The state is strongly conscious of the masses. It is strong when the masses know everything, can judge everything and go to everything consciously.
"... the tops of spit on the bottoms, spitting fall down, the bottoms spit on the tops, spitting fall down, physics!"
"... the tops of spit on the bottoms, spitting fall down, the bottoms spit on the tops, spitting fall down, physics!"
A few months ago, namely 5 in March, an article by A. Wasserman on the repressions of the Stalinist era appeared in the TOPWAR pages, in which the author gave real numbers of convicts based on relevant sources. However, these figures (and without the "millions" of those who were shot!) From his article were printed in the school textbook Dmitrenko V.P., Esakova V.D. and Shestakova V.A. "History Fatherland. Twentieth century. 11 class. M .: Drofa, 1995 year. Almost all of them are freely available, and were published a long time ago, for example, apart from a textbook, in the magazine Rodina, which is very attentive to all the facts of the distortion of national history, both on the right and on the left!
Recently, VO readers have become noticeably more attentive to the source base of articles offered to their attention, and this is a very gratifying fact. But many out of habit (especially in polemics) refer to materials from the Internet, which ... also have no references to sources, but for some reason they themselves do not use available (on the same Internet) archival materials. Lack of habit, probably, but there’s nothing terrible about it. And to the attention of those who are interested in all this, I would like to suggest one very serious source. So that any VO reader could see and read everything on his own, and not in the retelling of someone.
So, back in 2004, that is, 12 years ago, the GARF archive (State Archive of the Russian Federation) launched the release of the collection of documents “The Stalinist Gulag History. The end of 1920's is the first half of the 1950's. Collection of documents in 7 volumes. (Ed. Ed. N. Vert, S.V. Mironenko; otv. Compiler I.A. Zyuzina. - M .: Russian Political Encyclopedia (ROSSPEN), 2004.) What is included there? And here is what: Preface A.I. Solzhenitsyn (it’s not necessary to think that if his preface is there, then the documents from this became worse - far from it.); Preface R. Conquest;
"History of the Stalinist Gulag": a brief overview of the main problems and concepts;
• Section 1. Dispensation and terror. 1930 - 1932
• Section 2. Terror and hunger. 1932 - 1934
• Section 3. "Streamline Terror". 1933 - 1936
• Section 4. "Great Terror"
• Section 5. In the conditions of military mobilization. 1939 - 1945
• Section 6. Mass repression and emergency legislation. 1946 - 1953
• Section 7. Revision of repressive policies. 1953 - 1955
• Name Index
• Geographical index
• List of abbreviations
All volumes of this publication are freely available. Take, read and study. In the archive itself you can request copies of these documents made from the originals.
Since there is simply a lot of documents in this edition, it makes sense to look only at the most interesting ones, and everything else should be read independently, thoughtfully and carefully, otherwise ... the past may well be repeated!
Heinrich Jagoda was the first to bring terror to the stream under Stalin. Whether it is by itself or by order from above is not so important. From the point of view of the human factor, it is more important that he enjoyed high posts and honors for a short time. He was only two years Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR (1934 - 1936), and then he was removed from all posts, tried and executed in 1938. He confessed to immoral acts and that the forest sold in the United States and appropriated money. He regretted not having shot those who tried him, having great power in his hands!
In place of Yagoda, Nikolai Yezhov came to the People's Commissar of the NKVD. He was also “unlucky”, although the poet Dzhambul even “Song of a Batyr Yezhov” composed. The national akyn was able to write poems about people who are in power, which is already there. Well, Yezhov was arrested already in 1939 year, as an enemy who was preparing the coup (!), And also a homosexual who was engaged in humbling ... "acting for anti-Soviet and selfish purposes." That is, he, too, was a “hidden amoralist”, like Yagoda. In 1940, he was shot ...
So, let's start with 31 July 1937, when N.I. Yezhov, People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR (1936 - 1938), signed an order issued by the Politburo of the Central Committee (VKP / b) of the NKVD of the USSR No. 0447 “On the operation to repress former fists, criminals and other anti-Soviet elements”, which defined the task of defeating “anti-Soviet elements "And the composition of the" operational triples "to expedite the consideration of such cases. The troika usually consisted of: the chairman - the local chief of the NKVD, the members - the local prosecutor and the first secretary of the regional, regional or republican committee of the CPSU (b): “... In accordance with this - I ORDER: from August 5 1937 in all republics, territories and areas to begin an operation to repress former kulaks, active anti-Soviet elements and criminals; in the Uzbek, Turkmen, Kazakh, Tajik and Kyrgyz SSR, the operation should start from August 10 with. city, and in the Far Eastern and Krasnoyarsk Territories and the East Siberian region with 15 August p. city "
... And removed from all photos! In this photo, the “slick coupler” is no longer. Retouchers worked for glory! And he was to the right of the leader ...
“I would think that if we keep the troika, then for a very short period of time, a maximum of a month ... Firstly, the front of operations in itself became more significant than it was at the height of the operation in 1937. Secondly, most of our apparatus must be immediately switched to undercover work. Working with triples is easy, simple work, it teaches people to deal with enemies quickly and decisively, but living long with triples is dangerous. Why? Because in these conditions ... people are counting on minimal evidence and are distracted from the main thing - from agent work ”(People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of Belarus BD Berman at a meeting of the leadership of the NKVD of the USSR in Moscow 24 January 1938 of the year).
Then, by decision of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) No. P65 / 116 from 17 in November 1938, the judicial triples created by way of special orders of the NKVD of the USSR, as well as the troika at the regional, regional and republican departments of the RK, the police were eliminated. Cases were referred to the courts or the Special Meeting of the NKVD of the USSR. Well, what was it guided by? Why, that's what: “To defeat our enemies, we must have our own socialist militarism. We must lead 90 from 100 to millions of Soviet Russia’s population. As for the rest, we have nothing to say. They must be destroyed. " Such a statement was made in 1918 by the head of the Communist International, Grigory Zinoviev. Again, ironically, Zinoviev was most recently purged and shot in 1936. However, the figure in 10 million "extra" citizens in Russia, he still called, so what was there to stand on ceremony?
The results of the activities of triples
From August 1937 of the year to November, 1939-th according to the sentences of triples of 390 thousand people were executed, 380 thousand people were sent to GULAG camps. In July, 1938, functionaries and NKVD officers sent the necessary information to Moscow, but did not meet the deadlines, so the data were presented only preliminary, estimated. In the same month, the regions carried out a correction in the number of people being pursued, and, of course, upwards. Interestingly, NS presented most of all candidates for execution. Khrushchev, while the first secretary of the Moscow OK WKP / b. Obviously I wanted to show myself more holy than the Pope and stay alive at all costs! As of 10 July, 41 305 “criminal and kulak elements” were counted: 8 500 was proposed to be shot (first category), and 32 805 was evicted (second category). However, here it should be noted: he himself, as is often written and said about this, was not a member of the troika, which is the data of the corresponding archive - the Central Bank of the FSB of the Russian Federation, F. 66, Op. 5. D. 2 L.155-174. Khrushchev really should have been a member of the troika, but was replaced by his deputy, Volkov, even before the operational order was issued, and the troika was formed and approved.
Here is the order, but under it are the names of the approved "troechnik"
In letters to Moscow, there were constantly requests to increase the number of the repressed. Relevant proposals concerned prisoners, special and labor settlers, “pests”, instigators, fugitives and their accomplices. Permits to persecute the clergy were also directly required. And the Politburo usually satisfied the requests of the local authorities!
The main role in the investigation belonged to the heads of republican, regional and regional departments of the NKVD. They approved the lists of candidates for arrest (and without the sanction of the prosecutor! - note of the author), and also drafted and sent indictments (often no more than a page) for review by the troika.
At one time, the royal court, a jury court, acquitted the terrorist woman Vera Zasulich, and justified solely because the lawyer defending her pointed out the mistakes made by the investigation. True, the very next day the jury's decision was protested. But Zasulich, of course, has already managed to go abroad.
Well, and here all the investigation was carried out “expeditiously and in a simplified manner”, without respecting the elementary rights of the accused. The meetings took place behind closed doors, in the absence of the accused, which left him no opportunity for defense. Of course, they did not even think about lawyers. Where did they get so many? The revision of the decisions made by the troika was not provided by the order (!), Therefore the sentences were carried out quickly. Unlike theatrical processes against representatives of the party elite, the confessions of the accused did not play any role.
In the preface to the secret speech at the XX Congress of the CPSU (1956) party and state leader Nikita Khrushchev announced the statistics of victims of Stalinism. According to the data sounded by him, about 1,5 million people were arrested during the Great Terror, of whom more than 680 thousand were executed. However, these figures did not take into account all the victims of this campaign, since they did not take into account, in particular, deaths during the investigation, transportation, or a serious excess of the “death limits” in the Turkmen SSR.
Heinrich Yagoda and the young Cossack Nikita Khrushchev - she is also a “sweet couple”!
Modern Russian historians estimate the number of prisoners only in the “kulak operation” to 820 thousand, of which from 437 thousand to 445 thousand were shot. There is also a figure of 800 thousand prisoners, of which from 350 thousand to 400 thousand shot. Thus, about 50,4% of the total number of those convicted during the "kulak operation" were doomed to death, while in the "national operations" usually more than 70% were condemned to the death penalty. That is, there was still some factor? Which one
In view of the ongoing campaigns of terror and persecution simultaneously or closely behind each other, the prisons, camps and settlements of the GULAG were overcrowded. The number of prisoners increased from 786 595 (1 July 1937 of the year) to more 1 126 500 (February 1 1938 of the year), and more 1 317 195 (January 1 1939 of the year). As a result, adverse conditions of detention have deteriorated. According to archival data in 1937, 33 499 prisoners died, and the next year - 126 585 prisoners. During the deportation and transportation in 1938, 38 killed thousands of people more than last year. According to the statistics of the time in 1938, more than 9% of prisoners, or a little more than 100 thousand people, were unable to work due to illness, disability or loss of strength. In 1939, the number of disabled people, not counting disabled people, was already 150 thousand people.
Appointed instead of Yezhov, Lawrence Beria carried out a “purge” in the NKVD and forced more than 7 thousand employees (about 22% of the total) to leave the service in the bodies. From the end of 1938 of the year to the end of 1939 of the year, 1 364 of the NKVD officer was arrested on his orders, and in addition, almost the entire leadership of the republican and district levels was replaced. The highest ranking officials were shot. And here's the question: did they fail or overdo it? But after all they executed the order? Or ... not performed?
Joseph Stalin, George Malenkov, Lawrence Beria, Anastas Mikoyan on the platform of the mausoleum.
Beria rehabilitated some of the victims of the reign of Yezhov. At the same time, the fight against “pests”, “insurgents” and “enemies” continued further, and using the same methods that were blamed on former NKVD officers. The volume of persecution decreased as the tasks of the Soviet political elite changed. Since then, mass operations were no longer carried out.
Many members of the triples were also repressed: 47 representatives of the NKVD, 67 members of the party and two representatives of the prosecutor's office were sentenced to death.
Discussions about the rehabilitation of victims of repression began during the life of Stalin during the period from 1939 to 1941, in connection with investigations into "violations of socialist legality". The question arose about the feasibility of reviewing cases and mechanisms for its implementation. The relevant orders and regulations indicated that the revision of sentences could be carried out by former investigators or their successors, and was under the control of the 1-th special department of the NKVD and the relevant departments of the NKVD republics, territories, regions. From November 1938 to 1941, the review of sentences became centralized and, as a result, slowed down. Released remained under the control of "organs". Repeated investigations rarely revealed new facts. Sometimes the NKVD interrogated additional "witnesses". Even the smallest evidence of violation of the loyalty of the accused led to the refusal of further review of the case. The formal errors found in the investigation documents did not mean a review of the case, and the cases for further investigation were not sent (the lesson with the Zasulich case was learned!), Which means the person continued to sit. In general, the revision of sentences and the release of convicts were rare exceptions.
5 March 1953, shortly after Stalin’s death, Beria ordered the release of the overcrowded and overloaded GULAG camps. 27 March was released immediately 1,2 million prisoners. Political prisoners were not amnestied, but those who were not considered a threat to society and convicted under the general articles of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR and the Union republics were released. After the arrest of Beria 26 June, this policy continued. Special commissions reviewed the cases of those convicted of "counter-revolutionary crimes." Members of these commissions were high-ranking officials from the NKVD and the prosecutor's office, as well as institutions that had previously participated in “national” and “kulak” operations. In total, about 237 thousand cases were investigated under the 58 article of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR, which accounted for 45% of all prisoners under this article. 53% sentences were upheld, 43% were softened so that the convicts could go free, 4% were canceled.
"Leaders of a lower rank." May Day parade 1941 year in Kiev. Photo from the newspaper "Pravda".
In the second half of 1955, some political prisoners were also granted amnesty. At the end of the year, the total number of people in the GULAG camps was 2,5 million, and by the XX Congress of the CPSU there were about 110 thousand people, that is, the process of liberation was truly rapid! At the end of the congress, a commission was established to review the sentences on the 58 article. By the end of 1956, about 100 thousand people were released. At the beginning of 1957, some more 15 thousand convicts under the 58 article were released. That is, there are no more political prisoners left in the USSR! So, after 20 years after the end of the Great Terror, his last victims were released. Prior to this, the terms of their conclusion were constantly extended. That is, a person was convicted for the same “crime” several times, which no law allows! In 1980, the families of those executed received false reports about the death of their relatives in labor camps. The real places and dates of burial were made public only from 1989 onwards.
Well, and the conclusion? The conclusion is this: the authorities tried to answer the calls of the 20s and ... answered. More or less well. For example, NEP. But the “challenges” of the 30s were much more difficult, and society became more difficult. And then the “answer” option was chosen - a return to the practice of civil war, to the struggle of “whites and reds”, but only in a new interpretation. It was the easiest and most effective way to manage society (precisely because of its simplicity), equally suitable for any situation and, moreover, also economically profitable!
(To be continued)