is not to blame for anything that they were accused of. They did not return home. Based on the fact that I alone can find such a number of people, and if you take others like me and they look, then the figure turns out to be big, too big.
        It is very shortsighted to try not to notice what happened 78 years ago. This is what Poles, Ukrainians, Balts, and partly Europe are doing now. But it doesn't make them feel better. And we won't be better off if we continue to convince ourselves that everything was "OK." We will deceive ourselves.
        1. sdv68
          sdv68 28 July 2016 09: 42
          +1
          Quote: Alexey Vodyanoy
          Sorry, but in one hour I will find a number of people among my surroundings at work, at home, just acquaintances, people who have at least one of their relatives, but have been repressed.
          Sorry, but in 48 years I have met very few repissants, and those who met - got down to business. For example, my friend's grandfather sat down "for three spikelets". And when the grandson asked (in the late 80s, when the topic of three spikelets was just gaining momentum) how many spikelets had to be stolen in order to put you in jail. My grandfather laughed for a long time, then he still said that in the second half of the 30s he stole three carts of bread from his native collective farm and received a five for it. It is good that it was not during the famine of 32-33, otherwise they could have been shot, and the grandson would not have been in the world.
          Quote: Alexey Vodyanoy
          And I can definitely say that a certain part of them is not to blame for anything that they were accused of.


          And on what basis do you draw such conclusions? You read their deeds, or only on the basis that "they were all good, decent people and you know them (or their relatives) intimately." So for such a "acquaintance" I will say that Chikatilo's friends / acquaintances also spoke very well of him and could not believe in his guilt.
          Quote: Alexey Vodyanoy
          It is very shortsighted to try not to notice what was 78 years ago.
          So no one tries. Just don't write everyone down as innocent victims. This applies even to those (and especially those) who are on the lists of rehabilitation from the memorial. They themselves admitted that they were "rehabilitated in batches", considering hundreds of criminal cases every day.
        2. BM-13
          BM-13 29 July 2016 17: 41
          +1
          Quote: Alexey Vodyanoy
          Based on the fact that I alone can find such a number of people, and if you take others like me and they look, then the figure turns out to be big, too big.

          Ask students in the same school how many physical education teachers they know. You will receive 400-600 responses. Does it follow that half a thousand physical teachers work at the school? The delusional nature of such statistics is obvious.
    2. Lord blacwood
      Lord blacwood 27 July 2016 18: 01
      +1
      This data - this is our horror - is a heavy scar on our history. And it’s not a matter of which numbers are more accurate. The estimated number of people sentenced to death is about 700 thousand people during the period of 35-41 years. The same order of numbers of deaths in custody and links. I do not mind the bandits, thieves, traitors, people whose hands were in blood. They suffered their punishment. I grieve for the innocent, decent, honest, kind people who fell into these women the number of executed. How many were there who were not legally sentenced? It is not known. It is clear that these are thousands of people.
      Everything must be done so that this does not happen again now or in the future. Because it’s impossible. If the story develops in this way, then a serious mistake has been made, then someone has done something wrong. And the payback for it is thousands of people's lives.
      And this leaves its mark for many years to come. More than 70 years have passed, and this story still excites Russian society. Until now, we cannot forget this, and we cannot. As well as we can’t forget about the thousands of lives of our compatriots who died on the battlefield during the Great Patriotic War.

      And what would you do in the place of Stalin. Do you know that after the civil war there was a turbulent political situation in the country? Do you know that Marshal Tukhachevsky made an attempt to kill Stalin?
      The fact is that after the Civil War, power was not able to fully strengthen. And after the death of Lenin, Trotsky tried to overthrow Stalin and his supporters in the party. Even after fleeing, Trotsky sent his people from abroad to the USSR. Also in the USSR, foreign agents were sent in order to raise the people to revolt. And in 1936, Marshal Tukhachevsky, and other high-ranking military tried to kill Stalin. It was after this that the purges in the military and party apparatus began, since in the event of an uprising in the country a new civil war would begin and more people would die than under the Stalinist repressions.
  28. Alexander Greene
    Alexander Greene 27 July 2016 18: 46
    +4
    "Modern Russian historians estimate the number of prisoners only in the" kulak operation "to 820 thousand, of which from 437 thousand to 445 thousand were shot. There is also a figure of 800 thousand prisoners, of which from 350 thousand to 400 thousand were shot Thus, about 50,4% of the total number of those convicted in the course of the "kulak operation" were doomed to death, while in "national operations" usually more than 70% were condemned to death. "

    Modern historians cannot be trusted - they are too exaggerating.
  29. EvilLion
    EvilLion 27 July 2016 21: 07
    +3
    Of course, I understand that even looking at the current situation in Turkey, where people are being rowed by the thousands, there is no way to look, but we can recall Comrade. Tukhachevsky, who allegedly did not arrange any conspiracies?
    1. Kenneth
      Kenneth 22 March 2017 16: 23
      0
      Which was completely rehabilitated for the lack of corpus delicti.
  30. Svidetel 45
    Svidetel 45 28 July 2016 00: 39
    +4
    The article put a minus, "Terror as a means of governing the country", in my opinion such a conclusion has no basis. At the heart of the repressions of the 30s was an inter-party struggle, and an uncompromising one, not for life, but for death, which unfolded in the main directions of foreign and domestic policy both in the top leadership and in grassroots organizations, relatively speaking between internationalists and power-holders. Well, the fact that many innocent and even simply not involved in this struggle people suffered during this is quite understandable, as you know, "when boyars quarrel, slaves crackle their forelocks."
  31. Seraphimamur
    Seraphimamur 28 July 2016 10: 08
    +1
    I don’t understand why they started talking about repressions again? Yes, there were reprisals. Outcome Stalin created a monolithic society that defeated fascism, and as a result, we are now conducting a polemic about "his bloodthirstiness." The question is, if he was white and fluffy, would we now communicate on the forum? I think no. Today, the entire "civilized world" has declared war on the Russian world and looking at our liberal fifth column, snickering corrupt officials remember Stalin with a warm heart.
  32. Abracadabrus
    Abracadabrus 28 July 2016 16: 14
    +1
    Article minus. It is a pity that I can not osminusovat twice. And that's why:
    1. The whole question about the so-called. "Stalinist repressions" emerged and actively exaggerated, if not to say - procrastinated, from the middle of perestroika and all the dashing 90s. And all would be fine, but then all these articles were written exclusively for grants from "independent" foundations from abroad. I do not exclude that the current lovers of truth continue this work free of charge, but this does not negate the fact that they would have been paid if they had not been so "washed" by their predecessors.
    2. There are enough bloody pages for countries like the "civilized" world. For example, the number of prisoners and those sentenced to death in the United States today is quite comparable to the "horrors" of the Stalin years. But here is the paradox, as our media, under the slogan "Remember so as not to repeat," and their media, too, suck exclusively on the "bloody Stalinist regime." Smart Europeans don't want to learn from their mistakes, they prefer from strangers. And only we have a soul for plowing and let's shake our centuries-old dirty linen.
    3. And the last thing: I do not know a single "lover of truth" who would not only write about the horrors of repression, but also talk about the great achievements that the country achieved in those years. The parable of the bee and the fly is involuntarily recalled. For one, the whole world is flowers and nectar, while the other is able to see only manure and garbage.
    Sorry, gentlemen, who love to delve into foul-smelling substances, but your work does not inspire and does not cause respect. I have the honor. hi
    1. Kenneth
      Kenneth 22 March 2017 15: 50
      0
      You can’t poke a cancellation once.
      1. You are lying. The topic of repression was raised when the leader died. And the number of people killed for anything horrifies any normal person.
      .2 lying again. The scale cannot be compared.
      3. It somehow reduces the horror of repression. There could be no way without killing people. After all, most of them did not even die at the BBK but were simply killed.
  33. The comment was deleted.
  34. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 5 August 2016 11: 19
    +1
    About how many paid trolls paid by ami ran! The fact that the article appeared on this site is nothing, any points of view are possible, but unfortunately it only repeats silly liberal cliches. If Stalin, according to the author, is guilty of all cases of bringing to criminal and administrative responsibility from 1920 to 1953, then this is already beyond the bounds of common sense. To Novodvorskaya ..
  35. antivirus
    antivirus 27 September 2016 10: 53
    0
    read half.
    March 23, 1989 the first elections were held for the Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR.
    Father says: you need to ask your grandfather about repression.
    - He's not the boss in appearance.
    - Grandfather served in the prosecutor's office.
    And my grandfather had 28th birthday. We arrived, presented shoes, sat down at the table. grandfather drank a glass for his 80th birthday ("all the same, the head will make noise").
    I remind my father: you need to ask about repression.
    Father asks the question "Have you participated?"
    -not
    -And who, how, when. why?
    - This is who wanted to curry favor.
    And he went to drink the pill "from the head."
    The pig will find dirt. and what did the man seek, how did he live ?.
    In 2015, I asked my aunt in 1933: what was said about my grandfather?
    - Nothing bad, but my childhood friend Kolya (her husband) took his father away and no one knows where. These are the pies with kittens.
    Who wanted to build socialist-building, who wanted to hang-hang, drown kittens-drowned and strangled. I believe that the contradictions from the 19th century went to us (and we did not overcome 50-70 years, but in 30-- 40 years.
    Can these dates be called an achievement?
  36. Umnichka
    Umnichka 23 October 2016 23: 33
    0
    A blessed memory and condolences to all innocently trapped in that moloch, BUT if Stalin had not defeated Trotskyism, then yes, yeah, the blood would really pour in tens of millions. I dug a lot with documents, studied - I'm sure. By the way, no one wondered why Trotsky drove away to Mexico? This is due to its pre-revolutionary past. Rummage around. And why are the followers of Trotskyism in the states now?
  37. Kenneth
    Kenneth 22 March 2017 15: 21
    0
    Great article. In fact, the population of a fairly large city was killed. Moreover, the loyal population. The country developed arbitrariness and squealing.