WON THE WAR IN ONE STRUCTURE WITH NAZI
In the summer of 1944, the liberation of the western regions of the Ukrainian SSR from the Nazi invaders began. The Red Army troops were rapidly moving towards the western frontiers of the Soviet Union. In an effort to slow down the victorious march of Soviet troops to the west, the German command made considerable efforts. A special role in this was assigned to the Ukrainian nationalists from the OUN-UPA.
OUN prisoners. 1940's Photo
The Ounov underground and the UPA gangs made every effort to forge offensive actions of the Red Army by directly participating in combat operations on the side of the Wehrmacht, conducting subversive work in the rear of the Soviet units and formations.
At the first stage, the German command drew individual detachments of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army to joint combat with the Red Army. For example, the units of the Ukrainian nationalists 25 in February 1943 of the year participated together with the Germans in defensive battles against units of the Red Army for the settlements of Dombrovitsy, Kolka, Berezhki, Berestye, Yolks of the Rivne region.
Nationalist units of the OUN-UPA were active in the areas of advanced positions of the current Red Army. For example, “in the defense area of the compound, where the head of the political department, Comrade Feshchuk, 7, on April 10, a group of thugs joined the 867 SP reconnaissance (rifle regiment. - AK).
As a result of the battle, the scouts killed five bandits, one captured and seized a radio station with documents.
6 April Bandera made an armed attack on the defense sector 4 th p. Company of the same regiment. The battle lasted six hours. According to the testimony of the prisoners, the armed detachment of Ukrainian nationalists in the area has about 1600 people and has the task to destroy our garrisons and cut out the Polish population. "
After the liberation by the Soviet troops of Western Ukraine, the armed formations of the OUN-UPA sought from the territory of Poland to break through to the rear of the Red Army. So, according to the NKVD, through the river. The Western Bug crossed several gangs of up to a thousand people.
The joint activities of the Germans and the OUN-UPA was based on "local" agreements. In particular, in the next volume in the series of books “The Great Patriotic War. 1941 – 1945. Documents and materials ”, recently published from the press and dedicated to the liberation of Ukraine, states:“ In January, 1944, in the town of Kamen-Kashirsky, negotiations were held between representatives of the UPA detachments operating in Kamen-Kashira region with the head of the German garrison. Participated in the negotiations: from the Germans - the head of the garrison, the head of the Gestapo and the gebiecommissar; on the part of the UPA - Deunyanenko and Ounovtsy from the town of Lyubeshiv of the Volyn region and 12 from other representatives from the UPA garrison of the Ozerce farm, Plisheva, the village of Polity. As a result of these negotiations, the Germans transferred the city of Kamen-Kashirsky and weapon, ammunition, food supplies and fodder, available in the city. After that, a gang of UPA under the command of "Crow" as part of 285 people. occupied the city. "
The order of SS Brigadenführer SS K. Brenner about negotiations with the leaders of the UPA from 12 in February 1944 of the year states: “Negotiations started in the Derazhno area with the leaders of the national Ukrainian insurgent army were also successfully held in the Verba region. An agreement has been reached: the German units are not attacked by the UPA. The UPA sends scouts, mostly girls, to areas occupied by the enemy and reports the results of the reconnaissance. department of the battle group. Prisoners of the Red Army, as well as Soviet partisans, are being transferred to reconnaissance. department for interrogation; local alien elements are used by the Battle Group at work. ”
The chief of the security police and the SD of Lvov, police colonel V. Birkamp reported that 11 in March 1944 in the Podlamin region “200 participants in Ukrainian. Free movement announced the fight against Bolshevism, together with the German Wehrmacht. During 12 March 1944, their number reached 1200 people. They are from the RCU (Reich Commissariat of Ukraine. - AK) and most of them are armed ... 14 March 1944 until noon Brody Gendarme Post reported that the I-C propagator of the Wehrmacht task force Brody, Major Dr. Kiebel, confirmed the message and showed that that the Wehrmacht supplied the gang with weapons and a dressing material. In the coming days, Major Dr Gibel’s talks will take place with the leader of this national Ukrainian group ... In my opinion, this is not a gang, but a "friendly army" that supplies and equips the Wehrmacht. And the police would treat them differently, as well as the Wehrmacht, that is, as allies, if negotiations with them would lead them to undertake (and fulfill these obligations) to treat the German police as a "friendly army."
Since the end of January, the 1944, various units of the UPA have sought direct contact with the units of the Wehrmacht. The officer of the reconnaissance department of the Prützmann fighting group - SS Sturmbannführer Schmitz established contact with individual leaders of the UPA gangs in the Postojna region (33 km north-west of Rovno), Kremenets, Verba, Kotin, Berests, Podkamen and Derazhnya to use them for reconnaissance against the Red Army and as sabotage detachments.
The head of the "Abuotroot-104" 11 on April 1944 of the year reported: "The UPA has an order that is prohibited to fight German soldiers or commit acts of sabotage against their military installations and communications."
THE TERRIBLE FORCE
OUN-UPA was a real military force. Speaking about the organizational structure, armament and tactics of actions of armed formations, it should be noted that at first they were quite large formations armed with aircraft, artillery, mortars, anti-tank guns, machine guns and machine guns. Subsequently, starting from 1945, having suffered significant losses from the Red Army and internal troops, they switched to action by smaller groups of 20 – 30 people. The gangsters made sudden raids, ambushed on the roads and in settlements, attacked small military units, carts, local activists, mined railway tracks.
The result of the joint actions of the Wehrmacht and the UPA in the first stage: the direct participation of nationalists in the hostilities against the Soviet partisans and the Red Army; the transfer of Wehrmacht intelligence materials; the UPA sabotage tasks behind the front line; also through negotiations, the German command and special services were able to keep the OUN-UPA from causing significant damage to the German supply lines and communications and German interests in the region.
At the second stage, after the Red Army units liberated the western regions of the Ukrainian SSR, the activities of Bandera had a terrorist, intelligence and propaganda character.
Before the Red Army entered the territory of Western Ukraine, the leaders of the OUN-UPA issued orders to disband the armed units. It was indicated that they should go home with their weapons, and then, when the Red Army passed to the West, they again united and fought with the Soviet authorities.
The leadership of the OUN demanded that all OUN organizations "during the passage of units of the Red Army carefully conspire their activities, and when the front was removed, they would actively fight the Soviet local government by terrorist acts against the workers of the co-institutions and officers of the Red Army."
The largest and most efficient gangs were to "seep" through the front to the rear of the active army. “According to the testimony of a prisoner of the OUN, in the area of Vinna Pesochnoye they are sent to the rear of the Red Army to 1500 people. nationalists. The remnants of the group to 500 are located in the Lyubotin district with the task of crossing over to the rear of the Red Army. Firmly armed. To "check the activities of the OUN, and establish relations with them, German intelligence agencies send their agents."
The directive documents of the OUN proposed creating intolerable conditions for finding units of the Red Army on the territory of Western Ukraine - not to give food and forage, to destroy everything that they did not have time to hide, to disrupt the mobilization measures of the command, and in the case of mobilization - to desert.
The local organizations of the OUN were to carry out reconnaissance work in the rear of formations and units of the Red Army, create an intelligence network in the settlements and introduce agents into Soviet institutions.
German intelligence in the territory of Western Ukraine led to the creation of well-equipped and armed units of the UPA, which operated in the Soviet rear with terrorist and sabotage tasks.
The interaction of the leadership of the OUN-UPA with the German command is confirmed by archival data. So, 25 February 1945, the German U-88 aircraft on the territory of the Gorodok district of Lviv region were dropped four enemy paratroopers, Ukrainians by nationality, who were detained on February 26, February. During the interrogation, paratroopers showed that all of them in December-January 1945 / 1944 had been trained in a German intelligence school in Germany, after which 45 February 25 had been dropped from the plane to the Soviet rear with a task to collect data on the economic and political state of the USSR, as well as on the state of the OUN movement and UPA gangs.
Effective intelligence gathering was facilitated by the fact that the leaders of the OUN-UPA armed detachments in almost all localities had their agents, who, through a network of liaison officers, constantly informed them about the deployment of the Red Army garrisons and about the movement of units.
Gangs were active
Gangs of Ukrainian nationalists showed considerable activity. In one of the reports we read: “In the second half of January, 1944, when parts of the army, where the head of the political department was Comrade Voronov, were on the defensive along the Goryn River, a number of districts of the Rivne region remained in the rear. Hiding gangs began to intensify their activities. Only during 10 from January to 1 in February, for 20 days, in the army section did 23 report cases of armed clashes with gangster nationalist groups, gangster attacks on individual servicemen. With the further advance of our troops to the west, attacks and terrorist acts of gangster groups more intensified. ”
As the Red Army units liberated the regions of the western regions of Ukraine, the nationalists intensified their subversive work. Acting in the rear of the Soviet troops, they attacked individual soldiers, small units and vehicles with food, weapons, ammunition, and small garrisons. “At the end of March, bandits were killed from the corner in the village. Sadki, Shumsky district, Rivne region Art. Sergeant 7 of a single autoroute Pavlov and injured Red Army soldier Chernov, who were sent there to procure meat along with local authorities.
9 On April, a group of Bandera numbering up to 150 people near the metro station Vishnevets, Tarnopolsky region, attacked senior sergeant 59 OTP (separate tank regiment. - AK) Comrade. Smolnikov and three fighters who repaired the T-34 tank with him.
Sergeant Smolnikov, the foreman of the repair base, was killed and the other three privates were disarmed.
11 April Red Army soldiers 869 joint venture, where the commander of the political department comrade Feschuk, Gorobey and Lavrenchuk commanded by foremen went to the village of Forest Slobidka (Chernivtsi region) for food. At the entrance to the village, they were fired upon by gangsters. In the exchange of fire between the fighters and the bandits, one Red Army man was killed and the other was seriously wounded. ”
There have been repeated cases of missing individual and small groups of military personnel on duty in the areas of operation of the bandits.
"5 April this year. near the village of Staro-Trostyanets, Dubnivsky district, Rivne region, was detained by a group of bandits a Red Army 3 battery 777 AP (artillery regiment. - AK) comrade. Borisov, a member of the CPSU (b), from whom the gangsters took away their weapons, party membership, a Red Army book and the medal “For Courage”, the gangsters went to the village and captured two soldiers of the same battery.
... On the night of April 7, 1944, with a report to the corps headquarters, a liaison officer of the 55th Guards headquarters was sent. TBR (Guard tank brigades. - A.K.) Lieutenant Drachev with fighter Bezuglov, but they did not reach the headquarters of the corps. Along their route, searches were organized by a group of fighters of 25 people. Near the village Red they were shelled by bandits and returned back. Officer Drachev and Bezuglov fighter not found.
16 on April 1944, a group of 58 SD soldiers (rifle division. - AK), consisting of three officers and three fighters, which made a reconnaissance of the area in the Trostyanets-Mykhailivka region (Rivne region), went missing. The machine gunners sent to search were fired upon by gangsters and returned without results. ”
As a result of the bandit attacks of the Ukrainian nationalists, some units suffered substantial casualties in personnel.
“The compound where the commander of the political department, Comrade Yakunin, stationed in the districts of Rivne region, has lost 36 people killed and 8 people wounded from terrorist acts over the past two months. Among the killed 8 officers. In addition, parts of this compound are missing missing 11 people.
The OUN battle group is preparing to inflict another
treacherous blow on the sly. 1940's Photo
Parts of the cavalry unit, where the chief of the political department comrade Plant, from the hands of the German-Ukrainian nationalists lost 35 military personnel, among them three officers.
Loss of personnel at the hands of Bandera have other parts. The gangsters seek above all to kill our officers. To this end, they are trying to get to the headquarters. For example, in the first half of April, a Bandera group dressed in red army uniforms attacked the 1 SB headquarters (rifle battalion - AK) 271 joint venture, where the commander of the political department is Comrade. Martynenko, who was located in the village of Puklyaki with the aim of capturing officers. ”
Detachments of Ukrainian nationalists attacked and separate units.
“4 in March 1944 in the village of Karpalovka, Rokityansky district of the Rivne region, armed with a gang of 120 – 150, a man attacked a communications company of the 1-nd separate repair and recovery linear battalion of communications. The bandits were armed with light machine guns, machine guns, rifles and grenades. Taking advantage of the darkness, the gangsters approached the school to 600 m, where the company was located for a night rest. The commanders were quickly organized circular defense. The bandits were met with friendly fire fighters. Having lost 16 people killed and wounded, the bandits went into the woods. Company losses - one fighter killed, one easily injured.
27 March S.G. The small Kuninets of the Kremenetsky district, a gang of up to 200 people on foot, 15 mounted, armed with 5 TTR, light machine guns and machine guns, had up to 15 transport wagons, intended to cut the highway and prevent the movement of vehicles of our parts. ”
Ounovtsy made shelling cars, which were followed by Soviet soldiers. “15 January 1944, a group of Bandera in the area Katerinovka attacked the cart with products, followed in the location 375 AP 181 SD. During the raid, the Red Army man Shapovalov was wounded, missing the foreman Berezin. The wagon with food fell into the hands of bandits. ”
The victims of the attacks were not only soldiers, sergeants, junior officers of the Red Army and NKVD troops, but also the highest command personnel of the active army. So, 29 February 1944 of the year in the village of Milyatino, Ostrog District, a gang numbering in 100 – 120 people fired at the car of Commander of the First Ukrainian Front, Army General Mykola Vatutin, and escort vehicles. As a result of the attack N.F. Vatutin was badly wounded in the leg. Two weeks later, on April 15, 1944, he died from a wound from blood poisoning at a Kiev hospital.
Feeling an acute need for weapons and ammunition, the bandits under the cover of darkness attacked the houses where soldiers and officers were quartered, killed them and abducted weapons.
"January 14 this year in the forest near s. Tynno of the Sarnovsky District was captured by Alexander Nikodimovich Lopanchuk, commander of UPA hundreds, who confessed that he and members of his hundreds Matiuk and Zhigadlo killed Senior Sergeant 181 SD Kozhin Nikolai Nikolayevich, who stopped to rest in the apartment of Lopanchuk. After the murder, Lopanchuk and other Kozhin's bodies were buried in the forest, and his clothes and weapons were taken away. ”
“5.11.44 in the village of Mizoch of the same district gangsters killed two Red Army soldiers and cut off their noses and ears.
In February, gangs committed 6 attacks on 5 regional centers in Rivne and one regional center in the Volyn region. ”
WAR ON CLEARED TERRITORIES
After the Red Army liberated the western regions, the OUN leadership sought to penetrate the eastern regions of Ukraine by any means.
“In 1943, individual detachments were formed specifically for raids in Volyn, and the most efficient and seasoned smoking or hundreds were sent from Galicia. So, in April, 1943 in the VO 3 “Turiv” group UPA- “North” for two weeks was formed a special purpose kuren under the command of Nikolay Yakimchuk (“Oleg”). He was supposed to carry out a raid to the east for the first time, in an area where the insurgency was not widespread. ”
They were formed in order to "popularize the idea of the struggle for an independent Ukraine" and conduct sabotage work in the rear of the Red Army. “Destroy railway bridges, undermine trains and paralyze communications” - such tasks were set by the unit of the UPA “Zaliznyak” operating in the area of Kiev and Belaya Tserkov.
“A special type of insurgency in the region was military-sabotage actions on the Kovel, Lviv and Vinnitsa railways, which began with the arrival of the bulk of the spacecraft and NKVD troops and their further advancement to the west in September of 1944. So, in the Rivne region (Kovelskaya railway), the Soviet authorities recorded the undermining of a train with ammunition, attacks on an armored train and Tomashgorod station. Similar actions were carried out on other railways. 10 October 1944 on the stretch Krivin-Mogilyany (Vinnitsa railway) due to the detonation of the railway track derailed train №1901. 17 in October 1944 in the section of the Krasnosyltse – Lanivtsi – Lyapyasivka railway (Lviv and Vinnytsia railways) burned 6 railway bridges and Kuskivtsi station. In total, in September – December 1944, the rebels made 47 of such actions only on the Kovel railway, 11 of which led to the catastrophes ... In January-February, 1945 in the Volyn region. 10 echelons were undermined, and 10 in May 1945, the sabotage group of the Independent Ukraine brigade in the Kovel – Povorsk section, blew up an armored train.
Here is an example from an OUN document entitled “News from the Field”: “At the beginning of May 1945, a group of insurgents blew up a train near the Polish mountains of the Kolkivsky region.
In May 1945, the operative group of the rebel Kubin “Kubika”, undermined three trains and one armored train on the Berestya – Kovel line, the last one was blown up so that it could no longer be repaired. ”
Of course, it was beneficial to the Nazis. “One of the reasons why the Germans considered it useful to seek contact with the UPA,” writes Vladimir Kosik, “was without a doubt that the German intelligence services received information about the battles between the“ Ukrainian nationalists ”, that is, the UPA, and the Soviet garrisons, or rather - The troops of the NKVD in the districts of Kiev, Zhytomyr, Proskurov, Kamenetz-Podolsk, Slavuty, Rovno, Sarn. This interested the Germans from a military point of view. In the reports, by the way, it was said that the situation in these areas was so complicated that the Soviet government was forced to introduce some restrictions regarding the entry into Ukraine of citizens from other republics, in particular from Russia. One of the reports informed about “rumors” that “partisans” (Ukrainian nationalists. - AK) killed General Vatutin ”.
The Germans supported their pragmatic interests with the transfer of arms and ammunition. 20 April 1944, the commander of the German Army Group “Northern Ukraine”, prepared a memo on the relationship with the UPA. In it, he noted that in some cases, military cooperation offered by UPA troops could be used to their advantage. In particular, "to provide full support when it comes to strengthening the UPA groups that operate in the Soviet rear."
Only for the period from August 1943 to September 1944, the OUN-UPA was handed over from the German authorities around 10 thousand easel and light machine guns, more 700 guns and mortars, 26 thousand automatic rifles, 72 thousand rifles, 22 thousand pistols , 100 thousand grenades, more than 12 million cartridges, a large number of mines and shells.
In an effort to thwart the most important activities of the Soviet government, Ukrainian nationalists committed sabotage, robbery, arson of kolkhoz property and killed rural activists, initiators of kolkhoz construction, disrupted the call to the Red Army.
“The population of individual villages, intimidated by the threats of Bandera who promised to burn houses and cut out the families of those who go into the Red Army, when workers of the military enlistment offices appear, go into the forest, taking property and livestock with them.
Ryvoenko of the Klevansky district of the Rivne region, senior lieutenant Dolgikh reports that the Bandera population frightened the population so much that, arriving in the village, one cannot really find out where the headman lives, the exclusiveness is exceptional. ”
Significant sizes were achieved by evasion and concealment mobilized from the appearance at assembly points. “March 9 1944, the Goschansky military enlistment office along the Rivne regional military enlistment office was supposed to present 800 people in Rivne, only 290 people actually represented, the rest 510 people. did not appear at the assembly point. "
Armed groups of nationalists attacked the military registration and enlistment offices, killed their employees, took teams of already mobilized local residents into the forest.
“7 March 1944. In 5.00, a group of 12 armed Bandera gangsters attacked the Rivne RVC (rural). As a result, the following persons were killed: RVK instructor Junior Lieutenant Danilin and a representative from the Kiev Military District Art. Lieutenant, whose name is not established, because their corpses were burned with documents.
Bandera gang numbering up to 150 people. raided the Stepansky RVK. As a result of the ensuing firefight, there were killed and wounded.
7 March 1944 Zdolbunovsky RVK was sent to the village of Gorbunovo instructor junior lieutenant Stepanov for obtaining lists to be mobilized. Stepanov did not return back, was brutally murdered by Bandera.
The head of the 3 part of the Derazhnyansky RVK Jr. was also killed in the village of Mikhailovka. Lieutenant Zabara, who arrived there to identify the contingent of military service. "
Implementation of the UPA sabotage tasks in the rear of the front, the transfer of intelligence materials to the Wehrmacht, attempts to disrupt the mobilization to the Red Army, etc. - All this, of course, played into the hands of the command of the Wehrmacht. This means that the structures of the OUN-UPA were allies of Nazi Germany, while the modern statements about the national liberation character of the movement are refuted by documents.